Presentation on theme: "Deepening Student Engagement with Active Learning Strategies"— Presentation transcript:
1 Deepening Student Engagement with Active Learning Strategies Workshop ( not a “panel”)THANK the American Society for Virology, Thea Sawicki, and David EstebanDebra Rudder Lohe, Ph.D.Director, Reinert CenterSaint Louis UniversityASV Annual Meeting ~ July 21, 2013
2 Session Overview Examining Assumptions Understanding Active Learning Yours, Mine, OursUnderstanding Active LearningWhat, Why, HowMaking ChoicesGoals, Objectives, Philosophies
3 Session Goals This session will . . . Introduce a range of “active learning” strategies appropriate for varying types and sizes of classesProvide examples of small, interactive lecture techniques for efficient student engagementPrepare you to make decisions about active learning techniques appropriate for your contextModel active learning strategiesI.e., make you do stuff!
4 Session Objectives After this session you should be able to . . . Identify a range of active learning strategies appropriate for your own teaching situationExplain why interactive techniques are important for learningConnect specific active learning strategies with your goals for student learning and engagement
6 Assumptions: You You care about teaching You may not have been taught how to teachYou’re busy! And you’ve got “coverage” issuesYou want deeper learning from students“Think like a virologist” vs. “Regurgitate stuff I tell you”Students sometimes frustrate youAnd you sometimes frustrate them!Accurate? Anyone want to take issue with these?
7 Assumptions: Teaching Virology There is a lot of content to “cover”And it’s growing all the time?The signature pedagogy is lectureMaybe with some discussion of primary literatureIt happens in a lot of different contextsGraduate, undergraduate, and medicalSmall classes and large onesLabs, clinics, and other non-classroom “learning” spacesAccurate? Anyone want to take issue with these?
8 what assumptions do you make about “active learning”? So . . .what assumptions do you make about “active learning”?It’s too time-consuming!It won’t work for the classes I teach.It’s just about entertaining students.It is essential to real learning.I can’t cover enough material and do activities.It’s busy work (for me and for my students).
9 Assumptions: Active Learning Learning is “active”Students learn more (and more deeply) when they’re engagedLots of things constitute “active learning” – and you may already be doing some of themEven very small active learning exercises can make a differenceActive learning strategies can be applied in any size/type class
10 Understanding Active Learning What, Why, and How
11 It’s an approach, not a specific method. The What: What is A.L.?“anything that students do in the classroom other than merely passively listening to an instructor’s lecture” (Paulson & Faust)Active Learning activities are “instructional activities involving students in doing things and thinking about what they’re doing”(Bonwell & Eison)“Active learning means that the mind is actively engaged. Its defining characteristics are that students are dynamic participants in their learning and that they are reflecting on and monitoring both the processes and the results of their learning.” (Barkley)START: WHAT IS ACTIVE LEARNING?Then: slide content and discussion“The core elements of active learning are student activity and engagement in the learning process.”(Prince)It’s an approach, not a specific method.
12 The Why: What do cognitive psychologists say? “. . . active learning involves the development of cognition, which is achieved by acquiring ‘organized knowledge structures’ and ‘strategies for remembering, understanding, and solving problems’ active learning entails a process of interpretation, whereby new knowledge is related to prior knowledge and stored in a manner that emphasizes the elaborated meaning of these relationships.”So, for cognitive psychology, this means doing 3 key things:Activating Prior KnowledgeChunkingPracticing Meta-cognitive AwarenessSuzanne M. Swiderski “Active Learning: A Perspective from Cognitive Psychology” (2010)
13 The Why: How Learning Works Ambrose et al.Students’ prior knowledge helps / hinders new learningHow they organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.Motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.Goal-directed practice, coupled with targeted feedback, enhances the quality of learning.Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.
