Presentation on theme: "Hazard Communication 29 CFR"— Presentation transcript:
1Hazard Communication 29 CFR 1910.1200 Bradley JonesHazard Communication 29 CFR
2HAZARD COMMUNICATIONOSHA created the Hazard Communication Standard to help ensure your safety when working with hazardous chemicals.You have a RIGHT TO KNOW about the hazardous chemicals you use on the job and how to work safely with those chemicals.
3HAZARD COMMUNICATION What are hazardous chemicals, What are material safety data sheets,What is on product labels,How hazardous chemicals affect the body,What are the different types of hazardous chemicals,How to protect yourself from hazardous chemicals.“Some chemicals are more toxic than others. Just a little bit of some chemicals entering your body could harm you. Others are much less toxic and it would take great amounts entering your body to do any harm.Today we’ll cover what a hazardous chemical isWhat Material Safety Data Sheets areThe different types of hazardous chemicals and a brief discussion on how these chemicals can affect the bodyAs well as a few safe measures to protect your self while working with hazardous chemicals.
4Do I need a Hazcom Program? Do you:SellStoreTransportUse chemicals in your processOne question some folks have to ask themselves is “Do I need a Hazcom program” If you do any of the items listed above you need a Hazcom program to some degree. The degree of what type of program will be determined by how many of these listed you do, and how you use the chemicals.For example if you operate a warehouse and shipping facility that only has chemicals in your facility being stored and, awaiting shipping to other locations you may think you do not need a hazcom program but in fact you do. The program doesn’t need to be extensive but it does need to address the hazard issues if there is a chemical spill. If a forklift punctures the side of a container and chemicals spill on to the ground. What do you do? Do you know what chemicals are in the container, do you know how to clean up the spill? Do you know what types of hazards this chemical causes?
5HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS“Hazardous chemical" means any chemical which is a physical hazard or a health hazard.Most chemicals used in the industrial world can harm you in some way.WHAT IS A HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS?THERE ARE TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF HAZARDOUS CHEMICALS THAT POSE TWO DIFFERENT TYPES OF RISKSHealth hazard means a chemical for which there is statistically significant evidence based on at least one study conducted in accordance with established scientific principles that acute or chronic health effects may occur in exposed employees.The term "health hazard" includes chemicals which are carcinogens, toxic or highly toxic agents, reproductive toxins, irritants, corrosives, sensitizers, hepatotoxins, nephrotoxins, neurotoxins, agents which act on the hematopoietic system, and agents which damage the lungs, skin, eyes, or mucous membranes.Physical hazard means a chemical for which there is scientifically valid evidence that it is a combustible liquid, a compressed gas, explosive, flammable, an organic peroxide, an oxidizer, pyrophoric, unstable (reactive) or water-reactive.
6LABELING The manufacturer, The name of the product, A hazard warning, A list of hazardous ingredients“A label of course may have lots of other information not related to its hazards – amounts, advertising, directions for use, etc. But the label must include a list of the hazardous ingredients, a hazard warning and name and address of the manufacturer. Sometimes this information is on the back or side of the container.”As you can see here, this Acetone label indicates the Manufacturer, The name of the chemical, a basic hazard warning, and a list of the ingredients that make the chemical hazardous
7MSDS Sheets Names of hazardous chemicals in a product, Physical and chemical properties of the product,Physical hazards of working with the product,Health hazards of working with the product (including signs and symptoms of overexposures)ACETONEFLAMMABLE AND HIGHLY VOLATILEBURNS“The chemical hazard communication standard requires that producers and importers of hazardous chemicals develop Material Safety Data Sheets for their products. These MSDSs contain information on the hazardous chemicals in a product and come with every chemical product we use.”Each sheet is required to have certain information such as the name, physical and chemical properties, and hazards associated with the chemical.HEADACHES, EYE IRRITATION
8MSDS Inhalation The main way the chemical enters the body The legal limit allowed in the airIf the chemical is a carcinogenPrecautions for safe use of the hazardous chemical750 ppmNoMore information that is required is how the chemical enters the body. There are three options for this method we will discuss in just a minuteHow much of the chemical can be in the air or the employee be exposed to before there is a threatDoes the chemical cause cancerAnd safety measures t hat should be followed when using the chemicalUse with adequate ventilation, keep away from open flame
