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Firefighter III Ladders Lt. Rick Decorie. Objectives Identify the materials used in ladder construction Identify the load capacities established by NFPA.

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Presentation on theme: "Firefighter III Ladders Lt. Rick Decorie. Objectives Identify the materials used in ladder construction Identify the load capacities established by NFPA."— Presentation transcript:

1 Firefighter III Ladders Lt. Rick Decorie

2 Objectives Identify the materials used in ladder construction Identify the load capacities established by NFPA 1932 and NFPA 1914 for ground and aerial ladders Identify the procedures for the annual service test of ground ladders

3 Materials Used in Ladder Construction A.Metal – heat treated aluminum alloy B.Wood 1. Beams – straight grained Douglas Fir 2. Rungs - Hickory C.Fiberglass 1. Beams – fiberglass 2. Rungs - metal

4 Load Capacities A.Load is the total weight on ladder including personnel and equipment B.Maximum capacities 1. Folding & pompier ladders – 300 pounds 2. Single & roof ladders – 750 pounds 3. Extension & pole ladders – 750 pounds 4. Combination ladder – 750 pounds 5. Aerial ladder – manufacturers specs

5 NFPA Standards 1914: Standard for Testing Fire Department Aerial Devices 1932: Standard on Use, Maintenance and Service Testing of Fire Department Ground Ladders

6 Annual Service Test A.All ladders except folding 1. Horizontal bending a. Rest ladder on supports b. Test load centered over center of ladder c. Add preload weights slowly d. Allow load to sit one minute, then remove

7 Annual Service Test e. Measure and record distance from each side rail to ground f. Apply the test load of 500 pounds (400 pounds pre-1984) g. Allow load to sit five minutes, then remove h. Metal & fiberglass ladders should be measured after load has been removed

8 Annual Service Test i. Difference should not be greater than: 1) 25 feet or less -.5 inch 2) 26 to 34 feet – 1 inch 3) 35 feet and up – 1.5 inches j. Wooden ladders should not show any signs of failure

9 Annual Service Test 2. Roof ladder hook test a. Hang ladder over edge of a wall so it is hanging by its hooks b. Secure the top of the ladder to wall c. Using correct size webbing, suspend test weight of 1,000 pounds from ladder for one minute d. Remove test weights and inspect hooks for damage

10 Annual Service Test 3. Extension ladder hardware test a. Position ladder against a wall at 75.5 degree angle with at least one rung extended b. Using correct size webbing, suspend test weight of 1,000 pounds from ladder for one minute c. Remove test weights and inspect the ladder hardware for damage

11 Annual Service Test B.Strength test for folding ladders 1. Rest ladder on supports 2. Test load centered over center of ladder 3. Add preload weights slowly

12 Annual Service Test 4. Allow load to sit for one minute, then remove 5. Measure & record distance from each side rail to ground 6. Apply test load of 225 pounds

13 Annual Service Test 7. Allow load to sit five minutes and then remove 8. Metal & fiberglass ladders should be measured after load has been removed 9. Wooden ladders should not show any signs of failure

14 Annual Service Test

15 Summary Learned the materials used in ladder construction Learned the load capacities as established by NFPA for ground and aerial ladders Learned the procedures for the annual service test of ground ladders

16 Where to Get More Information FDIC, Fire Service Institute Duo-Safety Ladder Corporation Alco-Lite Aluminum Ladder Company

17 Dome (Auditorium) Raise

18 Objectives Demonstrate the Dome/auditorium raise

19 Dome (Auditorium) Raise A.Ladder is flat on floor (fly up and slightly extended) B.Extend ropes from tip of each beam C.Pass loop in rope over top of beam, down around rungs around beam to outside D.Pass loop over tip of the beam E. Repeat steps C & D for other beam

20 Dome (Auditorium) Raise F. Four firefighters are positioned near end of each guy line G. Pass rope around behind the body at the rump H. Raise ladder vertical by normal means I. The fly is extended to the desired height J. When desired height is reached, dogs are locked in

