Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Physical Activity Epidemiology Kelley K. Pettee, MS Andrea M. Kriska, PhD Caroline Richardson, MD.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Physical Activity Epidemiology Kelley K. Pettee, MS Andrea M. Kriska, PhD Caroline Richardson, MD."— Presentation transcript:

1 Physical Activity Epidemiology Kelley K. Pettee, MS Andrea M. Kriska, PhD Caroline Richardson, MD

2 Physical Activity Epidemiology Definitions and Concepts

3 Physical Activity and Exercise Physical Activity Exercise Household Chores Occupational Activity Gardening/ Yardwork

4 Total Energy Expenditure Basal Metabolic Rate Thermic Effect of Food Activities of Daily Living Variable Activity Total Energy Expenditure Physical Activity

5 Energy Balance Energy Intake Energy Expenditure

6 Exercise vs. Lifestyle Physical Activity ExerciseLifestyle Physical Activity

7 Epidemiology The study of how a disease or health outcome is distributed in populations and what factors influence or determine this distribution. The study of how a disease or health outcome is distributed in populations and what factors influence or determine this distribution.

8 Definitions Rate Rate Measures of Morbidity Measures of Morbidity Incidence Rate Incidence Rate Prevalence Rate Prevalence Rate Measures of Mortality Measures of Mortality Mortality Rate Mortality Rate Biologic Plausibility Biologic Plausibility Confounder Confounder p value p value Statistically Significant Statistically Significant

9 Physical Activity Epidemiology Study Design Two Main Approaches: Observational Study Design Observational Study Design The development of disease or health outcome is observed and compared between those that participate in different levels of physical activity The development of disease or health outcome is observed and compared between those that participate in different levels of physical activity Levels of physical activity participation are self-selected by the individual and not under control of the investigator. Levels of physical activity participation are self-selected by the individual and not under control of the investigator. Experimental Study Design Experimental Study Design Random assignment of physical activity levels to individuals without the disease or health outcome of interest Random assignment of physical activity levels to individuals without the disease or health outcome of interest These individuals are then followed for a period of time to compare their development of the disease or health outcome of interest These individuals are then followed for a period of time to compare their development of the disease or health outcome of interest

10 Study Designs Observation Study Design(s): Observation Study Design(s): Cross-Sectional Cross-Sectional Case-Control Case-Control Prospective Prospective Experimental Study Design: Experimental Study Design: Clinical Trial Clinical Trial

11 Cross-Sectional Study The study population consists of individuals who do and do not have the disease or health outcome of interest. The study population consists of individuals who do and do not have the disease or health outcome of interest. Compare the occurrence of disease or health outcome with the level of physical activity participation. Compare the occurrence of disease or health outcome with the level of physical activity participation. Provides a snapshot of the relationship between the disease or condition of interest and physical activity at one point in time. Provides a snapshot of the relationship between the disease or condition of interest and physical activity at one point in time. Is there a relationship between physical activity participation and who does and does not have the disease ? HIGH NO Physical Activity Participation? Individuals with Disease Individuals without Disease LOW

12 Example of a Cross-Sectional Study What is the relationship between type 2 diabetes and physical activity participation? What is the relationship between type 2 diabetes and physical activity participation? Both diabetes status and physical activity levels were determined at the same time using the same individuals Both diabetes status and physical activity levels were determined at the same time using the same individuals Measurements: fasting and 2 hour post- load plasma glucose concentrations, age, body mass index (BMI), waist to thigh circumference, and past year leisure and occupational physical activity Measurements: fasting and 2 hour post- load plasma glucose concentrations, age, body mass index (BMI), waist to thigh circumference, and past year leisure and occupational physical activity Results: Individuals with type 2 diabetes reported being less active than those without diabetes. Results: Individuals with type 2 diabetes reported being less active than those without diabetes.

