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Active and Bulk Transport

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Presentation on theme: "Active and Bulk Transport"— Presentation transcript:

1 Active and Bulk Transport

2 Active Transport passive transport is useful for many metabolic functions, but often materials need to be concentrated this requires moving them against a concentration gradient adenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides the energy needed in this and many other processes of living cells


4 ATP ATP is similar to the structure of a nucleotide, except that it contains 3 phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugar energy is released when the high-E bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group is broken

5 Adenosine Triphosphate

6 Active Transport Mechanism
active transport is the movement of molecules and ions against a concentration gradient molecules and ions bind to a protein carrier which uses energy from ATP to pump molecules or ions across the cell membrane the molecule to be transported attaches to an open binding site on one side of the carrier protein ATP is converted to ADP + P on the carrier protein and releases energy the energy causes a change in the shape of the protein that carries the solute to the other side of the membrane


8 Na+/K+ Pump The Na+/K+ pump is utilized in neurons (nerve cells)
Na+ ions must be higher outside the cell, while K+ ions must be lower outside the cell for a nerve transmission to occur Binding of the phosphate from ATP changes the shape of the protein, alternately providing binding sites for three Na+ ions to be transported out for every two K+ ions to be transported into the cell


10 Cystic Fibrosis Cystic fibrosis is a disease in which the protein for active transport of Cl- ions out of cells is faulty, resulting in a buildup of Cl- ions and reduced reabsorption of Na+ ions This results in dehydration of lung and digestive tissue, increased mucous, and reduced ability to defend against bacteria.

11 Bulk Transport vesicles are required for movement of large particles (i.e. proteins, polysaccharides) in and out of cells, requiring energy from ATP.

12 Endocytosis endocytosis involves the pinching in of a portion of the cell membrane to form a vesicle inside the cytoplasm which then travels to the needed location within the cell. two types: phagocytosis and pinocytosis

13 Phagocytosis Phagocytosis (cell eating) is the bulk transport of solids into the cell Involves the use of pseudopods to engulf particles (i.e. macrophages WBC engulf entire bacteria) which eventually encloses them in a vesicle within the cell’s cytoplasm Lysosomes containing digestive enzymes may fuse with the phagocytic vesicle to digest the particles it contains


15 Electron Micrograph of Macrophage Phagocytosis of E. coli

16 Pinocytosis pinocytosis (cell drinking) is the bulk transport of (liquid) extracellular fluid into vesicles in the cell, forming a pinocytic vesicle

17 Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis
molecule binds to receptor protein on cell membrane exterior receptor-molecule complexes move within membrane vesicles form when enough accumulate (i.e. insulin)

18 Hypercholesterolemia
Hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which receptor proteins on liver cells used to remove excess cholesterol is absent or reduced in number. This leads to heart and artery disease

19 Exocytosis exocytosis moves large amounts of material out of the cell in a process which is the reverse of endocytosis some cells produce substances for export like proteins (i.e. hormones, enzymes) vesicles form around proteins created in the endoplasmic reticulum vesicles merge with the Golgi body where the protein is modified and packaged for export new vesicles are formed by the Golgi body which move to and merge with the cell membrane, expelling the protein from the cell (i.e. hormones expelled into blood, digestive enzymes into lumen of small intestine)



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