Presentation on theme: "Active Engagement Strategies for Whole Group Instruction"— Presentation transcript:
1Active Engagement Strategies for Whole Group Instruction Sarah Sayko, M. Ed.National Center for Reading First Technical AssistanceRMC Research Corp.Sheryl Turner, M.A.Eastern Regional Reading First Technical Assistance Center
2-Ancient Chinese Proverb Tell me,I forget.Show me,I remember.Involve me,I understand.-Ancient Chinese Proverb
4What is Active Engagement? Active engagement refers to the joint functioning of motivation, conceptual knowledge, cognitive strategies, and social interactions in literacy activities.(Guthrie & Anderson, 1999)Active learning involves providing opportunities for students to meaningfully talk and listen, write, read, and reflect on the content, ideas, issues and concerns of an academic subject.(Meyers & Jones, 1993)
5Active Engagement and Motivation Factors affecting the development of intrinsic motivation in a school setting:Level of challenge offered by tasks and materialsQuality and timing of feedback to students about heir workSupports and scaffolds available to learnersStudents’ interest in tasks and contentNature of the learning contextExtrinsic factors include compliance, recognition, and grades.Intrinsically motivated students tend to persist longer, work harder, actively apply strategies, and retain key information more consistently.Guthrie, McGough, et al., 1996; Guthrie & Van Meter, et al., 1996
6Active Engagement and Conceptual Knowledge Engaged readers gain knowledge and experience as they read by continually activating and extending their understanding. They apply knowledge to answer a new question or to solve a problem.Two methods of activating students’ knowledge building are:-Self-explanation Concept mappingIn self-explanation, students can orally or through writing explain and reflect on the text they are reading to improve comprehension. They can do this with a teacher or with peers. Students who can self-explain also are better at reaching conceptually higher levels of knowledge, answering more complex questions, and monitoring their comprehension.In concept mapping, students are required to integrate information from the text into existing knowledge in their minds. They are visual representations of a student’s knowledge and organize concepts and represent the relationships among concepts.Baker, Dreher, & Guthrie, 2000
7Active Engagement and Cognitive Strategies Engaged readers use cognitive strategies for integrating information, and communicating and representing their understanding.Cognitive strategies are procedures that can help students succeed at higher-order tasks. Some strategies are:-Activating prior knowledge before, during, and after reading-Self-questioning-Monitoring comprehension-SummarizingBaker, Dreher, & Guthrie, 2000
8Active Engagement and Social Interaction When children are highly social, sharing their reading and writing frequently, they are likely to be active, interested readers.Baker, Dreher, & Guthrie, 2000
9Multiple Student-Teacher Interactions The most direct way to increase learning rate is by increasing the number of positive, or successful, instructional interactions (PII) per school day.It is important that students who need extra instruction to gain skill mastery get that instruction in a timely manner.After initial instruction, teachers need to determine who will benefit from re - teaching or pre - teaching in small group and/or one – on - one.
10Model of Instructional Contexts for Reading Engagement Learning and KnowledgeGoalsSocial InteractionMotivationFormativeAssessmentTeacherInvolvementActiveEngagementCognitive StrategiesConceptual KnowledgeDirectInstructionCollaborationSupportAdapted from Guthrie et al. 2000
11Impact of Active Engagement High levels of active engagement during lessons are associated with higher levels of achievement and student motivation.Ryan and Deci, 2000Research studies have repeated shown that reading inmany classrooms is not designed to provide students with sufficient engaged reading opportunities to promote reading growth.Simmons, Fuchs, Fuchs, Mathes & Hodge, 1995
12Study Results on Active Engagement In a study examining the achievement of 792 students in 88 classrooms (grades 1-5) in nine high-poverty schools the researchers found:A significant, positive correlation between active learning environments and growth in reading comprehension, whereas the correlation was negative in passive learning environments.(Taylor, Pearson, Peterson, & Rodriguez, 2003)In a study examining the link between teacher support and student engagement and achievement in the elementary grades, researchers found:Students with supportive teachers were 89% more likely to be engaged in school than those with average levels of support, and 44% are more likely to have high levels of achievement and commitment than the average student.(Klem & Connell, 2004)Few methodologically rigorous studies examine the direct link between active student engagement and achievement. Rather, most studies investigate the link between specific strategies (e.g., cooperative learning) that incorporate active engagement instead of the overall impact of student engagement. Some studies have, however, examined the overall impact of student engagement, and these studies link active student engagement with higher achievement.
