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2.4.4: Define diffusion and osmosis Diffusion: The passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until.

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Presentation on theme: "2.4.4: Define diffusion and osmosis Diffusion: The passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until."— Presentation transcript:

1 2.4.4: Define diffusion and osmosis Diffusion: The passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration until equilibrium is reached. (Molecules still move after equilibrium is reached)

2 2.4.4: Diffusion

3 2.4.4: Define diffusion and osmosis Osmosis: The passive net movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.

4 Simple diffusion REMEMBER THIS SUMMARY small and non-polar molecules e.g. oxygen large or polar or ions e.g. glucose, sodium ions Facilitated diffusion ACTIVE TRANSPORT PASSIVE TRANSPORT sodium ions, potassium ions

5 IB question: Compare simple diffusion with facilitated diffusion as mechanisms to transport solutes across membranes. [5]

6 Actual IB mark scheme IB question: Compare simple diffusion with facilitated diffusion as mechanisms to transport solutes across membranes. [5]

7 2.4.5: Passive Transport

8 2.4.6: Active Transport

9 IB Question: Describe the process of active transport across membranes. [5]

10 goes against concentration gradient / from low concentration to high concentration; requires hydrolysis of ATP / requires energy from ATP; proteins in membrane utilized; specificity of carriers; e.g. Na+-K+ pump / other suitable examples; may involve conformational change in carrier protein; moves ions / solutes; maintains chemical / electrical gradient; [5 max]

11 IB question: Distinguish between active and passive movements of materials across plasma membranes,using named examples. [4]

12

13 2.4.7: Vesicle Transport

14 IB Question: Outline how vesicles are used to transport materials secreted by a cell. [6]

15 vesicles formed from rER transport proteins to Golgi apparatus; these vesicles fuse with membranes of Golgi apparatus; proteins are processed as they move through Golgi apparatus; (transport) vesicles bud off/leave Golgi apparatus; vesicles move through cytoplasm; (vesicles) fuse with plasma membrane; contents released to outside of cell / exocytosis; cells use vesicles to secrete substances such as hormones/digestive enzymes/other appropriate example; vesicles may contain cell products other than proteins; [6 max] Credit drawings which fully explain the points above.

16 2.4.8: Endo/Exocytosis

17 IB question: Describe the process of endocytosis. [5]

18 IB question: Describe the process of endocytosis. [5] endocytosis occurs when a membrane encloses a target particle; fluidity of membrane permits movement of membrane; membrane sinks inwardly/forms pit/invaginates to enclose particle; membrane seals back on itself / edges fuse; one membrane layer / two phospholipid layers enclose particle making vesicle; inner phospholipid layer of (original) membrane becomes outer phospholipid layer of vesicle membrane; outer phospholipid layer of (original) membrane becomes inner phospholipid layer of vesicle membrane; vesicle breaks away from membrane/moves into cytoplasm; changes in membrane shape require energy; specific example of endocytosis (e.g. pinocytosis, phagocytosis); [5 max] Accept any of the above points in an annotated diagram.

19 IB question: Outline the various means of transfer of different types of molecules through the plasma membrane. [4]

20 IB question: Outline the various means of transfer of different types of molecules through the plasma membrane. [4] diffusion is the movement of particles down a concentration gradient / higher to lower concentration / is passive; osmosis is passive transport / diffusion of water; osmosis is movement from lower solute concentration to higher / higher to lower water potential; facilitated diffusion involves channels (in membranes); active transport requires protein pumps/ATP/energy; active transport is movement against concentration gradient; correct reference to endocytosis/exocytosis/pinocytosis; [4 max]

21 IB question: Explain the processes of active and passive transport that move materials across a membrane.[8]

22 active transport: lower to higher (solute) concentration / against concentration gradient; uses energy / ATP; protein pumps/channels; gives a cell control; protein pumps transport specific substances; phagocytosis / pinocytosis; example of active transport; passive transport: diffusion; from high to low concentration; low to high; (but must be in context of random movement of particles) partial/selective permeability of membrane; example of simple diffusion; facilitated diffusion; protein channels; example of facilitated diffusion; [8 max] Award [4 max] for an account that deals with only one of active or passive transport.

23 2.4.5: Passive Transport

24 2.4.6: Active Transport

25 IB Question: Describe the process of active transport across membranes. [5]

26 goes against concentration gradient / from low concentration to high concentration; requires hydrolysis of ATP / requires energy from ATP; proteins in membrane utilized; specificity of carriers; e.g. Na+-K+ pump / other suitable examples; may involve conformational change in carrier protein; moves ions / solutes; maintains chemical / electrical gradient; [5 max]

27 IB question: Distinguish between active and passive movements of materials across plasma membranes,using named examples. [4]

28

29 IB Question: Outline how vesicles are used to transport materials secreted by a cell. [6]

30 vesicles formed from rER transport proteins to Golgi apparatus; these vesicles fuse with membranes of Golgi apparatus; proteins are processed as they move through Golgi apparatus; (transport) vesicles bud off/leave Golgi apparatus; vesicles move through cytoplasm; (vesicles) fuse with plasma membrane; contents released to outside of cell / exocytosis; cells use vesicles to secrete substances such as hormones/digestive enzymes/other appropriate example; vesicles may contain cell products other than proteins; [6 max] Credit drawings which fully explain the points above.

31 2.4.8: Endo/Exocytosis

32 IB question: Describe the process of endocytosis. [5]

33 IB question: Describe the process of endocytosis. [5] endocytosis occurs when a membrane encloses a target particle; fluidity of membrane permits movement of membrane; membrane sinks inwardly/forms pit/invaginates to enclose particle; membrane seals back on itself / edges fuse; one membrane layer / two phospholipid layers enclose particle making vesicle; inner phospholipid layer of (original) membrane becomes outer phospholipid layer of vesicle membrane; outer phospholipid layer of (original) membrane becomes inner phospholipid layer of vesicle membrane; vesicle breaks away from membrane/moves into cytoplasm; changes in membrane shape require energy; specific example of endocytosis (e.g. pinocytosis, phagocytosis); [5 max] Accept any of the above points in an annotated diagram.

34 IB question: Outline the various means of transfer of different types of molecules through the plasma membrane. [4]

35 IB question: Outline the various means of transfer of different types of molecules through the plasma membrane. [4] diffusion is the movement of particles down a concentration gradient / higher to lower concentration / is passive; osmosis is passive transport / diffusion of water; osmosis is movement from lower solute concentration to higher / higher to lower water potential; facilitated diffusion involves channels (in membranes); active transport requires protein pumps/ATP/energy; active transport is movement against concentration gradient; correct reference to endocytosis/exocytosis/pinocytosis; [4 max]

36 IB question: Explain the processes of active and passive transport that move materials across a membrane.[8]

37 active transport: lower to higher (solute) concentration / against concentration gradient; uses energy / ATP; protein pumps/channels; gives a cell control; protein pumps transport specific substances; phagocytosis / pinocytosis; example of active transport; passive transport: diffusion; from high to low concentration; low to high; (but must be in context of random movement of particles) partial/selective permeability of membrane; example of simple diffusion; facilitated diffusion; protein channels; example of facilitated diffusion; [8 max] Award [4 max] for an account that deals with only one of active or passive transport.


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