Presentation on theme: "Violence Against Women"— Presentation transcript:
1 Violence Against Women A Social Action ProjectDiane Heyward, Camellia RedwayGinger Tillman, Melanie Vitelli
2 Presentation Outline Part III Part I Part II Social Action Problem DefinedProblem In terms of Human NeedsRelation of problem to social justice as struggleCrucial notions of human rightsProvisos consideredHistory of the problemHow society has dealt with the problemHow has public discourse defined the problemArticle II of the Universal Declaration of Human RightsDemographics of the problemPart IICrucial Notions of Human Rights in other instruments that Relate to The ProblemConvention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against WomenDealing with the problem from an Advanced Generalist PerspectiveMeta-macro (global)Macro (whole population)Mezzo (at-risk)Micro (clinical)Meta-micro (everyday life)Part IIIDiscussion on how quantitative & qualitative research assisted in our interventionsQuantitative MethodsQualitative MethodsLiterature ReviewedRelevant Ground RulesSelect Social Actions in the political arena that can affect change
3 Presentation outline (CONT.) Part IVGroup PerspectiveConflicting ValuesConstraintsEthical IssuesWriting a GrantAvailable & Accessible ServicesUsing TechnologyRelevant Policy Initiativeslocal, state, national, and international levelsConstructed Persuasive ArgumentSpecific Recommendations to Deal with the ProblemAdditional Social Action Strategies Advocated by other AuthorsWhat Have We Done to Ameliorate the ProblemWorking as GroupSuccesses & FailuresPeer FeedbackConstructive CommentsCreative DialogueSoul SearchingObstaclesRemaining Complacent
4 Violence Against Women Part IViolence Against Women
5 Violence Against Women; A social action problem DefinedUnited Nations General Assembly stated:“any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, mental harm suffering to women threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life”, (Fox 2002).In Terms of Human NeedsUnited Nation Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women (1993) stated:“violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women”
6 Most vulnerable Women age 20 -24 Native American are twice as likely to be victims of violent actAfrican American women are more likely than there white counter parts to be impacted by domestic violence in their homesChildren that witness violence are more susceptible to mimic these behaviors as adult and are twice as likely to become victims of abuse or neglect as children.
8 Violence Against Women; A social problem Murder-defined as the crime of unlawfully killing a person especially with malice aforethoughtDomestic violence-defined as a pattern of abusive behavior in any relationship that is used by one partner to gain or maintain power and control over an intimate partner.Sexual assault- illegal sexual contact that usually involves force upon a person without consent or is inflicted upon a person who is incapable of giving consent.
9 Relation of problem to social justice as a struggle Crucial notions of human rightsThere are five important notions of the Declaration of Human Rights that all governments should abide by:Human dignityNondiscriminationCivil and political freedomEconomic, social and cultural rightsRights to solidarity.The Crucial Notion identified for In eliminating violence against women is: nondiscriminationArticle 2:“Nondiscrimination is based on race, color, sex, language, religion, political opinion, national or social origin, property, birth, or other status”
11 Relation of problem to social justice as a struggle Provisos consideredIndia vs United StatesIndia: Under tremendous domestic pressure from frustrated women, is moving toward making important changes in its rape laws.United States: Rape is still wildly under- reported, under punished and is no longer the stigma of violence against women.
12 How society has dealt w/ the problem History of the ProblemHow society has dealt w/ the problemIn 1867, wife abuse was part of English Common Law and stated that it was completely acceptable for a man to beat his wife.Fox (2002) describes violence against women being influenced by western society’s views and treatment of women, including: Judeo-Christian cultural beliefs, Greek philosophy and the western legal code.It wasn’t until 1871 where policies and laws began to change beginning the long history leading to the Violence Against Women Act.In 1990 U.S Senator Biden introduces the first Violence Against Women Act, which sparks the three-year investigation into the causes and effects of violence against women by the Senator and staff of the Senate Judiciary Committee.
