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E-Business Eighth Edition Chapter 2 Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web.

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1 E-Business Eighth Edition Chapter 2 Technology Infrastructure: The Internet and the World Wide Web

2 E-Business, Eighth Edition22 Learning Objectives In this chapter, you will learn about: The origin, growth, and current structure of the Internet How packet-switched networks are combined to form the Internet How Internet protocols and Internet addressing work The history and use of markup languages on the Web, including SGML, HTML, and XML

3 E-Business, Eighth Edition33 Learning Objectives (contd.) How HTML tags and links work on the World Wide Web The differences among internets, intranets, and extranets Options for connecting to the Internet, including cost and bandwidth factors Internet2 and the Semantic Web

4 4E-Business, Eighth Edition4 The Internet and the World Wide Web Computer network –Technology allowing people to connect computers –Internet Interconnected global computer networks (large) Basic technology structure –Computer networks and the Internet –Underlies e-commerce World Wide Web (Web) – Subset of Internet computers Contents easily accessible –Includes easy-to-use interfaces

5 E-Business, Eighth Edition5 Origins of the Internet Early 1960s –Defense Department nuclear attack concerns –Used powerful computers (large mainframes) –Used leased telephone company lines Single connection –Single connection risk solution Communicate using multiple channels (packets) 1969 Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA) –Packet network connected four computers ARPANET: earliest network (became the Internet) Academic research use (1970s and 1980s)

6 E-Business, Eighth Edition6 New Uses for the Internet Defense Department network use was original goal –Control weapons systems, transfer research files 1970s: other uses – (1972) –Networking technology Remote file transfer and computer access –Mailing lists address forwards message to subscribed users 1979 Usenet (Users News Network) –Read and post articles –Newsgroups (topic areas)

7 E-Business, Eighth Edition7 New Uses for the Internet (contd.) Game-playing software created Limited Internet use –Research and academic communities 1979 – 1989 –Network applications improved and tested –Defense Departments networking software Gained wider academic and research institution use Common communications network benefit recognized –Security problems recognized 1980s: personal computer use explosion –Academic and research networks merged

8 E-Business, Eighth Edition8 Commercial Use of the Internet National Science Foundation (NSF) –Provided funding –Prohibited commercial network traffic Business turned to commercial providers Larger firms built networks (leased telephone lines) 1989: NSF permitted two commercial services –MCI Mail and CompuServe Commercial enterprises could send Research, education communities sent directly to MCI Mail and CompuServe

9 E-Business, Eighth Edition9 Growth of the Internet 1991 –Further easing of commercial Internet activity restrictions 1995: privatization of the Internet –Operations turned over to privately owned companies Internet based on four network access points (NAPs) Network access providers –Sell Internet access rights directly to larger customers –Use Internet service providers (ISPs) Sell to smaller firms and individuals

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11 Growth of the Internet (contd.) Internet hosts: directly connected computers Internet growth –Technological and social accomplishment –Used by millions of people –Thousands of different software packages –Billions of dollars change hands yearly –Led to World Wide Web E-Business, Eighth Edition11

12 E-Business, Eighth Edition12 Emergence of the World Wide Web Web –Software running on Internet-connected computers –Generates Internet traffic Web software: largest single traffic category Outpaces: , file transfers, other data transmission traffic –New way of thinking about information storage and retrieval Web history important innovations –Hypertext –Graphical user interfaces

13 E-Business, Eighth Edition13 Emergence of the World Wide Web (contd.) The development of hypertext –1945: Vannevar Bush: The Atlantic Monthly article Visionary ideas: future technology uses (Memex) –1960s: Ted Nelson described hypertext Page-linking system Douglas Engelbart: experimental hypertext system –1987: Nelson published Literary Machines Outlined project Xanadu global system Online hypertext publishing and commerce

14 E-Business, Eighth Edition14 Emergence of the World Wide Web (contd.) The development of hypertext (contd.) –1989: Tim Berners-Lee Proposed hypertext development project Provided data-sharing functionality Developed hypertext server program code –Hypertext server Stores Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) files Computers connect and read files –Web servers (today) Hypertext servers used on the Web

15 E-Business, Eighth Edition15 Emergence of the World Wide Web (contd.) The development of hypertext (contd.) –HTML Set of codes (tags) attached to text Describes relationships among text elements –Hypertext link (hyperlink) Points to another location Same or another HTML document

