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Evaluation and argumentation in a rhetorical uphill struggle Torben Vestergaard Aalborg University.

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Presentation on theme: "Evaluation and argumentation in a rhetorical uphill struggle Torben Vestergaard Aalborg University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Evaluation and argumentation in a rhetorical uphill struggle Torben Vestergaard Aalborg University

2 Evaluation/Appraisal Attitude (deontic stance) Affect (personal feelings) Judgement (of people) Appreciation (of ’things’) Engagement (attribution, evidentiality, epistemic stance) Graduation

3 Evaluation density Landbrugsraadethomepage 30:577 = :289 = Approx. 2:3

4 Landbrugsrådet Affect. Authorial(16 cases) Det er vigtigt at vurdere (9) It is important to estimate Der er ikke noget grundlæggende forkert i.. (17) There is nothing fundamentally wrong in… Det er etisk uacceptabelt (32) It is ethically unacceptable

5 Affect. Non-authorial (7 cases) (Landbrugsraadet) Mange mennesker er skeptiske (1) Many people are sceptical Befolkningens skepsis (2) People’s scepticism Økologerne ønsker ikke at flytte naturens grænser (53) organic farmers do not wish to move natures boundaries.

6 Homepage Affect, Authorial (8 cases) Der er brug for et forsigtighedsprincip (19) We need a principle of caution Der er ikke meget fremtid i at fastholde et forbud (21) There is not much future in sticking to a ban. Det kan jeg godt forstå (24) I fully understand.

7 Affect, Non-authoria (1 case) Mange er meget utrygge (24) Many people are very worried

8 Appreciation (aesthetics/social value [of ‘things’]) Landbrugsraadet, (1 case) Landmandens valgmulighed må ikke forringes (46) The farmer’s freedom of choice must not be limited.

9 Appreciation (aesthetics/social value [of ‘things’]) Homepage (5 cases) [giving plants] stærkere og bedre egenskaber (5-6), Stronger and better characteristics. så stærke at man ikke behøver…(7) so strong that you do not need… der er store perspektiver in GMO(10) there are great perspectives in GM regler der hører til verdens allerskrappeste (15) rules that are among the world’s very toughest. der er gode og sikre regler (15) there are good and safe rules

10 Engagement (epistemic stance), Landbrugsraadet, (3 cases) Det kan være nyttigt (7) it can be useful Alligevel kan der være anvendelser… (24) nevertheless there can be uses Bioteknologiske metoder kan være vigtige redskaber (57) biotechnological methods can be important tools

11 Engagement (epistemic stance), homepage, 1 case Jeg tror mange er utrygge (23) I believe many people are worried.

12 Graduation (Landbrugsraadet) 3 cases Retter sig især mod…(2) are particularly directed towards Er bredt accepteret (4) is widely accepted Det økologiske jordbrug konfronteres med store udfordringer (56) organic farming is being confronted with great challenges.

13 Graduation, home page, 8 cases Megen uklarhed (11) much unclarity Det betyder bestemt ikke at vi automatisk vil sige ja. (17-18) this definitely doesn’t mean that we will say yes automatically Det skal ikke bare gives fri (19) [regulating this area] should not just be set free Der er altså ikke meget fremtid i (21) as a matter of fact there is not much future in…

14 Upscaling of attitude frequently acts to construe the speaker/writer as maximally committed to the value position being advanced and hence as strongly aligning the reader into that value position. (Martin & White 2005: 152)

15 Toulmin’s model of argumentation 1. A. I believe there's something going on between Tom and Sally. 2. B. Really, why? 3. A. I saw them together in the cinema the other night. 4. B. So what? Just because two people go to the movies together doesn't mean they're having an affair. 5. A.You don't know Tom. He wouldn't dream of going out with a girl just to see a Film.

16 Basic values 1 Landbrugsraadet C: Patentering er ikke etisk acceptabelt. (32-33) patenting is not ethically acceptable D: Det strider imod adgangen til den biologiske diversitet. (34) it bars access to biological diversity [W: barring access to biological diversity is not ethically acceptable] C: Landbruget [bør] sikre udbud af non GM-produkter. (39) farmers should secure a supply of non-GM products. [D: then consumers will be able to choose] W: Forbrugeren bør have valgmuligheder. (40 og box) Consumers should have freedom of choice C: Der bør være regler for sameksistens. (42) there should be rules for coexistence [between organic and GM farming] [D: then there will be equal opportunities for organic, conventional and GM farming] W: Der bør være lige udviklingsmidler for konventionelle økologiske og GMO. (41-42) there should be equal opportunities…

17 Basic values II (Landbrugsraadet) C: Der bør være lige udviklingsmuligheder for konventionelle og økologiske landmænd (41-42) there should be equal opportunities… D: Så kan den enkelte træffe sit eget valg. (42-43) so the individual farmer can make his own choice [W: the farmer should be able to make his own choice] C: Patenter og monopoler på genetiske ressourcer bør være forbudt. (47-48) patents and monopoly rights to genetic resources should not be allowed D: De forhindrer landmanden i at vælge. (46) they prevent the farmer from choosing [W: the farmer should be able to choose]

18 Factual -> evaluative (homepage) F.eks. er det GMO, der star bag at fremstille insulin. Og med GMO kan man gøre planterne så stærke, at man ikke behøver bruge sprøjtegifte. (6-8) For instance it is GMO that is behind insulin production. And with GMO you can make plants so strong that you do not need using pesticides. C: der er store perspektiver i GMO (10) there are great perspectives in GM D: GMO bruges til at fremstille insulin og til at gøre planter så stærke at man kan undvære sprøjtegifte. (5-8) GM is used in producing insulin and making plants so strong that you can do without pesticides. [W: producing insulin and doing without pesticides are good things.]

19 Them and us C: Socialdemokratiet vil/[bør] ikke automatisk sige ja til ansøgninger om at dyrke GMO (18) Social Democrats will/[should] not automatically approve applications gor growing GM crops D: Det bør ikke overlades til landbruget og industrien at regulere området (19-20) Regulating the area should not be left with farming and nindustry [W: giving automatic approval would be tantamont to leaving regulation with farming and industry]

20 Basic values III I believe that many people feel very worried concerning GM, and I very well understand this. We need exhaustive information and debate. (23-24) C: Det er forståeligt at mange er utrygge omkring GMO (23-24) It is understandable that many people are worried about GM [D: That is because they need information] [W: when people need information, they get worried] C: Der er brug for grundig oplysning og debat. (24) We need exhaustive information and debate. [D: then people will stop being worried] [W: people should not be worried]

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