13 How public discourse has defined the problem History of the problemHow public discourse has defined the problemThe article, Dangerous Gun Myths turns the debate to reduce gun violence into “some sort of sexist plot that would disproportionately hurt vulnerable women and their children” (New York Times, 2013).According to a study done in 1990, results concluded that weapons fired in the home were primarily the cause of an accident, criminal assault, homicide and suicide attempts rather than self-defense.“In domestic violence situations, the risk of homicide for women increased eightfold when the abuser had access to firearms, according to a study published in The American Journal of Public Health in 2003” (New York Times, 2013).With regard to children’s safety, guns in the home cause a greater increase in the risk of youth suicides.
15 Article II of the declaration of human rights & Demographics of the Problem Areas of Discrimination:SexReligionMedical ConditionMarital StatusSexual Orientation
16 Violence against women; a social action problem Article II of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights states:“Everyone is entitled to all the rights and freedoms set forth in this Declaration, without distinction of any kind, such as race, colour, sex, language, religion, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status” (Wronka, 2008, p.282)
18 Domestic ViolenceEvery 9 seconds in the US a woman is assaulted or beaten1 in every 3 women has been beaten, coerced into sex or abused during her lifetime with the abuser being a family memberThe leading cause of injury to women—more than car accidents, muggings, and rapes combinedBetween 55 percent and 95 percent of women who have been physically abused by their partners have never contacted non-governmental organizations, shelters, or the police for help (Domestic Violence Statistics, 2013)
20 Acid burning & Dowery deaths a woman who turns down a suitor or does not get along with her in-laws can become a victim of a violent form of revenge: acid burning,This extreme form of violence can often blind and/or cause third degree burns on the body.Dowery Deaths:Brides unable to pay the high "price" to marry are punished by violence and often death at the hands of their in-laws or their own husbandsIn India, it is estimated that more than 5,000 women are killed each year because their in-laws consider their dowries inadequateA tiny percentage of their murderers are brought to justice (V-Day, 2012).
22 Honor KillingsThere are more than 5,000 "honour killings" worldwide each yearThe National Commission for Women in India investigates possible cases a month (Arjunpuri, 2012)Women in these countries who are a victim of rape and can’t provide proof can experience death by being stoned, beaten or beheadedAssuming an accused woman's guilt, male family members believe that they have no other means of undoing a perceived infringement of "honor" other than to kill the woman” (Amnesty International USA, 2005).
25 Female Genital Mutilation In its most severe form, a woman or girl has all of her genitalia removed and then stitched together, leaving a small opening for intercourse and menstruationIt is practiced in 28 African countries on the pretext of cultural tradition or hygieneAn estimated 135 million girls have undergone FGM with dire consequences ranging from infection (including HIV) to sterility, in addition to the devastating psychological effects (Amnesty International USA, 2005).
27 Violence against women Part IIViolence against women
28 Crucial Notions of Human Rights in other instruments that Relate to The Problem Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination Against Women (CEDAW)Adopted in 1979 by the United Nation’s General AssemblyCan be viewed around the world as the international bill of rights for all womenPoints out the need to end discrimination against women and provides a national agenda for doing soAdditional Instruments used that relate to the problem include:Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination (CERD)The United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women
30 Dealing with the problem from an Advanced Generalist Perspective Meta-macro (global)Macro (whole population)Mezzo (at-risk)Micro (clinical)Meta-micro (everyday life)
31 Write letters to the politicians Form rallies Meta-macro (global)Dealing with the problem from an Advanced Generalist PerspectiveWrite letters to the politiciansForm ralliesOrganize information sessionsEducation throughout communities
32 Macro (whole population) Dealing with the problem from an Advanced Generalist PerspectiveEliminate acts of violence against allChange AttitudeExpansion of VAWAReauthorization of the Violence Against Women Act
34 Mezzo (at-risk)Dealing with the problem from an Advanced Generalist PerspectiveTarget population: women who have experienced violence (support group)Meet in a safe spaceIdentifying coping skills in dealing with violent actsBuild healthy relationship with peers and othersDevelop safety plansProvide women with community resources, such as:life skills and job readinessArticle 23 of the Universal Declaration states:“Everyone has the right to form and to join trade unions for the protection of his interest”
35 Individual counseling Micro (clinical)Dealing with the problem from an Advanced Generalist PerspectiveIndividual counselingSpecific to treatment needsLearning to utilize coping strategies to manage feelings and emotions in an appropriate way.Group counselingWomen can share experiences and offer support to one another.Groups can focus on different forms of violence towards women.