13Processing Strategy: Look-Lean-Whisper Look: Make eye contact with your partner so you know you have his/her attention.Lean: Move heads close together so you can be heard.Whisper: Speak in a soft tone so others can be heard.Archer & Gleason, 1994
14Look-Lean-Whisper Activity What is active engagement?What are the outward signs of an engaged learner?Activity 1
15Avoid Recitation “Who can tell me…?” “Who can tell me…?” also know as recitation, is used so frequently it is important to ask ourselves just how effective it is. The bad news about this strategy is that the teacher is really to only one in the classroom actively engaged with all the questions and answers; many students may be simply putting in seat time while a few students answer the questions. Tell how meaningful engagement is different for each task.Use the difference between airplane safety and an advanced chemistry class
16Processing Strategy: 10:2 Theory To reduce information loss, pause for two minutes at about ten minute intervals.For every ten minutes or so of meaningful chunks of new information, students should be provided with two or so minutes to process the information.Students can respond and discuss their current understanding in various ways.This may look familiar-you have been engaging in 10:2 throughout this presentation.Rowe, 1983
1710:2 Reflection ActivityRecord on your 10:2 reflection sheet the key ideas you want to remember about active engagement.
19Characteristics of Effective Classrooms High levels of:student cooperationTask involvementSuccessStudents need to be involved with the task presented before them and the overall difficulty level of the material being presented should allow for students to complete about 75% of the assignment successfully. When the teacher is not available to give support or feedback, a success rate of 95% is necessary.
20Characteristics of Effective Teachers Awareness of purposeTask orientationHigh expectations for studentsEnthusiastic, clear, and directLessons consistently well preparedStudents on taskStrong classroom management skillsPredictable routinesSystematic curriculum-based assessment to monitor student progressA team of CIERA researchers led by Barbara Taylor and David Pearson examined which school and teacher factors were characteristic of the schools that were most effective in terms of student reading growth and achievement in the primary grades K-3. This was a qualitative study with 14 schools from four states participating.Tableman, 2004
2110:2 Reflection ActivityRecord on your 10:2 reflection sheet the key ideas you want to remember about the effectiveness studies.
23In order for active student engagement to occur, teachers need to develop effective classroom management routines.
24Active Engagement and Classroom Management Studies Successful managers integrate their classroom rules and procedures into their instruction systematically so that they become part of the curriculum and classroom environment.Management StylesRules and ProceduresCoping with ConstraintsRoom ArrangementInterruptions
25Classroom Management Direct teaching of management routines: Pre-Planning of RoutinesTeaching Routines
26Direct Teaching Pre-planning of management routines: Room arrangement student seatingplacement of materialsWhole and small group areasEstablishing rules and procedures(ask 3 before me, etc.)Clear expectationsQuick transitions (timer, music, chime, countdown)Reduce teacher talk (hand signal, cue)
27Direct Teaching Teaching Routines Systematically Modeling Practice ReviewReinforce
28Think-Pair-Share Activity 1. Take a moment and list the procedures you have used in your classroom.2. Decide if they are Management or Instructional Routines.3. Discuss with your neighbor how you taught these routines to your students.
2910:2 Reflection ActivityRecord on your 10:2 reflection sheet the key ideas you want to remember about classroom management.
31In order for active student engagement to occur, teachers need to plan instruction effectively.
32Deep Knowledge of Curriculum Five components of readingInstructional contentInstructional designStrategiesRoutinesSequence of InstructionAssessments
33Knowledge of Student Assessment Results Assessments provide information for:Initial placement or student screeningProgress monitoring throughout the year for whole group and small group instructionDetermining individual student needsFormal assessment
34Consistent Instructional Routines Reliable and steady.A customary or regular course of procedure.Consistent routines allow students to become comfortable with the way instruction is taught so that they can concentrate on what is being taught.Academic task lie on a continuum from well-structured (having a fixed sequence of sub-tasks leading to a single answer) to less-structured tasks requiring combined knowledge an applying strategies.
