Presentation on theme: "Assessing Customer Service within Institutional Departments Brigham Young University-Hawaii June 5, 2012 Candace Boice Zachary Carling Dr. Paul Freebairn."— Presentation transcript:
1 = Very Poor 2 = Poor 3 = Fair 4 = Good 5 = Very Good 6 = Excellent
Students’ comments on campus service Text analysis taken from Graduating Student Survey “When I try to obtain information or help on something, I have been constantly sent from office to office.” “Nothing can be done on campus without going to at least 3 different places and usually you end up back where you started.” “Some of the workers … were very rude to me and treated me disrespectfully.” “They seem unfriendly” “If I ever have to go to the administration building, I have to make sure my schedule is wide open, because it could take 10 minutes or 2 hours” “The [residence] check in process took 3.5 hours, far to long”
“We need to make this campus more user friendly to our favorite constituents, the students.” - VP for Academics June 1996
Why Measure Customer Service? “Higher education has been increasingly recognized as a service industry and, as a sector, it must strive to identify the expectations and needs of its clients, who are the students ” (Mello, Dutra, & Oliverira, 2001, p. 130) Institutional resources and facilities have a certain degree of influence on student satisfaction (IES, 2006 ) – Quality customer service increases enrollment, retention rate etc. (Raisman, 2002) Student satisfaction is affected by perceived value of the institution (Brown, & Mazzarol, 2009)
SERVQUAL Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V. A., & Berry, L. L. (1988). SERVQUAL: A multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-40 –22 scale items (expectations/perceptions) –Likert-type scale (6 points) –Five dimensions/factors: Tangibility, Reliability, Responsibility, Security, Empathy
SERVQUAL (Service Quality) Measures 5 dimensions of customer service TangibilityTo measure technological development like physical installation, equipment, people and communication materials ReliabilityTo measure departments’ consistency and certainty ResponsibilityTo measure employees’ helpfulness and capability to providing fast service SecurityTo measure departments’ competence, courtesy and precision EmpathyTo measure departments’ capability to provide careful and personalized attention
Applications of SERVQUAL Retailing Lodging Historic Houses (HISTOQUAL) Restaurants/Food Service Health Care Many different types of service settings
SERVQUAL in Education Howard & Sobol (2004): Service quality in six different areas Mahapatra & Khan (2007): EDUQUAL Hughey & Chawla (2003): Academic computer lab O’Neill (2003): University orientation Banwet (2004): Graduate and post-graduate students in engineering and management institutes Stodnick & Rogers (2008): “Students as customers” - classroom experience
Tangibility1.The Department has modern-looking equipment. 2.The Department's employees are neat-appearing/well dressed and clean. 3.The Department's physical facilities are visually appealing. 4.Materials associated with the service (such as pamphlets or statements) are visually appealing at the Department. Reliability5.When the Department promises to do something by a certain time, it does so. 6.When you have a problem, the Department shows a sincere interest in solving it. 7.The Department performs the service right the first time. 8.The Department provides its services at the time it promises to do so. 9.The Department insists on error-free records. Responsibility10.Employees of the Department tells you exactly when services will be performed 11.Employees of the Department give you prompt service 12.Employees of the Department are always willing to help you 13.Employees of the Department are never too busy to respond to your requests Security14.The behavior of employees of the Department instills confidence in customers 15.You feel safe in your transaction with the department 16.Employees of the Department are consistently courteous with you 17.Employees of the Department have the knowledge to answer your questions Empathy18.The Department gives you individual attention 19.The Department has operating hours convenient to all customers 20.The Department has employees who give you personal attention 21.The Department has your best interest at heart 22.Employees of the Department understand your specific needs To measure technological development like physical installation, equipment, people and communication materials. To measure departments’ consistency and certainty. To measure employees’ helpfulness and capability to providing fast service. To measure departments’ competence, courtesy and precision. To measure departments’ capability to provide careful and personalized attention. BYU-Hawaii’s Adaptation
How do we translate students’ concerns into specific knowledge for each department?