36 Meta-micro (everyday life) Dealing with the problem from an Advanced Generalist PerspectiveSmall acts of kindness seen in everyday life interactions between individuals.Helping women identify and connect with supports of family and friends in order to help them realize that there are people that care.Assist with providing resources for basic needs of shelter, food, childcare or assistance with finances.Revealing the strengths in women who have experienced violence in their lives can leave a tremendous impact and help to improve their self-esteem.A simple smile or “how are you today?” can make a difference in the day of a woman who is accustomed to violent acts or behaviors happening around her.
37 Violence Against Women Part IIIViolence Against Women
38 Discussion on how quantitative & qualitative research assisted in our interventions Quantitative Methods2 Million women experience rape, stalking and/or physical assault by a current or former partnerBetween 15 and 76 percent of women are targeted for physical and/or sexual violence in their lifetimeIntimate Partner Violence (IPV) 9 to 70 percent of women reporting their husband or partners as the perpetratorOn average, two women are murdered each dayEstimated 100 to 140 million girls and women in the world have experienced female genital mutilationAnnually there are about 800,000 people trafficked across national borders and 80 percent are women and 79 percent are trafficked for sexual exploitation.United States reported 83 percent of girl’s ages are harassed in public schoolsQualitative MethodsSix interviews were conducted with women of various ethnic backgrounds and occupations.Out of the six women interviewed, four experienced some form of violence and two did not.Co-researchers shared common thoughts when thinking about what violence against women means to them.Three women were involved in abusive relationships and one woman was a survivor of sexual assault.
40 Relevant Ground Rules Ground Rules: Incorporating the Voice of the oppressedValuesAmbiguityA spirit of compassionNonviolenceNever giving upRecognizing others humanityRemembering to smilePlayful attitudeMaking your own ground rules
41 Select Social Actions in the political arena that can affect change Universal DeclarationArticles 1 & 3Social Action ModelSocial Worker Code of EthicsLobbyist/Politian'sMethods for Lobbying
42 Violence against women Part IVViolence against women
43 Group perspective Conflicting Values Constraints Ethical Issues Writing a GrantAvailable & Accessible ServicesUsing Technology
44 Conflicting values and constraints The article, Dangerous Gun Myths turns the debate to reduce gun violence into “some sort of sexist plot that would disproportionately hurt vulnerable women and their children” (New York Times, 2013).“The witness was Gayle Trotter, a fellow at the Independent Women’s Forum, a right-wing public policy group that provides pseudofeminist support for extreme positions that are in fact dangerous to women” (New York Times, 2013).Ms. Trotter expresses her opposition to gun control laws and has vocalized her opposing feelings of the Violence Against Women Act.Promoting women to have guns can be seen as contributing towards an act of violence rather than a way of eliminating it.ConstraintsOne major constraint in trying to improve violence against women is, “sexual violence, particularly rape, is often used as a weapon of war to destabilize families, groups and communities; to carry out ethical cleansing and genocide; to instill fear in populations in order to dampen resistance and/or incite flight; as a form of punishment and torture; and to affirm aggression” (GSDRC, 2013).Why is the U.S one of the seven countries that haven’t ratified CEDAW especially considering that fact that the U.S was a major player in drafting the treaty?“Something is wrong with our system, and we all need to get involved in the conversation, so that functional solutions can be found. Did you know that a person convicted of selling drugs could get more jail time than someone convicted of violently raping a woman? Like I said -- something is wrong” (Saban, 2013).
45 Ethical IssuesIn order for co-researchers to participate in the project an ethics consent form must be signed.Although the ethics consent for is designed to protect the co-researcher, one might feel bound to this consent causing them to not want to participate.