35Focus on Instructional Objectives What should studentsknow and be able toDo (objective)?3. How will I, and they,know when they aresuccessful?2. How does this lessonobjective fit into the“big picture” ofinstruction this year?(Introduction of skill, review of skill,introduction of skill at morecomplex level)4. What learningexperiences willfacilitate their success?6. Based on data, how doI refine the learningexperiences?Collaborate with your grade level colleagues to share ideas, strategies, and resources. Plan lessons together keeping in mind the your own students needs.5. What resources will IUse?
36Task Analysis Is the task valid and worthwhile? Given a task to be accomplished, how do we get there?What kinds of lessons and practices are needed ifkey performances are to be mastered?Is the task valid and worthwhile?What are the skills, knowledge, and understanding that students need to have in order to be successful at moving toward mastery of the standard and completion of the task?Which students have mastered which parts of which skills?Design differentiated instruction which address the various levels of student understanding.Handout
37Anticipating Instructional Difficulties for Struggling Readers Prevention vs. InterventionWho may have difficulty with this objective?How will I monitor learning?What steps will I take to insure all students learn this objective?Effective teachers anticipate common errors that students might make and spent time discussing these errors before the students make them. We want to foresee and prevent potential difficulties rather than provide intervention later. That includes a conscience effort to regulate the difficulty of the material being presented. For example, when Palincsar (1987) taught students to generate questions, the teacher first modeled how to generate questions about a single sentence. This was followed by class practice. Next, the teacher modeled and provided practice on asking questions after reading a paragraph. Finally, the teacher modeled and then the class practiced generating questions after reading an entire passage.
38Examples of Anticipating Instructional Difficulties A teacher anticipated the inappropriate questions that students might generate. The students read a paragraph followed by three questions on might ask about the paragraph. The students were asked to look at each example and decide whether or not that question was about the most important information in the paragraph. The students discussed whether each question was too narrow, too broad, or appropriate.(Palincsar, 1987)Students were taught specific rules to discriminate a question from a non-question, and a good question for a poor one. The teacher provided the following statements:-A good question starts with a question word.-A good question can be answered by the story.-A good question asks about an important detail of the story.(Cohen, 1983)Think-Pair-Share: Review teaching scenario and discuss with left hand shoulder partner how the teachers were proactive rather than reactive in their instruction.Handout & Activity
39Group Alertness Definition: Is what a teacher does to grab the attention of all the students in a group and keep it continuously focused on the learning activity.Kounin
40Examples of Group Alertness Instead of telling students information, the teacher involves her students at every turn. As the students listen to the sounds in fan, they slid their hand from their shoulder to their elbow, then to their wrist and chorally chimed, /fff-aaa-nnn/. For rhymes, the students came up with the words themselves.During making words activities, the students manipulated their own set of letters as the teacher coached, “Let’s do tub. Listen to the middle sounds. It’s not tab, it’s not tob. It’s /ttt-uuu-bbb/. You need a letter for /u/.When the class couldn’t answer a question about how a character had changed, the teacher suggested that they search the book for a clue instead of telling them the answer.Think-Pair-Share: Read teaching scenarios and discuss with partner what the qualities of group alertness are.Handout 6 Activity 6
41Work Smarter, Not Harder Do not commit“assumicide!”(A. Archer)A. ArcherPre-lesson planning worksheetHandout
4210:2 Reflection ActivityRecord on your 10:2 reflection sheet the key ideas you want to remember about instructional planning.
44In order for active student engagement to occur, teachers need to delivery instruction effectively.
45Active Engagement and Direct Instruction Explicit and systematic teaching does not preclude the useof active engagement strategies.In fact, one of the most prominent features ofwell delivered direct instruction is high levelsof active engagement on the part of all students.
46Primary Components of Interactive Direct Instruction Teacher - directed learning.Teacher serves as the instructional leader for students, actively selecting and directing or leading the learning activities.High levels of teacher-student interaction.Students spend their time interacting with the teacher either individually or as part of a group as opposed to spending most of their time in independent study or seatwork.