21 Dome (Auditorium) Raise K. Tension is maintained by the firefighters on the guy lines

22 From the collection of the Aurora Regional Fire Museum

23 Hotel (Factory) Raise

24 Objectives Demonstrate the Hotel/factory raise

25 Hotel (Factory) Raise A.Place ladder on ground at right angle to building B.Extend the fly one rung and attach guy rope to each beam C.Pole ladder is raised using a four person raise D.As ladder comes to vertical, firefighters on guy ropes stabilize the ladder E. Firefighters on stay poles remain at 90 degrees to building

26 Hotel (Factory) Raise F.The ladder is lowered against the building G. Firefighters on the stay poles hold the ladder against the building while firefighters on the guy ropes prevent lateral movement

27 Obstructed Raises

28 Objectives Demonstrate Obstructed raises

29 Two-Firefighter Single Ladder Obstructed Raise A.Firefighter #1 1. Assists placing ladder on ground 90 degrees to the building 2. Kneels beside the tip facing the building 3. Lifts ladder and pivots underneath it 4. When pivot is complete the arms are fully extended 5. Remains stationary and passes beams upward as ladder is advanced

30 Two-Firefighter Single Ladder Obstructed Raise B. Firefighter #2 1. Assists placing ladder on ground 90 degrees to the building 2. Heels the ladder 3. After ladder is raised shifts to one side and crouches to grasp the second rung from butt end 4. Pulls butt end along ground while walking towards building

31 Two-Firefighter Single Ladder Obstructed Raise 5. Maintains downward pressure on the butt to keep it from kicking up 6. Stops pushing when proper climbing angle is reached

32 Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Obstructed Raise A.Firefighters #1 & #2 1. Assists placing ladder on ground 90 degrees to the building 2. Kneels beside the tip facing the building 3. Lifts ladder and pivots underneath it, each grabbing a beam with both hands 4. When pivot is complete their arms are fully extended 5. Remains stationary and passes beams upward as ladder is advanced

33 Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Obstructed Raise B. Firefighter #3 1. Assists placing ladder on ground 90 degrees to the building 2. Heels the ladder 3. After ladder is raised shifts to one side and crouches to grasp the second rung from butt end 4. Pulls butt end along ground while walking towards building

34 Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Obstructed Raise 5. Maintains downward pressure on the butt to keep it from kicking up 6. Stops pushing when proper climbing angle is reached

35 Alternate Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Raise A.Firefighters #1 & #2 1. Assists placing ladder on ground 90 degrees to the building 2. Stands beside each beam several rungs from the butt and facing it 3. Both kneel and grasp the same rung

36 Alternate Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Raise 4. They stand lifting the ladder and pivoting underneath the beam and place them on their shoulders with their free hands on the beams 5. As the firefighter at the heel pulls downward they allow their hands and shoulders to act as a fulcrum 6. When butt is waist high they step forward

37 Alternate Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Raise 7. When the butt is proper distance from the building they stop 8. They place the tip against the building

38 Alternate Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Raise B. Firefighter #3 1. Assists placing ladder on ground 90 degrees to the building 2. Stands facing the butt end 3. As the ladder raises, reaches up and grasps the butt end pulling it down 4. When butt end is waist high steps forward

39 Alternate Three-Firefighter Single Ladder Raise 5. Continues to push down on the butt as the ladder approaches the building 6. When the butt reaches the proper distance stops and places the butt on the ground

40 Ladder as a Hinge

41 Objectives Demonstrate the following special use of ground ladders: Hinge for lowering victims

42 Ladder as a Hinge for Lowering Victims A. Firefighter #1 (ground) 1. Position ladder at correct climbing angle 2. Move butt of the ladder inward against the wall 3. Begin walking the ladder down hand over hand on the rungs

43 Ladder as a Hinge for Lowering Victims 4. When the tip of the ladder is reached the top rung is grasped and tip lowered to the ground 5. The stokes basket is then untied

44 Ladder as a Hinge for Lowering Victims B. Firefighter #2 (anchor) 1. Assist in securing victim in stokes basket 2. While two firefighters balance the stokes, the foot of the stokes is lashed to the top rung of the ladder

45 Ladder as a Hinge for Lowering Victims 3. Attach a life line to the head of the stokes 4. Take the working end of the rope and assume an anchoring stance