46 Writing a grantOne of the key points to successful grant writing is to make the funder feel like they are family. By developing relationships with the grant funder, the problem is taken more seriously and is more carefully considered when exploring ways to resolve it.A possible way of gaining grant funding could be hosting an event where women who have experienced violence can share their stories for funders to hear. Funders may be more apt to provide grant funding when they can relate to personal experiences of individuals causing feelings of empathy and sympathy.The basic format for grant writing includes: face sheet, cover page, agency capability statement, goals and objectives, intervention, administration and staffing, evaluation, timeframe, a budget, dissemination of information and an appendix (Wronka, 2008).
47 Relevant Policy Initiatives local, state, national, and international levelsUN Secretary –General demonstrate public supportGlobal level (UNITE Campaign)CT Family Violence LawCT Domestic Violence ACTTracy Thurman/Donna Palomba
48 Constructed Persuasive Argument The Human Declaration of Human Rights Articles 1 – 5:Everyone is born equal and free,Everyone has rights regardless of their sex, race, color, language and religious beliefs.Everyone has the right to liberty, life and security of persons.No one should be held in slavery, tortured or punishedEquity, liberty and security are essential in the fight to eliminate violence against women.Humans require community, solidarity, a sense of belonging; dignity and respect, self-esteem, and honor; friendship and love.
50 Specific Recommendations to Deal with the Problem To reinforce inducements or introduce incentives. “The idea behind inducements is that knowledge of a threatened penalty or a promised reward motivates people to act differently than they might otherwise choose. Incentives and deterrence are flip sides of this same coin” (Stone, 2002, p. 265).To implement rules to change behavior of violence against women. “They command people, organizations, and governments to act in certain ways” (Stone, 2002, p. 284).FactsPersuasion – rational persuasion and voluntary behavior change; information and knowledge can be used to resolve conflict.Propaganda and indoctrination – intentionally manipulative, disguising the hidden motives of the perpetrator.Rights help govern relationships and organize individual behavior to achieve a common goal. “Rights partake something of rules and sanctions, but as a policy strategy, rights are a more diffuse method of articulating standards of behavior in an ongoing system of conflict resolution” (Stone, 2002, p. 325).Power – Decision making process that may involve a restructure of authority in order to solve problems.
51 Additional Social Action Strategies Advocated by other Authors Martin Luther King Jr. was a man in his own right that stood up for the equality of all people regardless of sex, color and religious background.Jane Addams was first president of the Women's International League for Peace and Freedom (WILPF): promote full rights for women, racial and economic justice, an end to all forms of violence, and to establish those political, social, and psychological conditions which can assure peace, freedom, and justice for all.Dr. Joseph Wronka is an ambassador for human rights. He believes in social justice for all people, especially women. He also talks about the importance to addressing social problems on a micro, mezzo and macro level.
53 What Have We Done to Ameliorate the Problem Meta-macro level:Writing a letters to the President & First Lady Barack Obama & secretary of the state John Kerry as well as the representative of the United Nations, Susan RiceAdditional letters to the Women’s Health Organization (WHO) and the National Organization of Women (NOW)All letters placed an urgency to ending violence against women around the worldMacro level:Writing letters to the Governor of Connecticut Dennel Malloy as well as to the cities were we each reside within Connecticut that included New Haven, Waterbury and West Haven.Social media networking:Instagram, Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin & PinterestEach social media account can be accessed via computer or smart (cell) phone
55 What Have We Done to Ameliorate the Problem (cont.) Mezzo level:Opportunity to work with local agencies in New Haven and Waterbury, ConnecticutR KidsCT Counseling CenterFamily Centered Services of CTThrough professional networks one group member was able to complete our qualitative portion of our assignment through her place of employment at the Family Centered Services of CT6 questionnaires were completed through her domestic violence outreach groupMicro level:An optional domestic violence questionnaire that was distributed to individual females receiving services at Family Centered Services of CTAs a result of it being viewed in a positive light by clients, staff and administration, the questionnaire will serve as the basis for a future questionnaire that will be added to the agency’s intakeMeta-Micro level:As individuals and as a group as we moved through our project we generated meta-micro level strategies through moving in our everyday lives