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Active Learning Martha Wicker, Director Center for Instructional Development Clayton State University.

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Presentation on theme: "Active Learning Martha Wicker, Director Center for Instructional Development Clayton State University."— Presentation transcript:

1 Active Learning Martha Wicker, Director Center for Instructional Development Clayton State University

2 Activity 1: Background Knowledge Probe Question 1: What is your interest/knowledge level of active learning? A. I have never heard of active learning. B. I have heard about active learning. C. I have read about or attended a conference session on active learning. D. I have participated in a course, workshop, or training session on active learning. E. I have done independent research and/or presented or published a paper on active learning.

3 Question 2: What is your implementation level of active learning? A. I have never used active learning strategies in the classroom. B. I seldom use active learning strategies in the classroom. C. I sometimes use active learning strategies in the classroom. D. I often use active learning strategies in the classroom. E.I always use active learning strategies in the classroom. Activity 1: Background Knowledge Probe

4 Background & Definitions

5 Constructivism “ Learners construct their own reality or at least interpret it based upon their perceptions of experiences, so an individual's knowledge is a function of one's prior experiences, mental structures, and beliefs that are used to interpret objects and events." (Jonasson, 1991) Leading Theorists:  Jean Piaget  Seymour Papert  Jerome Bruner  Lev Vygotsky  John Dewey

6 Constructivism Premises:  Learners construct their own meaning  New learning builds on prior knowledge  Social interaction enhances learning  Meaningful learning occurs through “authentic” tasks (Good and Brophy,1994)

7 Background and Definitions “I hear and I forget, I see and I remember, I do and I understand.” (Confucius)

8 Background and Definitions “One must learn by doing the thing, for though you think you know it – you have no certainty until you try.” (Sophocles, 5 th century B.C.)

9 Background and Definitions “All genuine learning is active, not passive. It is a process of discovery in which the student is the main agent, not the teacher.” (Adler,1982)

10 Background and Definitions “Learning is not a spectator sport. Students do not learn much just by sitting in class listening to teachers, memorizing pre-packaged assignments, and spitting out answers. They must talk about what they are learning, write about it, relate it to past experiences, apply it to their daily lives. They must make what they learn part of themselves.” (Chickering & Gamson, 1987)

11 Definition of Active Learning “In the college classroom, active learning involves students doing things and thinking about what they are doing.” (Bonwell & Eison, 1991)

12 Characteristics of Active Learning

13 Passive Learning Play Movie

14 Activity 2: Gallery Walk  In your group, make a list of the characteristics of active learning.  Post your list on the wall and walk around the room to view each groups’ list.

15 Characteristics of Active Learning  Students are involved in more than passive listening.  Students are engaged in activities (e.g., reading, discussing, writing).  There is less emphasis placed on information transmission and greater emphasis placed on developing student skills.  There is greater emphasis placed on the exploration of attitudes and values. (Bonwell & Eison, 1991)

16 Characteristics of Active Learning  Student motivation is increased (especially for adult learners).  Students can receive immediate feedback from their instructor.  Students are involved in higher order thinking (analysis, synthesis, evaluation). (Bonwell & Eison, 1991)

17 Characteristics of Active Learning  engaged in the learning process  encouraged to “own” and construct knowledge  provided with real-life connections and experiences  required to think critically and creatively  learning with reference to their different learning styles  building on their prior knowledge/experience  evaluated using multiple authentic assessment strategies (Biggs, J., 2003)

18 Examples of Active Learning

19 Activity 3: Focused Listing  In your group, make a list of examples of active learning.  Rotate sharing examples on your list with the large group.