13 Case-Control Study ( Retrospective) The study population consists of individuals who do and do not have the disease or health outcome The study population consists of individuals who do and do not have the disease or health outcome Compare past physical activity participation between those with and without the disease to determine if there is a relationship. Compare past physical activity participation between those with and without the disease to determine if there is a relationship. PRESENT Individuals with the disease Individuals without the disease How much physical activity did you engage in? PAST Is there a difference in physical activity levels between those who do and do not have the disease ?

14 Example of a Case-Control Study What is the relationship between lifetime physical activity and type 2 diabetes? What is the relationship between lifetime physical activity and type 2 diabetes? Individuals, aged 37-59, with and without type 2 diabetes were asked questions about their physical activity levels over their lifetime Individuals, aged 37-59, with and without type 2 diabetes were asked questions about their physical activity levels over their lifetime Measurements: fasting and 2 hour post-load plasma glucose concentrations, age, body mass index (BMI), waist to thigh circumference, and physical activity at three points during their lifetime as: [1. teenagers (12-18 yrs); 2. young adults (19-34 yrs); 3. older adults (35-49)] Measurements: fasting and 2 hour post-load plasma glucose concentrations, age, body mass index (BMI), waist to thigh circumference, and physical activity at three points during their lifetime as: [1. teenagers (12-18 yrs); 2. young adults (19-34 yrs); 3. older adults (35-49)] Results: After controlling for BMI, gender, age, and waist to thigh circumference, individuals with type 2 diabetes reported being less physically active over their lifetime compared to individuals without diabetes Results: After controlling for BMI, gender, age, and waist to thigh circumference, individuals with type 2 diabetes reported being less physically active over their lifetime compared to individuals without diabetes

15 Prospective Study (Longitudinal) The study population includes individuals who are free from the disease or health outcome. Levels of physical activity participation are assessed for a pre-determined period of time. The study population includes individuals who are free from the disease or health outcome. Levels of physical activity participation are assessed for a pre-determined period of time. Compare physical activity participation between those who did and did not develop the disease or health outcome Compare physical activity participation between those who did and did not develop the disease or health outcome PRESENT Individuals without the disease. Determine their physical activity levels FUTURE Individuals with disease Individuals without disease Is there a difference in physical activity participation between those who did and did not develop the disease ?

16 Example of a Prospective Study Is there a longitudinal relationship between physical activity and the development of type 2 diabetes in a high risk population. Is there a longitudinal relationship between physical activity and the development of type 2 diabetes in a high risk population. Subjects consisted of 1,728 Native American men and women that did not have diabetes at baseline. Subjects consisted of 1,728 Native American men and women that did not have diabetes at baseline. Every two years, physical activity levels, diabetes status, body mass index, and various health measures were assessed. Every two years, physical activity levels, diabetes status, body mass index, and various health measures were assessed. Individuals were followed for an average of 6 years. Individuals were followed for an average of 6 years. Results: In the total cohort, 346 subjects developed type 2 diabetes. The diabetes incidence rate was lower in the more active than in the less active individuals and remained after stratification by BMI [significant (p < 0.05) in women]. Results: In the total cohort, 346 subjects developed type 2 diabetes. The diabetes incidence rate was lower in the more active than in the less active individuals and remained after stratification by BMI [significant (p < 0.05) in women]. This suggests that the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle can play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes. This suggests that the adoption and maintenance of a physically active lifestyle can play an important role in the prevention of type 2 diabetes.

17 Clinical Trial Individuals free from the disease are randomly assigned to either a physical activity intervention or health education group. Groups are followed for pre- determined period of time. Individuals free from the disease are randomly assigned to either a physical activity intervention or health education group. Groups are followed for pre- determined period of time. Compare the development of disease between individuals assigned to each group. Compare the development of disease between individuals assigned to each group. Individuals without the Disease FUTUREPRESENT Physical Activity Intervention Health Education Group Is there a difference in disease development between groups (Intervention vs. Health Education)?