16 E-Business, Eighth Edition16 Emergence of the World Wide Web (contd.) Graphical interfaces for hypertext –Web browser Software interface Users read (browse) HTML documents Move from one HTML document to another Text formatted with hypertext link tags in file –HTML document No specification of text element appearance –Graphical user interface (GUI) Presents program control functions, output to users Pictures, icons, other graphical elements

17 E-Business, Eighth Edition17 Emergence of the World Wide Web (contd.) The World Wide Web –Berners-Lees system of hyperlinked HTML documents –Quick acceptance in scientific research community –1993: first GUI program (Mosaic) Read HTML Used HTML hyperlinks for page-to-page navigation First Web browser widely available for personal computers

18 E-Business, Eighth Edition18 Emergence of the World Wide Web (contd.) The World Wide Web (contd.) –Easy way to access Internet information Provided by functional system of pages connected by hypertext links Profit-making potential –Netscape Communications founded in 1994 Netscape Navigator Web browser (based on Mosaic) Microsoft: Internet Explorer (most widely used) Mozilla Firefox: Netscape Navigator descendant –Number of Web sites More rapid growth than the Internet itself

19 E-Business, Eighth Edition19 Estimates –More than 140 million Web sites –More than 30 billion individual Web pages Commercial business Web use increasing

20 E-Business, Eighth Edition20 Packet-Switched Networks Local area network (LAN) –Network of computers located close together Wide area networks (WANs) –Networks of computers connected over greater distances Circuit –Combination of telephone lines and closed switches that connect them to each other Circuit switching –Centrally controlled, single-connection model Single electrical path between caller and receiver

21 E-Business, Eighth Edition21 Packet-Switched Networks (contd.) Circuit switching (contd.) –Works well for telephone calls –Does not work as well for: Sending data across large WAN, interconnected network (Internet) Circuit-switched network problem –Connected circuit failure Causes interrupted connection, data loss Solution –Packet switching: move data between two points

22 E-Business, Eighth Edition22 Packet-Switched Networks (contd.) Packet-switched network –Packets Small pieces labeled electronically (origin, sequence, destination address) Travel along interconnected networks Can take different paths May arrive out of order –Destination computer Collects packets Reassembles original file or message

23 E-Business, Eighth Edition23 Routing Packets Routing computers –Decide how best to forward each packet –Router computers, routers, gateway computers Gateway from LAN (WAN to the Internet) –Border routers Between organization and the Internet Routing algorithms –Programs on router computers Determine best path for packet

24 E-Business, Eighth Edition24 Routing Packets (contd.) Routing algorithms applied to routing table information Routing tables (configuration tables) –Contain lists of connections –Contain rules that: Specify connection to use first Handle heavy packet traffic and network congestion Variety rules and standards for creating packets –Must translate packets into standard format Routers perform translation function

25 E-Business, Eighth Edition25 Internet backbone –Internet routers handle packet traffic along main connecting points (backbone routers) Three billion packets per second

26 E-Business, Eighth Edition26 Internet Protocols ARPANET: Network Control Protocol (NCP) Protocol: collection of network data rules –Includes transmission rules –Computers must use same protocol Proprietary architecture (closed architecture) –Manufacturer creates own protocol Open architecture (Internet core) –Uses common protocol –Four key message-handling rules –Contributed to the Internets success

27 E-Business, Eighth Edition27 TCP/IP Internet protocols –Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) Controls message, file disassembly into packets before Internet transmission Controls packet reassembly into original formats at destinations –Internet Protocol (IP) Specifies addressing details for each packet Labels packet with origination and destination addresses TCP/IP refers to both protocols –Used today (replaced ARPANET NCP)

28 E-Business, Eighth Edition28 IP Addressing Internet Protocol version 4 (IPv4) –Used for past 20 years IP address –32-bit number identifying computers Base 2 (binary) number system –Computers use for internal calculations –Digit: 0 or a 1 (on or off condition) Byte (8-bit number) –Octet (networking applications) Binary values: to Decimal equivalents: 0 to 255

29 E-Business, Eighth Edition29 IP Addressing (contd.) Dotted decimal notation –IP numbers (addresses) Four numbers separated by periods Four parts range from 0 to 255 –IP addresses range: to Three organizations assign IP addresses Whois server –Returns IP address list owned by an organization

30 E-Business, Eighth Edition30 IP Addressing (contd.) High demand for IP addresses Subnetting –Use reserved private IP LAN (WAN) addresses Provide additional address space Private IP addresses –IP numbers not permitted on Internet packets Network Address Translation (NAT) device –Converts private IP addresses into normal IP addresses

