Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Modelling and Analysis of CSCW systems: An Ontology-driven Engineering Approach Supervisors: Dr. José Luis Garrido Bullejos Thesis defense Departamento.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Modelling and Analysis of CSCW systems: An Ontology-driven Engineering Approach Supervisors: Dr. José Luis Garrido Bullejos Thesis defense Departamento."— Presentation transcript:

1 Modelling and Analysis of CSCW systems: An Ontology-driven Engineering Approach Supervisors: Dr. José Luis Garrido Bullejos Thesis defense Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Universidad de Granada Candidate: Manuel Noguera García Dra. María V. Hurtado Torres

2 2 Outline Introduction  Motivation  Goals  Foundations  Intended Approach AMENITIES Ontology-driven modelling and analysis of CSCW systems  Ontology implementation techniques  Modular design scheme to ontology development  Ontology-based reasoning Applications of the proposal Conclusions & Future Work

3 3 Motivation Increment in the complexity of the tasks to be carried out with computing systems   Involvement of several people/organizations in their accomplishment  Incorporate collaboration capabilities in the system used Computer-supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) systems:  Intended to help people work efficiently  Strongly influenced by social (human) aspects  Require (as much as possible) complete, clearly-defined, easy-to-manage system models that cover both structure and behavior offer general/abstract views of the system to discuss with collaborating stakeholders  A great deal of effort in specification CSCW

4 4 Motivation Models usually focus on selected particular aspects  Several models are needed for the whole system  Scattering of information & design decisions  Unnoticed inconsistencies between models Semantics is often unclear or too informal  Misunderstandings  Reduce potential of knowledge shared  Difficult communication, coordination, and thus, collaboration between partners CSCW

5 5 Goals of the thesis General goal  Specify collaborative systems through models that: Capture both structure and behavior Can be obtained in a systematic manner Have a clearly-defined semantics Allow consistency checks to be carried out Provide a cohesive representation of the system Secondary goals  Provide a set of techniques to systematically represent common conceptual modelling constructs  Apply the proposed methods to different domains  Develop a tool that assists analysts in the description of CSCW system models

6 6 Foundations Model-driven Engineering (MDE) approaches as new paradigms to System and Software Engineering: Extensive use of models to system development Aim: Raise the abstraction level of models  Foster discussion with stakeholders  Separate business logic from implementation issues  Enable the implementation of a business logic across different technological platforms  Computation and Technology Independent Models Adopt UML as the reference modelling notation Benefit: User-friendly, intuitive models Drawback: Lack formal and complete model theoretic semantics to carry out automated reasoning and validation Spread of information and design decisions across different models (UML  13 different diagrams for system architecture) MDE

7 7 Foundations Ontology: Originally a branch of Metaphysics (or Philosophy) Specialized meaning in Computer Science:  Formal specifications about a domain  It is possible to talk of an ontology or several ontologies  An ontology = classes (a.k.a. concepts) + relationships (a.k.a. properties and slots) + restrictions on these relationships (a.k.a. facets)  Benefit: Enable logic-based automated reasoning and consistency checks on the models  Drawback: Lack user-friendly notation  not suitable to discussion with stakeholders Focus on the structure of concepts rather than the processes to describe a domain  absence native support to describe behaviour Ontologies

8 8 Intended Approach Ontology Driven Engineering (ODE)  Combined approach of MDE and formal ontologies  Models are formally captured in underlying ontologies  Take advantage of the benefits of both technologies: High-abstraction level and user-friendly models to discuss with stakeholders Formal specifications about a domain to carry out consistency checks and infer implicit knowledge Approach: Devise and apply an ODE process to the modelling and analysis of CSCW systems may help improve their specification process MDEOntologies += MDEOntologiesODECSCW for

9 9 Outline Introduction  Motivation  Goals  Foundations  Intended Approach AMENITIES Ontology-driven modelling and analysis of CSCW systems  Ontology implementation techniques  Modular design scheme to ontology development  Ontology-based reasoning Applications of the proposal Conclusions & Future Work