18 Example of a Clinical Trial Can a lifestyle intervention (including diet, physical activity, and weight loss) and/or drug therapy (metformin) prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)? Can a lifestyle intervention (including diet, physical activity, and weight loss) and/or drug therapy (metformin) prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes in individuals with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)? 3,234 men and women with IGT were randomized to one of three groups: placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification. 3,234 men and women with IGT were randomized to one of three groups: placebo, metformin, or lifestyle modification. Lifestyle Modification Group Goals included a 7% weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Lifestyle Modification Group Goals included a 7% weight loss and at least 150 minutes of physical activity per week. Results: Both lifestyle modification and drug therapy reduced the development of type 2 diabetes in high risk individuals when compared with the placebo group. However, the lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin in reducing risk. Results: Both lifestyle modification and drug therapy reduced the development of type 2 diabetes in high risk individuals when compared with the placebo group. However, the lifestyle intervention was more effective than metformin in reducing risk.

19 Physical Activity Assessment

20 Assessment Considerations The proper assessment or measurement of physical activity is a challenge, especially in free-living individuals. The proper assessment or measurement of physical activity is a challenge, especially in free-living individuals. Accurate assessments are needed to better: Accurate assessments are needed to better: Understand the specific amounts of physical activity that are needed for health benefits. Understand the specific amounts of physical activity that are needed for health benefits. Determine if a particular behavioral intervention was successful in changing activity behavior. Determine if a particular behavioral intervention was successful in changing activity behavior. Considerations when determining the accuracy of an assessment tool: Considerations when determining the accuracy of an assessment tool: Validity Validity Reliability Reliability Sensitivity Sensitivity

21 Subjective Measures Physical Activity Questionnaires and Surveys Physical Activity Questionnaires and Surveys Can vary by: Can vary by: Complexity Complexity Self administered to interviewer administered Self administered to interviewer administered Single question to multiple components Single question to multiple components Time Frame of Recall Time Frame of Recall Past day, past week, past month, past year, historical/lifetime Past day, past week, past month, past year, historical/lifetime Types of Activities Assessed Types of Activities Assessed Leisure, occupational, household/self care activities, transportation Leisure, occupational, household/self care activities, transportation

22 Subjective Measures PRO’s Nonreactiveness Nonreactiveness Practicality Practicality Applicability Applicability Accuracy Accuracy CON’s Does not reflect total energy expenditure Reliability and validity problems Misinterpretation of physical activity across different populations

23 Objective Measures Direct Observation Direct Observation Classifies physical activities into distinct categories that can be quantified and analyzed in greater detail. Classifies physical activities into distinct categories that can be quantified and analyzed in greater detail. Typically used in children Typically used in children Indirect Calorimetry Indirect Calorimetry Uses respiratory gas analysis to measure energy expenditure. Uses respiratory gas analysis to measure energy expenditure. Doubly-labeled water Doubly-labeled water Uses biochemical markers to estimate energy expenditure Uses biochemical markers to estimate energy expenditure

24 Objective Measures Heart Rate Monitor Heart Rate Monitor Heart rate is a direct indicator of one’s physiological response to physical activity Heart rate is a direct indicator of one’s physiological response to physical activity Heart rate is used as an indirect estimate of energy expenditure Heart rate is used as an indirect estimate of energy expenditure Due to linear relationship between exercise workload/intensity, heart rate, and energy expenditure Due to linear relationship between exercise workload/intensity, heart rate, and energy expenditure As workload/intensity increases, heart rate and energy expenditure increases As workload/intensity increases, heart rate and energy expenditure increases Activity Monitors Activity Monitors Assess the acceleration of the body in one or more planes of movement Assess the acceleration of the body in one or more planes of movement

25 Objective Monitors Pedometer Pedometer Record steps taken and offer the ability to estimate the distance walked, if stride length is known Record steps taken and offer the ability to estimate the distance walked, if stride length is known