Review Schedule 2010-2011 Bookstore Security Testing Center Academic Advisor Admission BYUHSA Financial Services Counseling Services Call Center Facilities Management 2011-2012 Health Services Student Employment Career Services Game Center Insurance Language Center Food Services Ke Alaka’i (School Magazines) Mail Center Library Fitness Center 2012-2013 Alumni Services Print Services Media Lab/Copy Center Housing Travel Office Reading and Writing Center International Student Services Scheduling Office Registrar’s Office Residential Life Honor Code Office
Expanding a Small IR Office The Committee Administrators, Faculty, IR Staff, Student Leads Supervisor Student Lead Volunteer Student Lead Volunteer Student Lead Volunteer Student Lead Volunteer
Overall Department Process 1.Introduce assessment plan to department – Preview SERVQUAL – Explain how and why – Ask department to develop additional questions 2.Distribute SERVQUAL to randomly selected students 3.Analyze data, format report and share results with each department 4.Follow-up
Report sample (page 1): Demographics of respondents Methods (including data collection dates, respond rate etc.) Overall satisfaction Highest predictors of overall satisfaction
Report sample (page 3): Result of SPSS text analysis Sample open-ended responses An excel file with all the open-ended responses is sent along with the report.
Report sample (page 4): Additional questions requested by individual department
Closing the Loop Conduct Assessment Implement Action Plan Assessment Review Assessment
Follow-up Process: Review Assessment and Plan Actions 1.Short follow-up survey within 2 weeks of receiving the report reviewing the assessment 2.Interviews are carried out to see how the department plans on implementing changes based on the report 3.Department feedback survey outlining changes made
Results in Action Included more information online (airport shuttle reservations and times) Weekly email to Student Bulletin to post information for Wal-Mart/Costco shuttle Facilities Management: Working to improve the appearance of workers and office Posted report results in the front of the office Trainings with reminders to work on department-specific areas of improvement Call Center: Implementing an online appointment system funded by the university Hiring and training more student workers Weekly department meetings to discuss university policy changes Monthly meetings to help improve communication across departments Academic Advisors:
How do we use SERVQUAL to foster campus-wide improvement in customer service?
Percolate department results to higher leadership levels for a broader campus-wide impact Cyd Jenefsky November 2010
Mean Scores by Dimension DepartmentTangibilityReliability Responsibilit ySecurityEmpathyOverall Average Academic Advisor4.94*4.774.674.974.944.86 Admission4.634.234.594.654.584.54 Alumni Services4.544.674.624.544.664.61 Bookstore4.854.664.744.854.564.73 BYUHSA4.744.424.504.644.484.56 Call Center4.484.934.554.634.544.52 Career Services4.844.714.774.784.724.75 Counseling Services4.834.934.874.934.924.90 Facilities Management4.534.564.674.744.704.64 Financial Services4.533.653.884.004.054.02 Fitness Center4.434.714.394.504.854.58 Food Services4.314.534.434.614.464.47 Game Center4.214.434.534.674.414.45 Health Services4.634.234.594.654.584.54 Honor Code Office4.544.694.64 4.534.61 Housing4.08*3.59*3.974.094.023.95 Insurance4.234.384.594.564.534.46 International Student Services 4.64.874.722.214.171.124 Ke Alaka’i (School Magazines) 4.804.534.644.684.66 Language Center4.584.614.714.874.834.72 Library4.724.824.834.904.864.83 Mail Center4.314.434.364.644.684.48 Media Lab/Copy Center4.694.784.824.995.06*4.87 Print Services4.644.594.644.664.554.62 Reading & Writing Center4.945.145.085.25.085.09 Registrar’s Office4.54.794.614.844.394.63 Residential Life4.164.054.074.183.84*4.06 Scheduling Office4.194.294.394.434.214.30 Security4.163.893.84* 4.073.96 Student Employment4.414.274.324.524.484.40 Testing Center4.835.05*5.10*5.21*4.975.03 Travel Office4.454.304.464.524.514.57 Dimension Average4.534.504.544.644.584.57
Campus-wide Comparison Share annual summary report with President’s Council Allows us to see the campus as a whole Focus on strengths and areas of improvement Benchmark in the future
Strengths and Areas of Improvement Overall Campus Employees of the Department are always willing to help you. The Department’s employees are neat-appearing / well dressed and clean. You feel safe in your transactions with the Department. The Department’s physical facilities are visually appealing. When the Department promises to do something by a certain time, it does so. Employees of the Department tell you exactly when services will be performed.