47Interactive Direct Instruction: Pattern of Teaching Teacher checks previous day’s assignment.Teacher selects instructional goals and materials, and structures the learning activities for high levels of student engagement.Teacher actively teaches the process or concept through demonstrations and interactive discussions with students.Teacher assesses student progress through follow-up questions and/or practice exercises in which students have the opportunity to demonstrate their acquisition of knowledge or skills.Teacher provides immediate corrective feedback to student responses.Provide independent student practice of skill.Provide weekly and monthly reviews.Handout
48Zone of Proximal Development Definitions:The distance between the actual developmental level as determined by independent problem solving and the level of potential development as determined through problem solving under adult guidance or collaboration with more capable peers.VygotskyThe area within which the student cannot proceed alone, but can proceed to learn when guided by a teacher or an expert peer who has demonstrated mastery of the skill.Rosenshine & Meister
49Zone of Proximal Development: Teacher’s Role The teacher’s role is to assist the students in moving through the zone to become expert users of their new knowledge and skills.With less-structured, higher –order tasks, cognitive strategies can be taught to students. Cognitive strategies are supports, prompts, and guides that a student can use when faced with higher-order cognitive tasks. They serve to support students as they develop internal procedures that enable them to perform higher-level operations. They are designed to bridge that gap-the zone of proximal development-between the current knowledge that students bring to a new task and the students’ need to acquire new knowledge that will enable their problem-solving capacity and move them from novice to expert. Cognitive strategies do not, in and of themselves, provide a direct route to the solution. What they do is facilitate reaching a successful conclusion to the task. Therefore, to assist students in moving through the zone effectively, the teacher needs to be available to scaffold students’ learning.
50Scaffolding Definition: Temporary devices and procedures used by teachers to support students as they learn strategies.Scaffolding includes providing simplified problems, modeling of procedures, and thinking aloud by the teacher as he/she solves the problem. They may also include tools, or prompts, such as cue cards or checklists.
51Scaffolding Learning Gradual Release of Responsibility Model This graphic is based on work by Pearson and Gallagher (1983). In a later study, Fielding and Pearson (1994) identified four components of instruction that follow the path of the gradual release of responsibility model:Teacher ModelingGuided PracticeIndependent PracticeApplication.Teacher ResponsibilityStudent ResponsibilityC. Eisenhart
52Tips for Effective Scaffolding Anticipate student errorsConduct teacher guided practiceProvide feedbackRecognize when it is appropriate to fade scaffoldsConduct teacher guided practice: vary the context and difficulty of the task within the assignment.Provide feedback: in various means-directly from the teacher, through peer consultations or expert model checklists.Fading scaffolds: or withdraw prompts as students internalize the strategy. Teachers may also have students refer to prompts as needed, reducing the frequency of prompts or direct support.
53Types of ScaffoldingPrompts: specific devices that can be employed for learning an overall cognitive strategy-something that students can refer to for assistance while working on the larger task. (graphic organizers, cue cards, checklists)Think Alouds: teacher’s direct modeling of the strategy, including self-talk, that enables students to begin experiencing the strategy as a authentic set of behaviors/actions that can be learned to used to their advantage.Teachers’ guided practice should include use of the prompt itself, as well as guiding students in the use of the overall cognitive strategy.
54Processing Strategy: Tell-Help-Check Tell: Partner 1 turns to partner 2 and recall information without using notes.Help: Partner 2 listens carefully and asks questions and gives hints about missing or incorrect information.Check: Both partners consult notes to confirm accuracy.A. Archer
55Tell-Help-Check Activity Name the pattern of teaching for interactive direct instruction.
56Wait TimeSlowing down the questioning pace can actually speed up the pace of learning.Pause for 3-5 seconds before calling on students to answer questions and before responding to their answers.Wait time during questioning results in:Students asking more questionsAn increase in student to student interactionAn increase in length and number of student responsesContributions from struggling readersA decreased need for management because all students are engagedThe teacher asking more higher level questions and follow-up questions
57Corrective Feedback Activity Share a time with your partnerwhen you received feedback.What was the feedback?Think-Pair-Share
58Corrective Feedback is Crucial One of the chief benefits of active engagement is that it allows us to give corrective feedback.Characteristics of effective feedback:Highly specificDescriptiveTimelyOngoingFeedback is not praise, blame, approval, or disapproval. That is what evaluation is – placing value. Feedback is value neutral. It describes what you did and did not do in terms of your goal. (intent vs. effect)That’s what feedback is. No praise, no blame. It just describes what you did and did not do in terms of your goal. Harvard Assessment Seminar-chief finding about the most effective courses at Harvard, as judged by the students and alums, was the importance of quick and detailed feedback. Students overwhelming reported that the single most important ingredient for making a course effective is getting a rapid response. A second major finding is that an overwhelming majority of students were convinced that their best learning takes place when they have a chance to submit an early version, get detailed feedback and then hand in a final revised version. Many students observed that their most memorable learning came from courses where such opportunities were routine policy.