20 Examples of Active Learning  Interactive Lectures  Group Projects  Debates  Simulations  Games  Presentations  Field Trips  Service Learning  Discussion  PBL  Case Studies  Research Papers  Labs  Collaborative Learning  Concept Mapping  Alternative Assessment

21 Passive & Active Learning Receiving Information & ideas Experiences Doing Observing Reflection what & how alone & group Passive Learning Active Learning (Fink, 2003)

22 Faculty Role Teacher Centered  students passive  teacher decisions  emphasis on subject content only  lecture based learning  emphasis on content coverage  teacher is content expert  extrinsic motivation  competitive & individual learning  short-term learning  teacher-focused assessments Student Centered  students active  student choices  emphasis on integrated content  inquiry based learning  emphasis on learning activities  teacher is facilitator  intrinsic motivation  cooperative learning  lifelong learning  student/peer-focused assessments (Cannon, 2000)

23 Planning Model Learning Goals Feedback & Assessment Teaching & Learning Activities Situational Factors (Fink, 2003)

24 Activity 4: Think-Pair-Share Think: Take a moment to think about the examples of active learning and select one you think you could use in the classroom. Answer the following questions:  Why did you choose this strategy?  What preparation is required by the faculty and students?  How does it change your role as the instructor?

25 Activity 4: Think-Pair-Share Pair: Turn to the person next to you and explain your thoughts.  Why did you choose this strategy?  What preparation is required by the faculty and students?  How does it change your role as the instructor?

26 Activity 4: Think-Pair-Share Share: Report out to your small group.  Why did you choose this strategy?  What preparation is required by the faculty and students?  How does it change your role as the instructor?

27 Benefits & Barriers

28 Activity 5: Electronic Polling Question 3: What is the average attention span for students? A. 10 – 15 minutes B. 15 – 20 minutes C. 30 – 45 minutes D. 50 – 60 minutes

29 Activity 5: Electronic Polling Question 4: After 24 hrs, what percent of information is retained by students in a lecture environment? A.5 % B.10% C.20% D.30% E.50%

30 Activity 5: Electronic Polling Question 5: After 24 hrs, what percent of information is retained by students in an active learning environment? A.10% B.20% C.30% D.50% E.75%

31 (Souza, 2000) Benefits

32 Activity 6: Pro/Con Grid In your group, make a list of the pros (benefits) and cons (barriers) of using active learning strategies in the classroom.

33 Benefits of Active Learning  Students are more engaged in learning.  Students receive immediate feedback from instructor and other students.  Students are more motivated and accept more responsibility for their learning.  Students learn to work collaboratively with others from diverse backgrounds.

34 Barriers to Active Learning  You cannot cover as much course content as you can with the lecture method.  Designing active learning strategies requires more pre-class preparation.  It is more difficult to implement active learning strategies with large classes.  Most instructors enjoy lecturing and believe that their lectures are effective. (Bonwell, 1991)

35 Barriers to Active Learning  Active learning strategies often require materials or equipment that may not be readily available.  Students often resist the use of active learning strategies.  Using active learning strategies involves taking risks (Bonwell, 1991)

36 Activity 7: Brainstorming  In your group, brainstorm possible solutions to your assigned barrier.  Share your solutions with the large group.

37 DimensionLow-Risk StrategiesHigh-Risk Strategies Class Time RequiredRelatively shortRelatively long Degree of StructureMore structuredLess structured Degree of PlanningMeticulously plannedSpontaneous Subject MatterRelatively concreteRelatively abstract Potential for ControversyLess controversialVery controversial Students’ Prior Knowledge of the Subject Matter Better informedLess informed Students’ Prior Knowledge of the Teaching Techniques FamiliarUnfamiliar Instructor’s Prior Experience with the Teaching Technique ConsiderableLimited Pattern of InteractionBetween faculty and studentsAmong students (Bonwell, 1991) Overcoming Risks

38 (Bonwell, 1991) Students are Active/Lower Level of Risk Small group discussionGuided lecture DemonstrationsSelf-assessments Brainstorming activitiesIn-class writing Field tripsLibrary tours Quizzes or testsLecture with pauses Lecture with discussion Feedback lecture Surveys/questionnaires Think-Pair-Share Brainstorming Students are Active/Higher Level of Risk Role playing Small group presentations Individual presentations Guided imagery exercise Unstructured small group discussion Responsive lecture Students are Inactive/Lower Level of Risk Show a film for the entire class period Lecture for the entire class period Students are Inactive/Higher Level of Risk Invite a new guest speaker Overcoming Risks