31 E-Business, Eighth Edition31 IP Addressing (contd.) Internet Protocol version 6 (IPv6) –Replace IPv4 (future) Not directly compatible –Advantages 128-bit number for addresses (2 28 ): 34 followed by 37 zeros Packet format change eliminates unnecessary fields Adds fields for security, other optional information –Shorthand notation system for expressing addresses (complex eight groups of 16 bits) Group expressed as four hexadecimal digits separated by colons

32 E-Business, Eighth Edition32 Domain Names Dotted decimal notation difficult to remember Domain names –Sets of words assigned to specific IP addresses –Example: Contains three parts separated by periods Top-level domain (TLD): rightmost part Generic top-level domains (gTLDs) Sponsored top-level domains (sTLD) –Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) Responsibility: managing non-sTLD

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34 E-Business, Eighth Edition34 Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols Web client computers –Web client software (Web browser software) Sends Web page file requests to other computers (Web servers) Web server computer –Web server software Receives requests from many different Web clients Client/server architecture –Combination: client computers, server computers

35 E-Business, Eighth Edition35 Web Page Request and Delivery Protocols (contd.) Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) –Internet Web page file delivery rules Web page request using Web browser –Type of protocol name followed by //: before domain name –Uniform Resource Locator (URL) Combination: protocol name, domain name Locate resource (Web page) on another computer (Web server)

36 E-Business, Eighth Edition36 Electronic Mail Protocols Electronic mail ( ) –Formatted according to common set of rules –Client/server structure server –Computer devoted to handling –Stores, forwards messages client software –Read and send –Communicates with server software Standardization and rules very important

37 E-Business, Eighth Edition37 Electronic Mail Protocols (contd.) Two common protocols –Simple Mail Transfer Protocol (SMTP) Specifies mail message format Describes mail administration server Describes mail transmission on the Internet –Post Office Protocol (POP) Sends mail to users computer, deletes from server Sends mail to users computer, does not delete Asks if new mail arrived

38 E-Business, Eighth Edition38 Electronic Mail Protocols (contd.) Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions (MIME) –Set of rules for handling binary files Interactive Mail Access Protocol (IMAP) –Newer protocol Same basic POP functions Includes additional features

39 E-Business, Eighth Edition39 Unsolicited Commercial (UCE, Spam) Spam –Unsolicited commercial (UCE) –Bulk mail –Electronic junk mail Wastes peoples time and computer disk space Consumes large amounts of Internet capacity Distracts employees

40 E-Business, Eighth Edition40 Markup Languages and the Web Text markup language –Specifies tag set inserted into text Markup tags (tags) –Formatting instructions Web client understands HTML –Web markup language Most commonly used –Standard Generalized Markup Language (SGML) subset Older, more complex text markup language Meta language: used to define other languages

41 E-Business, Eighth Edition41 Markup Languages and the Web (contd.) Extensible Markup Language (XML) –Derived from SGML –Mark up shared information –Meta language Creates markup elements extending XML usefulness World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) –Maintains Web standards Extensible Hypertext Markup Language (XHTML) –HTML version 4.0 reformulation as XML application

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43 E-Business, Eighth Edition43 Standard Generalized Markup Language Generalized Markup Language (GML) –Creates standard electronic document formatting styles International Organization for Standardization (ISO) –Adopted version of GML (SGML) System of marking up documents Software application independent Nonproprietary, platform independent Offers user-defined tags Not suited to rapid Web page development

44 E-Business, Eighth Edition44 Hypertext Markup Language Hypertext elements –Text elements related to each other HTML –Prevalent markup language to create Web documents –W3C HTML Working Group page Detailed HTML versions, related topic information HTML extensions –Features that work in specific Web browsers

45 E-Business, Eighth Edition45 Hypertext Markup Language (contd.) HTML tags –Interpreted by Web browser –Format text display –Enclosed in angle brackets (<>) Opening tag and closing tag –Format text between them Closing tag –Preceded by slash within angle brackets ( ) User may customize tag interpretations Tags: lowercase or uppercase letters

46 E-Business, Eighth Edition46 Hypertext Markup Language (contd.) One-sided tags –Require opening tag only Two-sided tags –Optional closing tag –Closing tag position very important Opening tag may contain one or more property modifiers –Further refine tag operation Other frequently used HTML tags –Graphics and tables

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49 E-Business, Eighth Edition49 Hypertext Markup Language (contd.) HTML links –Hyperlinks form interlinked pages that form a web Linear hyperlink structure –Read Web page in serial fashion –Good for when customer fills out form Hierarchical hyperlink structure –Introductory page (home page, start page) links to other pages –Leads customers from general to specific topics Hybrid designs combine linear and hierarchical structures