Break-down by Vice Presidents’ Responsibility Administrative Services The Department’s employees are neat- appearing / well dressed and clean. You feel safe in your transactions with the Department. The Department has employees who give you personal attention. When the Department promises to do something by a certain time, it does so. When you have a problem, the Department shows a sincere interest in solving it. Employees of the Department tell you exactly when services will be performed. Academics The Department’s employees are neat- appearing / well dressed and clean. Employees of the Department are consistently courteous with you. Employees of the Department are always willing to help you. The Department’s physical facilities are visually appealing. When the Department promises to do something by a certain time, it does so. Employees of the Department are never too busy to respond to your requests. Student Development Materials associated with the service are visually appealing at the Department. Employees of the Department are consistently courteous with you. You feel safe in your transactions with the Department. The Department has modern-looking equipment. The Department’s physical facilities are visually appealing. When the Department promises to do something by a certain time, it does so.
Conclusion SERVQUAL helps foster unity of purpose within the organization Focuses on things that really matter Over time, SERVQUAL allows us to – Identify areas that need extra attention – Track performance – Evaluate impact
References Astin, A. W. (1993b). What Matters in College? Four Critical Years Revisited (1st Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Brown, R. M., & Mazzarol, T. W. (2009). The importance of institutional image to student satisfaction and loyalty within higher education. Higher Education, 58(1), 81-95. Browne, B. A., Kaldenberg, D. O., Browe, W. G., & Brown, D. J. (1998). Student as customer: Factors affecting satisfaction and assessments of institutional quality. Journal of Marketing for Higher Education, 8(3), 1-14. Buttle, F. (1996). SERVQUAL: review, critique, research agenda. European Journal of Marketing, 30(1), 8-32. Jiang, J. J., Klein, G., & Crampton, S. M. (2000). A note on SERVQUAL reliability and validity in information system service quality management. Decision Sciences, 31(3), 725-744 Mellow, S. C. B., Dutra, H. F. O., & Oliveira, P. A.S. (2001). Avaliando a qualidade de servicos educacionais numa IES: o impacto da qualidade percebida na apreciacao do aluno de graducao. Revista O & S, 8(21), 125-137/ Otavio, J. D. O., & Euriane, C. F. (2009, May). Adaptation and application of the SERVQUAL scale in higher education. Paper presented at the POMS 20 th Annual Conference, Orlando, FL. Parasuraman, A., Berry, L. B., & Zeithaml, V. A. (1991). Understanding customer expectations of service. MIT Slogan Management Review. Retrieved from http://sloanreview.mit.edu/the- magazine/articles/1991/spring/3234/understanding-customer-expectations-of-service/2/ Parasuraman, A., Zeithaml, V.A., Berry, L.L. (1988). SERVQUAL: a multiple-item scale for measuring consumer perceptions of service quality. Journal of Retailing, 64(1), 12-37. Raisman, N. (2002). Embrace the oxymoron: Customer service in higher education. FL: LRP Publications. U.S. Department of Education Institute of Education Sciences, National Postsecondary Education Cooperative. (2006). What matters to student success: a review of the literature. Retrieved from National Postsecondary Education Cooperative website: https://nces.ed.gov/npec/pdf/Kuh_Team_Report.pdf