14 How Learning Works: What Matters Ambrose et al.Students’ prior knowledge helps / hinders new learningHow they organize knowledge influences how they learn and apply what they know.Motivation determines, directs, and sustains what they do to learn.To develop mastery, students must acquire component skills, practice integrating them, and know when to apply what they have learned.Goal-directed practice, coupled with targeted feedback, enhances the quality of learning.Students’ current level of development interacts with the social, emotional, and intellectual climate of the course to impact learning.To become self-directed learners, students must learn to monitor and adjust their approaches to learning.
15 The Why: Average Retention Rate from Different Teaching Methods (% of learning students can recall after 24 hours)2% Lecture4% Reading7% Audiovisual11% Demonstration18% Discussion Group27% Practice by Doing31% Teach Others Immediate Use of LearningDavid A. Sousa How the Brain Learns (2000)Cited in Barkley, Student Engagement Techniques
16 The Why: Average Retention Rate from Different Teaching Methods (% of learning students can recall after 24 hours)2% Lecture4% Reading7% Audiovisual11% Demonstration18% Discussion Group27% Practice by Doing31% Teach Others Immediate Use of Learningverbal processingverbal + visual processingdoing / applyingDavid A. Sousa How the Brain Learns (2000)Cited in Barkley, Student Engagement Techniques
17 The Why: We Want More than Recall We want the so-called “higher-order” cognitive skills, not just repetition and regurgitation (à la Bloom)Achieving higher levels of thinking requires students to do something, to engage actively in the learning process. Also, students learn best when they’re aware of where they are on this pyramid (meta-cognitive).Sitting passively in class won’t promote higher-order thinking.Neither will activities that only ask for remembering & understanding. (Caution: misalignment)
18 What “active learning” strategies do you already use? The How:What “active learning”strategies do you already use?
19 The How: How Do Others Do It? Interactive LecturesProblem-Based LearningCase-Based LearningOther Inquiry-Guided LearningService-LearningCollaborative and Cooperative LearningIGL: Project-based learning, learning that starts with: a phenomenon, absence of an expected phenomenon, perceived relationship, a controversy, a complex problem, etc.PBL: unstructured problem, multiple possible answers, with little guidanceCBL: structured “case,” with no clear single solution
20 The How: How Do Others Do It? Interactive LecturesProblem-Based LearningCase-Based LearningOther Inquiry-Guided LearningService-LearningCollaborative and Cooperative Learning
22 Making ChoicesGoals, Objectives, and Philosophies
23 Barriers? Class size and/or type Time (or lack of it!) Student perceptions, motivationFaculty perceptions, lack of knowledge“Content tyranny” (Prince 2004)
24 Decisions?Start with course goals and your student learning objectives for each lecture / lesson.What’s the difference?Consider your teaching situation.Reflect on your teaching philosophy and teaching style.
25 Tips for Getting Started: You Start small – a little goes a long way, and you need different things at different timesConsider whether you really are “losing” something for contentPodcast lectures, have students doing things in classBegin to let students help prepare / teach / model / demonstrate things in class
26 Tips for Getting Started: Them Provide rationale (so students know “why”)Give them a little research on learningIntroduce Bloom; use to structure examsSet expectation from the first dayAsk students to devise or propose activities
27 What’s the I D E A?List all the concepts, ideas, points you can recall from this session.Identify the most important idea for your teaching.Describe / define why it’s important for you / your courses.Elaborate new questions it raises / calls to mind.Apply the concept: how would you use it in class?IDEA activity adapted from Feb 2010 issue of National Teaching and Learning Forum.
29 Bloom’s Taxonomy for Thinking (1956)Anderson & Krathwohl (2001)
30 Goals vs. Objectives General, broad About you/course COURSE GoalsLEARNING ObjectivesGeneral, broadAbout you/courseState what you or the course will do / teachDescribe hopes & ideals for student learningMay describe kind of learning experienceSpecific, concreteAbout studentsState what students will know and/or be able to doDescribe observable, measurable actionsCan be cognitive, affective, or psychomotor