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52 E-Business, Eighth Edition52 Hypertext Markup Language (contd.) Scripting languages and style sheets HTML version released (after 1997) –Object tag Embeds scripting language code on HTML pages Client-side scripting –Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) More control over displayed page format –Style sheet Instructions stored in separate file Referenced using HTML style tag May be included in Web pages HTML file

53 E-Business, Eighth Edition53 Extensible Markup Language (XML) Web design tool –Web pages contain large amounts of data, lists Includes data-management capabilities –HTML cannot provide See Figures 2-10 and 2-11 –Illustrate HTML shortcomings in presenting lists XML different from HTML –XML is not a markup language with defined tags –XML tags do not specify text appearance on page

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56 E-Business, Eighth Edition56 Figures 2-12 and 2-13 –Advantages of XML list presentation More effectively communicate the meaning of data

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58 E-Business, Eighth Edition58 Extensible Markup Language (XML) (contd.) Strength of XML –Allows users to define their own tags (weakness as well) Solution to user tag definitions –Common XML tags standards Data-type definitions (DTDs) or XML schemas –2001: W3C released set of rules for XML documents XML files not intended to display in browser –Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL) Contains formatting instructions –XML parsers: format XML file for device screen

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60 E-Business, Eighth Edition60 HTML and XML Editors HTML document creation –General-purpose text editor or word processor –Special-purpose HTML editors Freeware, shareware, commercial –Web site design tools Create and manage complete Web sites Upload entire site from PC to Web server Example: Adobe Dreamweaver XML files –Created with text editor or programs

61 E-Business, Eighth Edition61 Intranets and Extranets internets (small i) –Interconnected networks –Do not extend beyond organizational boundaries Intranet –Interconnected network (or internet) Uses TCP/IP protocol set Does not extend beyond creating organization Extranet –Intranet extended Includes specific entities outside organization boundaries

62 E-Business, Eighth Edition62 Intranets Distribute internal corporate information –Low-cost, efficient Client/server model-based –Requests work same way as on the Internet Web browsers, Internet-based protocols used Reduces software maintenance, update costs –Employees computer workstations Script used to update workstations automatically

63 E-Business, Eighth Edition63 Extranets Connects company with suppliers, business partners, other authorized users –Database access, files, other information Set up through the Internet or separate network Some extranets start as intranets –Select Internet users data access –Example: FedEx package-tracking software

64 E-Business, Eighth Edition64 Public and Private Networks Public network –Public availability Private network –Private, leased-line connection –Physically connects intranets to one another Leased line –Permanent telephone connection between two points –Advantage: security –Drawback: costs Scaling problem: adding companies

65 E-Business, Eighth Edition65 Virtual Private Network (VPN) Extranet using public networks and protocols –Sends sensitive data –Uses IP tunneling (encapsulation) system Private passageway through public Internet Secure transmission: one computer to another –Encapsulation –Process of creating virtual passageway VPN software Encrypts packet content, places inside another packet IP wrapper: outer packet –VPN software installed on both computers

66 E-Business, Eighth Edition66 Leased lines not required Infrastructure required outside companys intranet Extranets sometimes confused with VPNs –VPN is an extranet –Extranet not necessarily a VPN

67 E-Business, Eighth Edition67 Internet Connection Options Internet –Set of interconnected networks Organizations connect computers using a network Internet access providers (IAPs) or ISPs –Provide Internet access to: Individuals, businesses, other organizations –Offer several connection options

68 E-Business, Eighth Edition68 Connectivity Overview Common connection options –Voice-grade telephone lines, various types of broadband connections, leased lines, wireless Distinguishing factor –Bandwidth Amount of data traveling through communication line per unit of time Net bandwidth –Actual speed information travels Symmetric connections –Provide same bandwidth in both directions

69 E-Business, Eighth Edition69 Connectivity Overview (contd.) Asymmetric connections –Provide different bandwidths for each direction Upstream bandwidth (upload bandwidth) –Amount of information from user to the Internet in a given amount of time Downstream bandwidth (download, downlink bandwidth) –Amount of information from the Internet to user in a given amount of time

70 E-Business, Eighth Edition70 Voice-Grade Telephone Connections Local telephone service provider –Most common way for an individual to connect to ISP Plain old telephone service (POTS) –Uses existing telephone lines, analog modem Bandwidth between 28 and 56 Kbps Digital Subscriber Line (DSL) protocol –Higher grade –Use DSL modem Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN) –First technology developed using DSL protocol suite