46 Ladder as a Hinge for Lowering Victims C. Firefighters #3 & #4 (assistants) 1. Assists in securing victim in stokes basket 2. Balance the stokes while the foot is lashed and life line attached

47 Ladder as a Hinge for Lowering Victims 3. Move the stokes over the edge of the roof with the anchoring firefighter feeding rope 4. Once rope clears building assist on the anchor rope until stokes is on the ground

48 Bridging Operations

49 Objectives Demonstrate the following special use of ground ladders: Bridging operations

50 Bridging Using the Three- Firefighter Shoulder Carry Method A. Firefighters #1 & #2 1. Assist in placing the ladder on a flat surface 2. Assume a position six rungs from the butt one on each side 3. Kneel and grasp the rung with palms forward

51 Bridging Using the Three- Firefighter Shoulder Carry Method 4. Pick up the ladder together 5. Pivot under the ladder placing the beams on shoulder 6. Move forward to extend the ladder over the open space

52 Bridging Using the Three- Firefighter Shoulder Carry Method B. Firefighter #3 1. Assume a position at the butt and grasp the bottom rung 2. Pick up the ladder together 3. Move forward to extend the ladder over the open space

53

54 Making a Water Chute

55 Objectives Demonstrate salvage and overhaul operations

56 Making a Water Chute with a Tarp and a Ladder A.Roll the edges of a salvage cover until the cover will lay between the beams of the ladder B.Place the salvage cover on the ladder with the rolls under the cover unless the ladder has high beams C. Position the ladder where needed

57

58 Making a Catch Basin

59 Objectives Demonstrate the special use of fire department ground ladders: Pumping operations

60 Making a Catch Basin A.Place two ladders on their beams B.Lash the tips together C.Place a pike pole across the heels of the ladder D.Spread the heels of the ladders apart to form a triangle E. Lash the pike pole to the heel of the ladders

61 Making a Catch Basin F. Place a salvage cover inside the triangle formed with the ladders and pike pole

62 Cleaning Ground Ladders

63 Objectives Demonstrate the procedure for cleaning ladders

64 Cleaning Ground Ladders A.Remove dirt with a brush and running water B.Use solvent cleaners to remove any oily or greasy residues according to manufacturers recommendations C.Rinse the ladder D.Wipe it dry E. Note any defects

65 Cleaning Ground Ladders

66 Inspection and Maintenance

67 Objectives Demonstrate inspection and maintenance procedures for different types of ground and aerial ladders

68 Inspection and Maintenance A. Metal 1. Starting at one end of the ladder check the rungs for tightness 2. Check the bolts, rivets or welds around the rungs for looseness 3. Check the beams, trusses and truss blocks for evidence of compression failure

69 Inspection and Maintenance 4. Check the heat indicator label for color change 5. Check the ladder hardware for signs of damage 6. For extension ladders, check halyard

70 Inspection and Maintenance 7. Check all braces, slides, stops, and rivets for damage 8. Check and lubricate all locks, pulleys, and other movable parts 9. Legibly mark any defects found

71 Inspection and Maintenance

72 B. Wood 1. Starting at one end of the ladder check the rungs for tightness 2. Check the rungs at the point they come in contact with the locks for any damage 3. Check the beams and trusses for compression failure and/or cracks and splinters

73 Inspection and Maintenance 4. Check for signs of dry rot or attack from fungus 5. Check for any areas where the varnish has been worn or scratched, and apply varnish 6. Check the ladder hardware for signs of damage

74 Inspection and Maintenance 7. For extension ladders, check halyard 8. Check all braces, slides, and stops for damage 9. Check and lubricate all locks, pulleys and other movable parts 10. Legibly mark any defects found

75 Inspection and Maintenance C. Fiberglass 1. Starting at one end of the ladder check the rungs for tightness 2. Check the beams, trusses and truss blocks for evidence of cracks, chips or other flaws 3. Check the heat indicator label for color change

76 Inspection and Maintenance 4. Check the ladder hardware for signs of damage 5. For extension ladders, check halyard 6. Check all braces, slides, stops, and rivets for damage

77 Inspection and Maintenance 7. Check and lubricate al locks, pulleys and other movable parts 8. Legibly mark any defects found

78 Other Information Sample Ladder Inspection Log

79 Lets do ladders!


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