10 10 Starting point : AMENITIES [Garrido 2005] “A MEthodology for aNalysing and desIgning collaboraTIve systEmS”  Core of the methodology: Cooperative Model (COMO) Requirement Models UML Use Case Applied Ethnography Cooperative Model (COMO-UML) Software Development Models (UML) Formal Model UML Statecharts UML Diagrams Refine (Coloured Petri Nets) Additional Requirements Revise Analyse Develop Model Requirements Functional Requirements Organizational View (Organization, Roles,…) Organizational View (Organization, Roles,…) Interaction View (Protocols, Artefacts,…) Interaction View (Protocols, Artefacts,…) Cognitive View (Tasks, Actions,…) Cognitive View (Tasks, Actions,…) Information View (Documents, Messages,…) Information View (Documents, Messages,…) Cooperative Model (COMO-UML)

11 11 Starting point : AMENITIES [Garrido 2005] Conceptual framework  Domain vocabulary  Main entities in a collaborative system  Described using natural language and UML

12 12 Starting point : AMENITIES [Garrido 2005] Views of the system Organization diagramsRole diagrams Task diagrams Make use of and extend UML  lack a formal semantics to carry out automated consistency checks or reasoning Approach: Representation in an ontology language

13 13 Outline Introduction  Motivation  Goals  Foundations  Intended Approach AMENITIES Ontology-driven modelling and analysis of CSCW systems  Ontology implementation techniques  Modular design scheme to ontology development  Ontology-based reasoning Applications of the proposal Conclusions & Future Work

14 14 Ontology Implementation First step: Language election Candidates languages: KIF, LOOM, RDF, OWL... Choice: OWL-DL (Web Ontology Language – Description Logics)  W3C standard  Machine-processable descriptions that foster interoperability between software agents  Plenty of related technologies  Reasoning capabilities based on Description Logics

15 15 Ontology Implementation Next step: Representation of the AMENITIES conceptual framework in OWL Process:  define classes in the ontology  arrange the classes in a taxonomic (subclass–superclass) hierarchy  define relationships  describe allowed values for these relationships Guidance:  UML class diagram representing the conceptual framework of the methodology Method (usual in the bibliography):  Classes  Concepts  Associations  Properties  Aggregations  part_of / has_part properties  Is_a  Subconcepts  Multiplicity  Cardinality restrictions

16 16 Ontology Implementation

17 17 Ontology Implementation. Limitations of the OWL language Limitations: Adopted solutions (design patterns):  Cardinality restrictions on transitive properties  No native support for processes (focus put on structure rather than behaviour)  Transitive superproperties  Extra classes and relationships  Inability to represent n-ary relationships  Reified relationships

18 18 In OWL, all relationships are binary  Impossibility to represent n- ary relationships Usual and useful conceptual modelling construct In AMENITIES: e.g., transitions between roles  Situation: An actor playing a role may start playing another one under certain conditions  Three participants in the relationship: 1.Source role 2.Destination role 3.Guard to be satisfied Design pattern:  A new class whose instances represent instances of the relationship  “N” new functional relationships, i.e., as much as classes participating in the n-ary relationship Ontology Implementation. Representation of n-ary relationships Organization Branch 3..4 [Teller?] Role Teller 2 Role BankManager 1 Role HeadOfRisk 1 [HeadOfRisk?] [BankManager?] [Absent(BankManger)]

19 19 Ontology Implementation. Representation of n-ary relationships Subclasses of a new class “Reified_Relation”  Semantic information for ontology editors, software agents and system analysts reified relation functional properties source role destination role guard to evaluate

20 20 Ontology Implementation. Limitations of the OWL language Limitations: Adopted solutions (design patterns):  Cardinality restrictions on transitive properties  No native support for processes (focus put on structure rather than behaviour)  Transitive superproperties  Extra classes and relationships  Inability to represent n-ary relationships  Reified relationships