59The Feedback Link Correction can’t happen without feedback Feedback can’t happen without monitoringMonitoring can’t happen without student responses through active engagement
60Conceptual Framework for Corrective Feedback Explicit Instruction-Skill taught in a direct manner-“I do, we do, you do” procedure-Corrective feedback“I do, we do, you do” Procedure-Teacher models skill-Teacher responds with student-Student responds on ownStudent Demonstrates UnderstandingStudent Does Not Demonstrate UnderstandingApplication-Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding item and then item to provide repeated practice-Delayed check: teacher checks group/student understanding on item at later time in lessonCorrective Feedback-Directed toward group of students-Repeat “I do, we do, you do” procedure-Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding error and then error item to provide repeated practice-Delayed check: teacher checks group/student understanding on error item at later time in lessonHandout 5Student Error on Delayed Check-Teacher corrects error again-Firm up understanding by repeating the series of items preceding error and then error item to provide repeated practice-Teacher keeps track of student errors for reteaching and practice the next day-Several delayed checks may be given during a lesson for repeated practice
61Time on Task Allocated Time Engaged Time Academic Learning Time InterruptionsPost-Lesson Plan AnalysisHandout
62Perky Pace Instructional time variance Transitions Momentum Pacing is an important factor influencing student learning. Pacing refers to the speed with which teachers move students through material to be learned. Effective teachers move students briskly from step to step, keeping the steps small and easily attainable. However, be sure to allow appropriate wait time when eliciting student responses. Effective teachers more often ask a question before calling for responses and lengthen wait time to 3 seconds.
63Some Interesting Facts Students are not attentive to what is being said in a lecture 40% of the time.Students retain 70% of the information in the first ten minutes of a lecture but only 20% in the last ten minutes.Meyer & Jones, 1993Therefore, we need to make sure to engage students in active participation.
6410:2 Reflection ActivityRecord on your 10:2 reflection sheet the key ideas you want to remember on instructional delivery.
66Examples of Active Engagement Instead of telling students information, the teacher involves her students at every turn. As the students listen to the sounds in fan, they slid their hand from their shoulder to their elbow, then to their wrist and chorally chimed, /fff-aaa-nnn/. For rhymes, the students came up with the words themselves.During making words activities, the students manipulated their own set of letters as the teacher coached, “Let’s do tub. Listen to the middle sounds. It’s not tab, it’s not tob. It’s /ttt-uuu-bbb/. You need a letter for /u/.When the class couldn’t answer a question about how a character had changed, the teacher suggested that they search the book for a clue instead of telling them the answer.Think-Pair-Share: Read teaching scenarios and discuss with partner what the qualities of group alertness are.Handout & Activity
67Types of Student Responses Oral Group responses (choral)-students are looking at teacher-students are looking at their own text/paperOral Partner responses-management: look-lean-whisper-review content: tell-help-check-brainstorm: think-pair-shareOral Individual responses-Have students share answers with partners, then call on a student.-Ask a question, give silence signal, provide think time, then call on a student.A. Archer
68Types of Responses con’t Individual responses (written)-keep short-turn paper/put pencil down to indicate completion-graphic organizersPhysical responses-act out-hand signals/body movements-response cardsA. Archer
69Response Strategy: Signal Cards A good place to start is with red, green, and yellow cards which have universal meaning.Students can signal:“Stop, I’m lost!” or “Slow down, I’m getting confused” or “Full steam ahead!”One syllable, two syllables, three syllablesShort vowel sound, long vowel soundStudents signal their responses to questions, “If you think it is a ___, signal 1.” “If you think…”Variation: Thumbs up, thumbs downWhatever meanings you assign the cards, the possibilities are endless.
