Presentation on theme: "Active Learning Martha Wicker, Director"— Presentation transcript:
1Active Learning Martha Wicker, Director Center for Instructional DevelopmentClayton State University
2Activity 1: Background Knowledge Probe Question 1: What is your interest/knowledge level ofactive learning?I have never heard of active learning.I have heard about active learning.I have read about or attended a conference sessionon active learning.I have participated in a course, workshop, or trainingsession on active learning.I have done independent research and/or presentedor published a paper on active learning.
3Activity 1: Background Knowledge Probe Question 2: What is your implementation level ofactive learning?I have never used active learning strategies in the classroom.I seldom use active learning strategies in the classroom.I sometimes use active learning strategies in the classroom.I often use active learning strategies in the classroom.I always use active learning strategies in the classroom.
5“Learners construct their own reality or at Constructivism“Learners construct their own reality or atleast interpret it based upon their perceptionsof experiences, so an individual's knowledgeis a function of one's prior experiences,mental structures, and beliefs thatare used to interpret objects andevents." (Jonasson, 1991)Leading Theorists:Jean PiagetSeymour PapertJerome BrunerLev VygotskyJohn Dewey
6Constructivism Premises: Learners construct their own meaning New learning builds on prior knowledgeSocial interaction enhances learningMeaningful learning occurs through “authentic” tasks(Good and Brophy,1994)* Learners construct their own meaning. Students are not passive receptacles. They do not easily process or transfer what they passively receive. In order to make knowledge useful in a new situation, students must make a deliberate effort to make sense of the information that comes to them. They must own it. They must manipulate, discover, and create knowledge to fit their belief systems.* New learning builds on prior knowledge. In making an effort to make sense of information, students must make connections between old knowledge and new information. They must compare and question, challenge and investigate, accept or discard old information and beliefs in order to progress.* Learning is enhanced by social interaction. The constructivist process works best in social settings as students have the opportunity to compare and share their ideas with others. Learning occurs as students attempt to resolve conflicting ideas. Although social interaction is frequently accomplished in small group activities, discussions within the entire class provide students the opportunity to vocalize their knowledge and to learn from others.* Meaningful learning develops through "authentic" tasks. This aspect of constructivism is frequently misinterpreted. Using authentic tasks does not mean that we wait until a frog hops by to seize the opportunity to teach metamorphosis. It simply means that activities are chosen to simulate those that will be encountered in real life or in an assignment.
7Background and Definitions “I hear and I forget, I see and Iremember, I do and I understand.”(Confucius)
8Background and Definitions “One must learn by doing the thing,for though you think you know it –you have no certainty until you try.”(Sophocles, 5th century B.C.)
9Background and Definitions “All genuine learning is active, notpassive. It is a process of discoveryin which the student is the mainagent, not the teacher.”(Adler,1982)
10Background and Definitions “Learning is not a spectator sport.Students do not learn much just bysitting in class listening to teachers,memorizing pre-packaged assignments,and spitting out answers. They musttalk about what they are learning, writeabout it, relate it to past experiences,apply it to their daily lives. They mustmake what they learn part ofthemselves.”(Chickering & Gamson, 1987)
11Definition of Active Learning “In the college classroom, activelearning involves students doingthings and thinking about what theyare doing.”(Bonwell & Eison, 1991)
14Activity 2: Gallery Walk In your group, make a list of the characteristics of active learning.Post your list on the wall and walk around the room to view each groups’ list.Focused Listing – refer to handout
15Characteristics of Active Learning Students are involved in more than passive listening.Students are engaged in activities (e.g., reading, discussing, writing).There is less emphasis placed on information transmission and greater emphasis placed on developing student skills.There is greater emphasis placed on the exploration of attitudes and values.(Bonwell & Eison, 1991)
16Characteristics of Active Learning Student motivation is increased (especially for adult learners).Students can receive immediate feedback from their instructor.Students are involved in higher order thinking (analysis, synthesis, evaluation).(Bonwell & Eison, 1991)
17Characteristics of Active Learning engaged in the learning processencouraged to “own” and construct knowledgeprovided with real-life connections and experiencesrequired to think critically and creativelylearning with reference to their different learning stylesbuilding on their prior knowledge/experienceevaluated using multiple authentic assessment strategies(Biggs, J., 2003)
22Faculty Role (Cannon, 2000) Teacher Centered students passive teacher decisionsemphasis on subject content onlylecture based learningemphasis on content coverageteacher is content expertextrinsic motivationcompetitive & individual learningshort-term learningteacher-focused assessmentsStudent Centeredstudents activestudent choicesemphasis on integrated contentinquiry based learningemphasis on learning activitiesteacher is facilitatorintrinsic motivationcooperative learninglifelong learningstudent/peer-focused assessments(Cannon, 2000)
24Activity 4: Think-Pair-Share Think: Take a moment to think about the examples of active learning and select one you think you could use in the classroom. Answer the following questions:Why did you choose this strategy?What preparation is required by the faculty and students?How does it change your role as the instructor?
25Activity 4: Think-Pair-Share Pair: Turn to the person next to you and explain your thoughts.Why did you choose this strategy?What preparation is required by the faculty and students?How does it change your role as the instructor?
26Activity 4: Think-Pair-Share Share: Report out to your small group.Why did you choose this strategy?What preparation is required by the faculty and students?How does it change your role as the instructor?
32Activity 6: Pro/Con Grid In your group, make a list of the pros(benefits) and cons (barriers) of usingactive learning strategies in theclassroom.