21 21 Ontology Implementation. Cardinality restrictions on transitive properties Certain relations exhibit an intrinsic transitive nature (e.g. aggregations):  if A has_part B, B has_part C  A has_part C (could be automatically inferred)  In UML it is not possible to specify transitivity (in OWL it is)  Useful to relate concepts E.g. CSCW_Systems are composed of Organizations, Organizations are composed of Roles, etc.  which Roles make up a particular CSCW_System? Additionally, convenience of defining certain cardinality restrictions  Organizations should be composed of at least one Role  Groups should be composed of at least two Actors Cardinality + transitive is forbidden in OWL for decidability issues

22 22 Ontology Implementation. Cardinality restrictions on transitive properties Design pattern:  A new relationship, “superproperty” with the same intended meaning is defined, e.g., comprises for has_part  Transitivity is declared on the superproperty (i.e., comprises)  Cardinality restrictions are placed on the subproperty (i.e., on has_part, for example)

23 23 Ontology Implementation. Limitations of the OWL language Limitations: Adopted solutions (design patterns):  Cardinality restrictions on transitive properties  No native support for processes (focus put on structure rather than behaviour)  Transitive superproperties  Extra classes and relationships  Inability to represent n-ary relationships  Reified relationships

24 24 Ontology Implementation. No native support for processes Ontology languages lack of native support to represent processes Essential in CSCW system specification to produce helpful models:  Tasks and activities are to be arranged in ordered sequences. Flows of activities may fork, join, jump backwards/forwards, etc.  Tasks and activities are to be reused in the same or different workflows  A task/activity should be considered irrespective of its actual execution Unsupported in the AMENITIES conceptual framework  UML activity diagrams are subsequently used in the methodology, but order between activities is not explicitly addressed

25 25 Ontology Implementation. No native support for processes Solution  set of extra classes and relationships:  The execution of each task is modelled as a sequence of steps (new classes)  Each step (but the final_step) may be followed_by (new relationship) one or more steps  At each step it may take place an activity, an action, a workflow fork, join, etc. valuationReport [Finished] appraiser: value headOfRisk: collectApplicantData first_step_1 fork_step_1 followed_by action_step_1 followed_by inf_object_step_1 activity_step_1 join_step_1 followed_by performs is_produced OWL Description UML Activity Diagram

26 26 Ontology Implementation. No native support for processes

27 27 Ontology Implementation. No native support for processes How about guards?  Rule over the transition between two activities (steps actually...)  3-ary relationship: source step, destination step and the guard to be evaluated  Reified relation design pattern: followed_by relationship reified in a class debtReport Status headOfRisk: prepareDocuments [Refusal] [Hesitant] [Passed] bankManager+headOfRisk: decideConcession decision_step_1 followed_by_relation_1 guard_hesitantactivity_step_1 followed_by following_step evaluates followed_by_relation_2 activity_step_2 following_step guard_passed evaluates following_step final_step_1 followed_by_relation_2 guard_refusal followed_by following_step evaluates Complicated? How about the semantics?  Structurally the same as the UML metamodel for Activity Diagrams  One-to-one match Activity/Action Class  Activity/Action Concept ActivityNode/ActionNode  ActivityStep/ActionStep ActivityEdge  (reified) Followed_by_Relation ControlNode (InitialNode, FinalNode, ForkNode,...)  Control_Flow_Step (First_Step, Final_Step, Fork_Step,...)

