2Active Transportpassive transport is useful for many metabolic functions, but often materials need to be concentratedthis requires moving them against a concentration gradientadenosine triphosphate (ATP) provides the energy needed in this and many other processes of living cells
4ATPATP is similar to the structure of a nucleotide, except that it contains 3 phosphate groups attached to a ribose sugarenergy is released when the high-E bond between the 2nd and 3rd phosphate group is broken
6Active Transport Mechanism active transport is the movement of molecules and ions against a concentration gradientmolecules and ions bind to a protein carrier which uses energy from ATP to pump molecules or ions across the cell membranethe molecule to be transported attaches to an open binding site on one side of the carrier proteinATP is converted to ADP + P on the carrier protein and releases energythe energy causes a change in the shape of the protein that carries the solute to the other side of the membrane
8Na+/K+ Pump The Na+/K+ pump is utilized in neurons (nerve cells) Na+ ions must be higher outside the cell, while K+ ions must be lower outside the cell for a nerve transmission to occurBinding of the phosphate from ATP changes the shape of the protein, alternately providing binding sites for three Na+ ions to be transported out for every two K+ ions to be transported into the cell
10Cystic FibrosisCystic fibrosis is a disease in which the protein for active transport of Cl- ions out of cells is faulty, resulting in a buildup of Cl- ions and reduced reabsorption of Na+ ionsThis results in dehydration of lung and digestive tissue, increased mucous, and reduced ability to defend against bacteria.
11Bulk Transportvesicles are required for movement of large particles (i.e. proteins, polysaccharides) in and out of cells, requiring energy from ATP.
12Endocytosisendocytosis involves the pinching in of a portion of the cell membrane to form a vesicle inside the cytoplasm which then travels to the needed location within the cell.two types: phagocytosis and pinocytosis
13PhagocytosisPhagocytosis (cell eating) is the bulk transport of solids into the cellInvolves the use of pseudopods to engulf particles (i.e. macrophages WBC engulf entire bacteria) which eventually encloses them in a vesicle within the cell’s cytoplasmLysosomes containing digestive enzymes may fuse with the phagocytic vesicle to digest the particles it contains
15Electron Micrograph of Macrophage Phagocytosis of E. coli
16Pinocytosispinocytosis (cell drinking) is the bulk transport of (liquid) extracellular fluid into vesicles in the cell, forming a pinocytic vesicle
17Receptor-Mediated Endocytosis molecule binds to receptor protein on cell membrane exteriorreceptor-molecule complexes move within membranevesicles form when enough accumulate (i.e. insulin)
18Hypercholesterolemia Hypercholesterolemia is a condition in which receptor proteins on liver cells used to remove excess cholesterol is absent or reduced in number.This leads to heart and artery disease
19Exocytosisexocytosis moves large amounts of material out of the cell in a process which is the reverse of endocytosissome cells produce substances for export like proteins (i.e. hormones, enzymes)vesicles form around proteins created in the endoplasmic reticulumvesicles merge with the Golgi body where the protein is modified and packaged for exportnew vesicles are formed by the Golgi body which move to and merge with the cell membrane, expelling the protein from the cell (i.e. hormones expelled into blood, digestive enzymes into lumen of small intestine)