33Benefits of Active Learning Students are more engaged in learning.Students receive immediate feedback from instructor and other students.Students are more motivated and accept more responsibility for their learning.Students learn to work collaboratively with others from diverse backgrounds.
34Barriers to Active Learning You cannot cover as much course content as you can with the lecture method.Designing active learning strategies requires more pre-class preparation.It is more difficult to implement active learning strategies with large classes.Most instructors enjoy lecturing and believe that their lectures are effective (Bonwell, 1991)
35Barriers to Active Learning Active learning strategies often require materials or equipment that may not be readily available.Students often resist the use of active learning strategies.Using active learning strategies involves taking risks(Bonwell, 1991)
36Activity 7: Brainstorming In your group, brainstorm possible solutions to your assigned barrier.Share your solutions with the large group.
37Overcoming Risks (Bonwell, 1991) Dimension Low-Risk Strategies High-Risk StrategiesClass Time RequiredRelatively shortRelatively longDegree of StructureMore structuredLess structuredDegree of PlanningMeticulously plannedSpontaneousSubject MatterRelatively concreteRelatively abstractPotential for ControversyLess controversialVery controversialStudents’ Prior Knowledge ofthe Subject MatterBetter informedLess informedthe Teaching TechniquesFamiliarUnfamiliarInstructor’s Prior Experiencewith the Teaching TechniqueConsiderableLimitedPattern of InteractionBetween faculty and studentsAmong students(Bonwell, 1991)
38Overcoming Risks (Bonwell, 1991) Students are Active/Lower Level of RiskStudents are Active/Higher Level of RiskRole playingSmall group presentationsIndividual presentationsGuided imagery exerciseUnstructured small group discussionResponsive lectureSmall group discussion Guided lectureDemonstrations Self-assessmentsBrainstorming activities In-class writingField trips Library toursQuizzes or tests Lecture with pausesLecture with discussion Feedback lectureSurveys/questionnaires Think-Pair-ShareBrainstormingStudents are Inactive/Lower Level of RiskShow a film for the entire class periodLecture for the entire class periodStudents are Inactive/Higher Level of RiskInvite a new guest speaker(Bonwell, 1991)
39Implementing Active Learning Strategies Individual Faculty
40Individual Faculty Select one active learning strategy Set the stage Prepare studentsAsk for feedback from students & peersReflect on the experienceMake modifications, if necessary(Modified from Felder, 1996)
42Activity 8: Case Studies Read the case at your table.Choose a recorder.Respond to the question(s) at the end of your case.Briefly summarize the implementation model to the large group.
43Clayton State’s ModelThe faculty development model spans a five-year period, offering training at three different levels:Level 1 Half-day training to entire faculty led by external consultant Internal grants for faculty to conduct discipline-specific classroom research projects and to meet biweekly to discuss the implementation of engagement strategiesAnalysis of results and dissemination of findingsLevel 2 Biweekly focus groups for faculty within each discipline to discuss and implement engagement strategiesPeer review of faculty participating in the focus groupsLevel 3 Online, self-directed training modules for faculty to use as a resource on discipline-specific engagement strategiesAnalysis of results and dissemination of findings
44Faculty Development Grants Purposeto award funds to faculty for conducting classroom research projects aimed at improving student success in learning;to provide structured opportunities for faculty to share best practice strategies related to student success;to disseminate classroom research findings.
45Faculty Development Grants Expectations1st year:meet bi-weekly to share classroom experiences and to collect Student Success strategies;conduct a classroom research project;formally share Student Success Program experiences with CCSU faculty;present or publish classroom research findings at a conference or in a journal article.contribute at least six student success strategies to the online database
47Faculty Development Grants Expectations2nd year:lead a monthly focus group;participate in peer observations of faculty.IncentivesStipends 1st year: $1,500; 2nd Year: $1,000Credit for participation on Summary of Professional Activity and Promotion and Tenure Evaluation
48Focus GroupsPurposeto provide structured opportunities for faculty to implement the Student Success strategies collected by the grant recipients;to provide sharing opportunities for 6-10 faculty within each college/school to discuss their classroom experiences;to facilitate improved teach ing through peer observation and feedback.
49Focus Groups Expectations Incentives meet monthly to learn about Student Success strategies and to share classroom experiences;develop discipline-specific applications for at least two Student Success strategies and implement them in the classroom;participate in journal reflections and peer observations.IncentivesCredit for participation on Summary of Professional Activity and Promotion and Tenure Evaluation
50Activity 9: Fish BowlWrite down your questions on the index cards provided at each table.Place your index cards in the fish bowl.The workshop facilitator will respond to your questions by drawing cards from the fish bowl after break.
51Activity 10: Reflective Journal Complete the Inventory for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education on Active LearningDevise a plan for implementing active learning strategies in your teaching.
52BibliographyAdler, Mortimer. (1982) The Paideia Proposal: An Educational Manifesto.New York: Collier Books.Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does. 2nd edn. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.Bonwell, C.C. & Eison, J.A. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University.Cannon, Robert and Newble, David. (2000). A Handbook for Teachers in Universities & Colleges: a guide to improving teaching methods. London: Kogan Page.Chickering, A., & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39, 3-7.
53BibliographyRichard Felder, We Never Said It Would Be Easy North Carolina State University (1995). Columns/Noteasy.htmlFink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.Good, T., and J. Brophy. (1994). Looking in Classrooms (6th ed.). New York: Harper Collins.Jonassen, D. H. (1991) Objectivism versus constructivism: do we need a new philosophical paradigm? Educational Technology Research and Development, 39 (3), 5-14.Souza, "How the Brain Learns", (2000).