28 28

29 29 AMENITIES conceptual framework classes added for process modeling

30 30 Outline Introduction  Motivation  Goals  Foundations  Intended Approach AMENITIES Ontology-driven modelling and analysis of CSCW systems  Ontology implementation techniques  Modular design scheme to ontology development  Ontology-based reasoning Applications of the proposal Conclusions & Future Work

31 31 Modularity in Ontology Design A modular, multi-tier scheme for ontology design to simplify: Ontology refinement/updates  Modifying a module should not lead to modifications in parts of the ontology that are not conceptually related Integration with ontologies from other organizations  Relationships between different ontology modules are controlled  no unexpected consequences Partial reuse  Reuse only the relevant part/module of an ontology

32 32 Amenities conceptual framework ontology document Modularity in Ontology Design. Multi-tier Scheme Amenities-based application ontology document for enterprises Amenities-based application ontology document for C&C Valuation Office Amenities-based application ontology for John F. Kennedy aiport Amenities-based application ontology document for airports Amenities-based application ontology document for Oxford University Amenities-based application ontology document for Oxford University Amenities-based application ontology document for Notary’s Offices Amenities-based application ontology document for Klimt Notary’s Office Amenities-based application ontology document for universities Ground level application ontologies First level application ontologies Amenities-based application ontology document for Bank of Santander Amenities-based application ontology document for Branch Office nº 15 At the top level AMENITIES conceptual framework domain vocabulary of CSCW systems At the next level some instances or more refined classes for more specific domains would be described Finally, more specific ontologies related to particular collaborative environments Amenities-based application ontology document for Branch Office nº 27 Domain ontology

33 33 Outline Introduction  Motivation  Goals  Foundations  Intended Approach AMENITIES Ontology-driven modelling and analysis of CSCW systems  Ontology implementation techniques  Modular design scheme to ontology development  Ontology-based reasoning Applications of the proposal Conclusions & Future Work

34 34 Analysis of the Specifications. Ontology-based Reasoning Automated reasoning procedures allow   Help design and maintain sound ontologies by: Detecting unnoticed logic consequences or inconsistencies Inferring non-explicit knowledge Ontologies drive the specification and analysis of the CSCW system

35 35 Outline Introduction  Motivation  Goals  Foundation  Intended Approach AMENITIES Ontology-driven modelling and analysis of CSCW systems  Implementation  Modular design  Ontology-based reasoning Applications of the proposal Conclusions & Future Work

36 36 Applications. Interaction observation systems: the case of COLLECE [Bravo 2007]

37 37 Applications. Interaction observation systems: the case of COLLECE [Bravo 2007]

38 38 Applications. Design of Case- Based Reasoners (CBR)

39 39 Visual Tool for Ontology Edition OWL syntax is rather verbose  ontology edition a cumbersome task Diagrammatic representations help provide a general view of ontologies at a glance Aim: Facilitate ontology edition in a modular manner

40 40 Visual Tool for Ontology Edition

41 41 Visual Tool for Ontology Edition

42 42 Conclusions We have extended and formalized the AMENITIES conceptual framework in a formal ontology  Several techniques and design patterns have been provided for systematically representing usual conceptual modelling constructs in OWL  We have provided a set of classes and relationships that enable the description of workflows in the OWL language  We have defined a mapping between the entities of the UML metamodel for activity diagrams and a set OWL constructs to describe workflows without information lost We have devised a modular approach for the construction of collaborative system ontologies. The resulting ontologies are formal underlying CIM’s for an ontology-driven engineering approach to the development of collaborative systems

43 43 Conclusions We have presented a formalization of collaborative-system models by means of OWL ontologies, that facilitates:  Early detection of inconsistencies and/or meaningless concept structures  Inference of non-explicitly declared facts  Further reasoning capabilities on the order of the activities in a workflow We have devised an interaction observation system that makes use of ontologies to obtain analysis descriptors We have made used of ontologies to model the structure of case descriptions to be subsequently used by CBR systems in solution searching and retrieval Finally, we have started the development of a visual ontology editor intended to guide the designer in the modular construction of ontologies

44 44 Future Work Definition of a service ontology  Service Oriented Computing  Transition from computation-independent to platform-independent models Inclusion of goals in the ontology  Most of groupware fails in goal analysis  In CSCW different entities have different goals  Goals affect and even conflict one another