70Processing Strategy: Clock Buddies Students are given a graphic with slots for ten to twelve “appointments.”At each slot, two students record each other’s name.Whenever the teacher announces a time for students to process learning, a partnership is identified and students meet with their partner.This sign in period takes about 4-5 min. and provides an efficient way for students to interact over weeks.
71Phonemic Awareness Cognitive Strategy: Bead Counting Purpose:To assist students in blending and segmenting phonemes.Process:Make individual bead strings with six beads on a long cord.String the beads on the cord and tie a knot at the end.Call out a word card from a deck of word cards.Have students use their bead counters to count the number of phonemes in the word.Variation: Stack unifix cubes, use bingo chips with Elkonin Boxes,Finger/body tapping, etc.Lane & Pullen, 2004
72m, s, e, d, t ee s d Phonics Cognitive Strategy: Word Pockets Purpose: To assist students in word building.Process:Distribute word pockets and letter cards to students.Use large pocket chart to model word building procedure.Students build words using their letter cards and individual wordpockets.Letter cardsm, s, e, d, teesdLane & Pullen, 2004
73Fluency Cognitive Strategy: Choral Reading Purpose:To build reading fluency and maximize the amount of reading done per student.Process:The entire class reads one text completely and in unison.
74Alternatives to Choral Reading Refrain:One student reads most of the text, and the whole group chimes in to read key segments chorally.Line-a-Child:Each student reads individually one or two lines of a text, usually from a rhyme or poem, and the whole group reads the final line or lines together.Antiphonal Reading:Divide the class into groups and assign a section of a text to each group. Then have one of the groups read its section while the rest of the class read other sections, usually in chorus or refrain.Call and Response:One student reads a line or two of a text and the rest of the class responds by repeating the lines or reading the next few lines or the refrain.Rasinski, 2003
75Vocabulary Cognitive Strategy: List-Group-Label Purpose:To active prior knowledge, stimulate thinking, and set a purpose for learning.Process:The students start with an array of words and work to group them and then label the categories.Students discuss and compare their categories before reading and then confirm or revise their thoughts after reading.Students share out their categories to the larger group.The teacher may prepare the list of words for students to work with or give students the topic, have them brainstorm words that they associate with the topic, and work with that list.
76Comprehension Cognitive Strategy: Anticipation Guide Teacher prepares several declarative statements about a topic.Before reading, students discuss the statements, agreeing or disagreeing with them and supporting their views with reasons.The teacher remains a neutral facilitator; encouraging debate and asking probing questions that require students to think carefully about their views.After reading, students discuss the statements again, revising their responses in light of what they learned.Herber & Herber, 1993
77Sample Anticipation Guide StatementAgree/DisagreeWere you correct? Yes/NoPage NumberEvidence
78Review Strategy: I Have the Question, Who Has the Answer? MaterialsTwo sets of index cards, one set contains questions related to the learned skill, the second set contains the answers.Hint: To keep students engaged, prepare more answer cards than question cards.ProcessDistribute answer cards to students.Read one question card and say, “The question is ___ Who has the answer?”All students check their answer cards to see if they have the correct answer or a possible one. If a student thinks he/she has an answer, she stands and reads the answer.Fill in strategy matrix.
79Active Engagement Teaching Strategies Reciprocal Teaching (Palincsar & Brown, 1989)Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) (Fuchs et al., 1997)Classwide Peer Tutoring (CWPT) (Greenwood, Del quadri, & Hall, 1989)Questioning the Author (QtA) (Beck et al., 1996)Skim, Question, Read, Recite, Review (SQ3R)Handout
8010:2 Reflection ActivityRecord on your 10:2 reflection sheet the key ideas you want to remember on active engagement strategies.
81In SummaryStudies on effective teachers have clearly established that interactive direct instruction is more effective in producing student achievement gains. Students learn best when the teacher is actively teaching and interacting with students.(AFT, 2001)Teacher knowledge and skill can make the difference between a student who is successful in school and one who is not.(Ferguson, 1991)What teachers know and can do makes the crucial difference in what children learn. Teaching is the most important element of successful learning.(Darling-Hammond, L.)Guthrie’s study of active engagement concluded that engaged readers from less educated families had higher achievement rates than disengaged readers from higher educated families. The results prove that active student engagement in reading needs to be a priority and key feature in reading instruction for all students.
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