26 Physical Fitness A set of attributes that individuals have or can achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. A set of attributes that individuals have or can achieve that relates to the ability to perform physical activity. Physical Fitness can be broken down into five (5) major components: Physical Fitness can be broken down into five (5) major components: Cardiovascular fitness Cardiovascular fitness Muscular fitness Muscular fitness Muscular Strength Muscular Strength Muscular Endurance Muscular Endurance Body Composition Body Composition Flexibility Flexibility

27 Cardiovascular Fitness Can be measured directly using maximal exercise testing (VO 2 max) or indirectly using submaximal exercise and field test protocols Can be measured directly using maximal exercise testing (VO 2 max) or indirectly using submaximal exercise and field test protocols

28 Maximal Oxygen Uptake (VO 2 max) Often used as an objective measure of physical fitness Often used as an objective measure of physical fitness VO 2 max and Epidemiology Studies VO 2 max and Epidemiology Studies Time consuming Time consuming Moderate Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness. Moderate Relationship between physical activity and physical fitness. Other factors that may influence physical activity Other factors that may influence physical activity Genetics Genetics Gender Gender Age Age Relative weight Relative weight

29 Submaximal VO 2 and Field Tests Submaximal VO 2 Tests Submaximal VO 2 Tests Practical option for large Epidemiological Studies Practical option for large Epidemiological Studies Use heart rate (HR) to predict O 2 consumption Use heart rate (HR) to predict O 2 consumption Linear relationship between HR and exercise workload/intensity Linear relationship between HR and exercise workload/intensity As workload/intensity increases, HR increases As workload/intensity increases, HR increases Field Tests Field Tests Prediction Equations to estimate VO 2 max using: Prediction Equations to estimate VO 2 max using: Distance covered in a predetermined time Distance covered in a predetermined time Amount of time it took to cover a predetermined distance Amount of time it took to cover a predetermined distance

30 References American College of Sports Medicine (2000). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (6 th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. American College of Sports Medicine (2000). ACSM’s guidelines for exercise testing and prescription (6 th ed.). Baltimore, MD: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Bouchard C, Boulay MR, Simoneau JA, Lortie G, Perusse L (1988). Heredity and trainability of aerobic and anaerobic performance: an update. Sports Medicine; 5: Bouchard C, Boulay MR, Simoneau JA, Lortie G, Perusse L (1988). Heredity and trainability of aerobic and anaerobic performance: an update. Sports Medicine; 5: Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM (1985). Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports; 100: Caspersen CJ, Powell KE, Christenson GM (1985). Physical activity, exercise and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports; 100: Crouter SE, Schneider PL, Karabulut M, Bassett DR Jr (2003). Validity of 10 electronic pedometers for measuring steps, distance, and energy cost Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 35: Crouter SE, Schneider PL, Karabulut M, Bassett DR Jr (2003). Validity of 10 electronic pedometers for measuring steps, distance, and energy cost Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 35:

31 References The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2002). Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346: The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2002). Reduction in the Incidence of Type 2 Diabetes with Lifestyle Intervention or Metformin. The New England Journal of Medicine, 346: The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2002). The Diabetes Prevention Program: Description of the Lifestyle Intervention Program. Diabetes Care; 25: The Diabetes Prevention Program Research Group (2002). The Diabetes Prevention Program: Description of the Lifestyle Intervention Program. Diabetes Care; 25: Friis RH, Sellers TA (1996). Epidemiology for Public Health Practice. Gaithersberg, MD: Aspen Publishers: 271. Friis RH, Sellers TA (1996). Epidemiology for Public Health Practice. Gaithersberg, MD: Aspen Publishers: 271. Gordis L (2000). Epidemiology (2 nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company. Gordis L (2000). Epidemiology (2 nd ed.). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Company.