45 45 Selected publications 1.Noguera, M., Hurtado, M.V. et al.: “Ontology-driven Analysis of UML-Based Collaborative Processes using OWL-DL and CPN”. Science of Computer Programming, (in press), Duque, R., Noguera, M. et al.: “Construction of interaction observation systems for collaboration analysis in groupware applications”. Advances in Engineering Software, Elsevier, doi: /j.advengsoft Penichet, V.M.R., Rodríguez, M.L., Lozano, M.D., Garrido, J.L., Gallud, J.A., Noguera, M., Tesoriero, R., Hurtado, M.V.: “Extending and Supporting Featured User Interface Models for the Development of Groupware Applications”. Journal of Universal Computer Science, Vol.14, No. 19, , Garrido, J.L., Noguera, M. et al.: “Definition and Use of Computation Independent Models in an MDA-Based Groupware Development Process”. Science of Computer Programming, Vol. 66, nº1, 25-43, Duque, R., Rodríguez, M.L., Hurtado, M.V., Noguera, M., Bravo, C.: “An Architecture to Integrate Automatic Observation Mechanisms for Collaboration Analysis in Groupware”. VII International Workshop on System/Software Architectures, OTM Workshops, Monterrey, México. Springer-Verlag, LNCS 5333, 354 – 363, Rodríguez, M.L., Garrido, J.L., Hurtado, M.V., Noguera, M., Hornos, M.J.: Design Guidelines for the Construction of User Interfaces for Collaborative Applications: A Model-Based Approach. Springer, Garrido, J.L., Hurtado, M.V., Noguera, M., Zurita, J.M.: “Using a CBR Approach based on Ontologies for Recommendation and Reuse of Knowledge Sharing in Decision Making”. 8th International Conference on Hybrid Intelligent Systems (HIS 2008). IEEE Press, 2008, Duque, R., Noguera, M., Bravo, C., Garrido, J.L., Rodríguez, M.L.: “Construcción de un Sistema de Observación de la Interacción para Entornos CSCW”. IX Congreso de Interacción Persona Ordenador (AIPO) [Interacción’2008], Albacete, España, Thomsom Scientific. (2008 Jesús Lorés Award) 9.Noguera, M., Hurtado, M.V., Rodríguez, M.L., Chung, L., Garrido, J.L.: “Description of Collaborative Processes using OWL-DL”. The 2007 International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice, Las Vegas, Estados Unidos. CSREA Press, , Rodríguez, M.L., Garrido, J.L., Hurtado, M.V., Noguera, M.: “An Approach to the Model-based Design of Groupware Multi-user Interfaces”. 13th International Workshop on Groupware (CRIWG 2007), Bariloche, Argentina. Springer-Verlag, LNCS 4715, , Hurtado, M.V., Noguera, M., Rodríguez, M.L., Garrido, J.L., Chung, L.: “An Ontology-based Approach to the Modeling of Collaborative Enterprise Processes: Dynamic Managing of Functional Requirements”. Second International Conference on Evaluation of Novel Approaches to Software Engineering, Barcelona, España. INSTICC Press , Noguera, M., Hurtado, M. V., Garrido, J.L.: “An Ontology-Based Scheme Enabling the Modeling of Cooperation in Business Processes”. International Workshop on Modeling Inter-Organizational Systems, OTM Workshops, Montpellier, Francia. Springer- Verlag, LNCS 4277, ISSN: , 863 – 872, additional publications in refereed journals and conferences...