39 Implementing Active Learning Strategies Individual Faculty

40  Select one active learning strategy  Set the stage  Prepare students  Ask for feedback from students & peers  Reflect on the experience  Make modifications, if necessary (Modified from Felder, 1996)

41 Implementing Active Learning Campus-Wide Models

42 Activity 8: Case Studies  Read the case at your table.  Choose a recorder.  Respond to the question(s) at the end of your case.  Briefly summarize the implementation model to the large group.

43 Clayton State’s Model

44 Faculty Development Grants Purpose  to award funds to faculty for conducting classroom research projects aimed at improving student success in learning;  to provide structured opportunities for faculty to share best practice strategies related to student success;  to disseminate classroom research findings.

45 Faculty Development Grants Expectations 1st year:  meet bi-weekly to share classroom experiences and to collect Student Success strategies;  conduct a classroom research project;  formally share Student Success Program experiences with CCSU faculty;  present or publish classroom research findings at a conference or in a journal article.  contribute at least six student success strategies to the online database

46 Active Learning Database

47 Faculty Development Grants Expectations 2nd year:  lead a monthly focus group;  participate in peer observations of faculty. Incentives  Stipends 1 st year: $1,500; 2 nd Year: $1,000  Credit for participation on Summary of Professional Activity and Promotion and Tenure Evaluation

48 Focus Groups Purpose  to provide structured opportunities for faculty to implement the Student Success strategies collected by the grant recipients;  to provide sharing opportunities for 6-10 faculty within each college/school to discuss their classroom experiences;  to facilitate improved teach- ing through peer observation and feedback.

49 Focus Groups Expectations  meet monthly to learn about Student Success strategies and to share classroom experiences;  develop discipline-specific applications for at least two Student Success strategies and implement them in the classroom;  participate in journal reflections and peer observations. Incentives  Credit for participation on Summary of Professional Activity and Promotion and Tenure Evaluation

50 Activity 9: Fish Bowl  Write down your questions on the index cards provided at each table.  Place your index cards in the fish bowl.  The workshop facilitator will respond to your questions by drawing cards from the fish bowl after break.

51 Activity 10: Reflective Journal  Complete the Inventory for Good Practice in Undergraduate Education on Active Learning  Devise a plan for implementing active learning strategies in your teaching.

52 Bibliography  Adler, Mortimer. (1982) The Paideia Proposal: An Educational Manifesto.New York: Collier Books.  Biggs, J. (2003) Teaching for quality learning at university: what the student does. 2nd edn. Buckingham: SRHE and Open University Press.  Bonwell, C.C. & Eison, J.A. (1991). Active Learning: Creating Excitement in the Classroom. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1. Washington, D.C.: School of Education and Human Development, George Washington University.  Cannon, Robert and Newble, David. (2000). A Handbook for Teachers in Universities & Colleges: a guide to improving teaching methods. London: Kogan Page.  Chickering, A., & Gamson, Z. (1987). Seven principles of good practice in undergraduate education. AAHE Bulletin, 39, 3-7.

53 Bibliography  Richard Felder, We Never Said It Would Be Easy North Carolina State University (1995). Columns/Noteasy.html Columns/Noteasy.html  Fink, L. D. (2003). Creating significant learning experiences: An integrated approach to designing college courses. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.  Good, T., and J. Brophy. (1994). Looking in Classrooms (6th ed.). New York: Harper Collins.  Jonassen, D. H. (1991) Objectivism versus constructivism: do we need a new philosophical paradigm? Educational Technology Research and Development, 39 (3),  Souza, "How the Brain Learns", (2000).


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