32 References Jacobs DR, Ainsworth BE, Hartman TJ, Leon AS (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise; 25: Jacobs DR, Ainsworth BE, Hartman TJ, Leon AS (1993). A simultaneous evaluation of 10 commonly used physical activity questionnaires. Medicine and Science in Sport and Exercise; 25: Hennekens CH, Buring JE (1987). Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little, Brown: Hennekens CH, Buring JE (1987). Epidemiology in medicine. Boston: Little, Brown: Kriska AM and Caspersen CJ (1997). Introduction to the Collection of Physical Activity Questionnaires in A Collection of Physical Activity Questionnaires for Health-Related Research. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 [Supplement]. Kriska AM and Caspersen CJ (1997). Introduction to the Collection of Physical Activity Questionnaires in A Collection of Physical Activity Questionnaires for Health-Related Research. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 29 [Supplement]. Kriska AM, FitzGerald SJ, Pereira MA (2001). Physical activity epidemiology. In: S Brown, Introduction to exercise science. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins: Kriska AM, FitzGerald SJ, Pereira MA (2001). Physical activity epidemiology. In: S Brown, Introduction to exercise science. Philadelphia, PA: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins:

33 References Kriska AM., LaPorte RE, Pettitt DJ, Charles MA, Nelson RG, Kuller LH, Bennett PH., Knowler WC (1993). The association of physical activity with obesity, fat distribution and glucose intolerance in Pima Indians. Diabetologia, 36: Kriska AM., LaPorte RE, Pettitt DJ, Charles MA, Nelson RG, Kuller LH, Bennett PH., Knowler WC (1993). The association of physical activity with obesity, fat distribution and glucose intolerance in Pima Indians. Diabetologia, 36: Kriska AM, Saremi A, Hanson RL, Bennett PH, Kobes S, Williams DE, Knowler WC (2003). Physical activity, obesity, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population. American Journal of Epidemiology; 158: Kriska AM, Saremi A, Hanson RL, Bennett PH, Kobes S, Williams DE, Knowler WC (2003). Physical activity, obesity, and the incidence of type 2 diabetes in a high-risk population. American Journal of Epidemiology; 158: Kuller LH. Relationship between acute and chronic disease epidemiology. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine; 60: Kuller LH. Relationship between acute and chronic disease epidemiology. Yale Journal of Biology and Medicine; 60: Leon AS, Jacobs DR, DeBacker G, Taylor HL (1981). Relationship of physical characteristics and life habits to treadmill exercise capacity. American Journal of Epidemiology; 113: Leon AS, Jacobs DR, DeBacker G, Taylor HL (1981). Relationship of physical characteristics and life habits to treadmill exercise capacity. American Journal of Epidemiology; 113:

34 References Ravussin E and Bogardus C (1992). A brief overview of human energy metabolism and its relationship to essential obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55: S242-S245. Ravussin E and Bogardus C (1992). A brief overview of human energy metabolism and its relationship to essential obesity. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 55: S242-S245. Siconolfi SF, Lasater TM, Snow RCK, Carleton RA (1985). Self-reported physical activity compared with maximal oxygen uptake. American Journal of Epidemiology; 122: Siconolfi SF, Lasater TM, Snow RCK, Carleton RA (1985). Self-reported physical activity compared with maximal oxygen uptake. American Journal of Epidemiology; 122: Schneider PL, Crouter SE, Bassett DR (2004). Pedometer measures of free-living physical activity: comparison of 13 models. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 36 : Schneider PL, Crouter SE, Bassett DR (2004). Pedometer measures of free-living physical activity: comparison of 13 models. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise; 36 : Welk GJ (2002). Physical activity assessments for health-related research. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics. Welk GJ (2002). Physical activity assessments for health-related research. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

35 Review Questions (Developed by the Supercourse team) Is physical activity the same as physical fitness? Is physical activity the same as physical fitness? How much exercise is needed to reap the benefits of PA? How much exercise is needed to reap the benefits of PA? For what chronic diseases does PA appear to reduce risk? For what chronic diseases does PA appear to reduce risk?


Download ppt "Physical Activity Epidemiology Kelley K. Pettee, MS Andrea M. Kriska, PhD Caroline Richardson, MD."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google