46 Modelling and Analysis of CSCW systems: An Ontology-driven Engineering Approach Supervisors: Dr. José Luis Garrido Bullejos Thesis defense Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Universidad de Granada Candidate: Manuel Noguera García Dra. María V. Hurtado Torres

47 Modelado y Análisis de Sistemas CSCW siguiendo un enfoque de Ingeniería Dirigida por Ontologías Directores: Dr. José Luis Garrido Bullejos Tesis Doctoral Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Universidad de Granada Doctorando: Manuel Noguera García Dra. María V. Hurtado Torres

48 48 AMENITIES 2. New conceptual framework

49 49 UML Metamodel for Activity Diagrams

50 50 Reasoning on Activity Ordering ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:followed_by step_w fwd_by_x) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:following_step fwd_by_x step_x) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:precede step_w step_x) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:followed_by step_x fwd_by_y) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:following_step fwd_by_y step_y) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:precede step_x step_y) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:followed_by step_y fwd_by_z) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:following_step fwd_by_z step_z) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:followed_by step_w fwd_by_x) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:performs step_w decideConcession) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:performs step_x prepareDocuments) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:generate step_y draft) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:performs step_z giveApproval) ClassAssertion(decideConcession amenities:Risky) ClassAssertion(giveApproval amenities:Supervision) declaration of the types of the activities specification of the control flow between activities particular actions/activities to be performed in every step inferred ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:precede step_w step_x) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:precede step_x step_y) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:precede step_y step_z) ObjectPropertyAssertion(amenities:precede step_w step_z) inferred summary of the full reasoning process

51 51 Context MDE: Most prominent example is the Model-driven Architecture (MDA) approach:  Endorsed by the Object Management Group (OMG)  Main distinction between three kinds of models Computation Independent Models (CIM) Platform Independent Models (PIM) Platform Specific Models (PSM)  UML as the reference modelling notation  Benefit: User-friendly, intuitive  Drawback: Non formal and complete model theoretic semantics to carry out automated reasoning and validation Scattering of information and design decisions across different models MDE (MDA) CIM PIM PSM transform

52 52 Metamodelling

53 53 Starting point : AMENITIES [Garrido 2005] “A MEthodology for aNalysing and desIgning collaboraTIve systEmS”  Core of the methodology: Cooperative Model (COMO)  Makes use of and extends UML  Lacks of formal semantics to carry out consistency checks or reasoning Requirement Models UML Use Case Applied Ethnography Cooperative Model (COMO-UML) Software Development Models (UML) Formal Model UML Statecharts UML Diagrams Refine (Coloured Petri Nets) Additional Requirements Revise Analyse Develop Model Requirements Functional Requirements Organizational View (Organization, Roles,…) Organizational View (Organization, Roles,…) Interaction View (Protocols, Artefacts,…) Interaction View (Protocols, Artefacts,…) Cognitive View (Tasks, Actions,…) Cognitive View (Tasks, Actions,…) Information View (Documents, Messages,…) Information View (Documents, Messages,…) Cooperative Model (COMO-UML)

54 Modelado y Análisis de Sistemas CSCW siguiendo un enfoque de Ingeniería Dirigida por Ontologías Supervisors: Dr. José Luis Garrido Bullejos Thesis defense Departamento de Lenguajes y Sistemas Informáticos Universidad de Granada Candidate: Manuel Noguera García Dra. María V. Hurtado Torres

55 55 Goals of the thesis General goal:  Use of ontologies so as to obtain a formal underlying representation of the AMENITIES collaborative model, and thus, set the basis for the adoption of ODE approaches in the construction of CSCW systems Intermediate goals  Analyse the state of the art in conceptual modelling and ontology specification languages to represent domain knowledge  Define an ontology for the conceptual framework proposed in the AMENITIES methodology enabling to: Carry out consistency checks Capture both structure and behavior of a collaborative system  Provide a set of ontology design patterns intended to represent common conceptual modelling constructs and/or avoid some limitations in its use  Illustrate the benefits of the use of ontologies proposed by means of automated reasoning to detect possible inconsistencies or infer knowledge not explicitly declared  Apply the proposed techniques on real case studies  Develop a tool to enable the visual edition of ontologies that assists analysts in the adoption of an ODE approach to system construction


Download ppt "Modelling and Analysis of CSCW systems: An Ontology-driven Engineering Approach Supervisors: Dr. José Luis Garrido Bullejos Thesis defense Departamento."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google