71 E-Business, Eighth Edition71 Broadband Connections Connection speeds greater than 200 Kbps –Asymmetric digital subscriber line (ADSL) DSL protocol providing broadband range service –High-speed DSL (HDSL) More than 768 Kbps symmetric bandwidth –Cable modems Transmission speeds: 300 Kbps to 1 Mbps Connection bandwidths vary Subscribers compete for shared resource –DSL: Private line with no competing traffic Rural connection option issues

72 E-Business, Eighth Edition72 Leased-Line Connections More expensive technologies –Classified by equivalent number of telephone lines included DS0 (digital signal zero) –Carries one digital signal (56 Kbps) T1 line (DS1) –Carries 24 DS0 lines (1.544 Mbps) Fractional T1 –128 Kbps and upward in 128-Kbps increments T3 (DS3): Mbps

73 E-Business, Eighth Edition73 Leased-Line Connections (contd.) NAPs and Internet backbone use: –Frame relay –Asynchronous transfer mode (ATM) –Optical fiber (instead of copper wire) Bandwidth determined by fiber-optic cable class OC3 (optical carrier 3): 156 Mbps OC12: 622 Mbps OC48: 2.5 Gbps OC192: 10 Gbps

74 E-Business, Eighth Edition74 Wireless Connections Satellite sent microwave transmissions –Download speeds (500 Kbps) –Upload handled by POTS modem connection Today, companies use microwave transmitter (150 Kbps) –Costs, accuracy improving –POTS modem upload connection not required Wireless devices –34 percent of Internet users use wireless devices

75 E-Business, Eighth Edition75 Wireless Connections (contd.) Bluetooth and Ultra Wideband (UWB) Bluetooth design for use over short distances –Low-bandwidth technology (722 Kbps) –Personal area networks (PANs) or piconets Small Bluetooth networks –Advantage: consumes very little power Ultra Wideband (UWB) –480 Mbps –Connections over short distances (30 to 100 feet) –Future personal area networking applications

76 E-Business, Eighth Edition76 Wireless Connections (contd.) Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi) –Wi-Fi (wireless Ethernet, b) –Wireless access point (WAP) Transmits packets between Wi-Fi-equipped computers and other devices within range –802.11b (11 Mbps): range of about 300 feet –802.11a (54 Mbps): not b compatible –802.11g (54 Mbps): b compatible

77 E-Business, Eighth Edition77 Wireless Connections (contd.) Wireless Ethernet (Wi-Fi) (contd.) –802.11n: Draft-N (300 to 450 Mbps range) Small office home office (SOHO) market Finalized specification: 2009 or 2010 –Roaming Shifting from one WAP to another No user intervention –Hot spots WAPs open to public

78 E-Business, Eighth Edition78 Wireless Connections (contd.) Fixed-point wireless –System of repeaters Forward radio signal from ISP to customers –Repeaters Transmitter-receiver devices (transceivers) –Uses mesh routing Directly transmits Wi-Fi packets through short-range transceivers (hundreds or thousands) Located close to each other

79 E-Business, Eighth Edition79 Wireless Connections (contd.) Cellular telephone networks –Broadcast signals to (receive signals from) antennas Three miles apart in grid –Original design Voice communications –Third-generation (3G) cell phones Combine latest technologies available today –Short message service (SMS) protocol Send and receive short text messages –Cell phones may include tiny Web browsers

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81 E-Business, Eighth Edition81 Internet2 and the Semantic Web Internet2 –Replacement for original ARPANET laboratory –Experimental networking technologies test bed –High end of the bandwidth spectrum (10 GB) –Universities, medical schools, CERN –Focus Mainly technology development

82 E-Business, Eighth Edition82 Internet2 and the Semantic Web (contd.) Semantic Web project (next-generation Web) –Focus Blending technologies and information –Uses software agents (intelligent programs) Read XML tags Determine meaning of words in their contexts –Resource description framework (RDF) Set of XML syntax standards –Development of Semantic Web will take many years Start with ontologies for specific subjects

83 E-Business, Eighth Edition83 Summary In this chapter, you were introduced to: –History of the Internet and Web –Hardware and software technology Make electronic commerce possible –How the Internet and World Wide Web work –Technologies supporting the Internet, the Web, electronic commerce Protocols, programs, languages, architectures TCP/IP HTML, SGML, XML

84 E-Business, Eighth Edition84 Summary (contd.) –Networking technologies Internets, intranets, and extranets –Types of Internet connections –Internet2 –Semantic Web project

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