9MSDSWear respirator, rubber glovesExposure control methods, including personal protective equipment,Emergency and first aid procedures,The date the MSDS was prepared or revised,Name, address and phone number of the person responsible for the information in the MSDS.Eyes: flush with water for 15 minutes1996How to control the hazards associated with the chemical, Is there a specific type of PPE that should be worn?What basic first aid should be completed if you are exposed.The last date that the msds was revised. Chemicals change formula’s constantly and depending on the formula used will determine when a revision is needed to the MSDS sheet.Lastly the Manufacturers informationJohn Doe 1234 Maple St. Anywhere, USA
10MSDSThis is what an MSDS sheet will look like. You can see there is a lot of information on these two pieces of paper for a common chemical that is readily available at most home, hardware, and general merchandise stores like Wal-mart or the like.MSDS sheets must be kept readily available to any persons in your company wishing to use them. Large companies may choose to keep this information electronically which is ok as long as all personnel are aware of the means to get to the information.Companies with offsite jobsites may choose to keep a folder of MSDS’s in the jobsite trailer or pickup truck.Typically MSDS sheets are kept in multiple locations in larger facilities in a yellow binder with MSDS labeled in large letters .Many companies offer MSDS folders that also have a large white and red striped back ground for easy identification when hung on a wall or near a doorway.
11TYPES OF EXPOSURE Ingestion – swallowing the chemical Inhalation – breathing in the chemicalAbsorption – the chemical soaks through the skinChemicals that are swallowed are absorbed in the digestive tract.Chemicals can rub off dirty hands and contaminate food, drinks or tobacco products.Chemicals in the air can settle on food or drink and be swallowed.Inhalation is typically the most common way chemicals can enter the body in a work situation. Skin absorption is less common, but can occur with some solvents and pesticides. Ingestion is usually not a major problem in the workplace except in certain situations, eating or smoking near where chemicals are being used without the proper hand washing or designated smoking areas.“Where the particles or mist settles in the respiratory tract determines what symptoms or diseases will develop. Some chemicals settle in the nose and throat, some go deeper into the lungs. The chemicals that go deeper in the lungs often cause more damage. Fine dust usually goes deep into the lungs”Some chemicals are absorbed through the skin more easily than others. Also, some chemicals will have a direct effect on the skin without being absorbed through the skin.This is another good reason to wash your hands before eating, drinking or smoking.”
12Types of Hazardous Chemicals Solids:PowderDustFumesFibersLiquids:MistConcentratesMixturesGas:VaporsSome chemicals are solids in the form of powders or dust.Dust can be released into the air by cutting, drilling, grinding or sanding. and can also be stirred up by dry sweeping and inhaled.Dust in the air can settle out on work surfaces, cups, plates, utensils, and food.The settled dust can be swallowed with food or drinks.If the dust is hazardous, it can cause health problems.Fumes are extremely small droplets of metal formed when the metal has been vaporized by high temperatures (usually welding)Some solids are fibers which can be similar to dusts but they have an elongated shape (like asbestos or fiberglass)Liquids can be sprayed and form mists or evaporate and form vapors which can be inhaled.Liquid chemicals in direct contact with the skin can cause skin problems.Some liquids can be absorbed into the body through the skin.Mists can also be inhaled.Mists can settle on the skin and be absorbed into the body.Airborne mists can also settle out and contaminate food or drink.Gases are chemicals that are in the gas phase at room temperature.Vapors evaporate from substances that are liquids or solids at room temperature.Gases and vapors enter the body by inhalation.
13EXPOSURES LIMITSMany chemicals have exposure limits, or allowable amounts of a chemical in the air.These limits are often called “Permissible Exposure Limits”They are based on 8-hour average exposure or ceiling or peak levels.Levels must be kept below these limits for safety.Permissible exposure limits, also called PEL’s. The MSDS will list the OSHA PEL The limits are usually expressed as parts per million (ppm) or milligrams per cubic meter (mg/cu. meter). Employee exposure to chemicals cannot exceed these limits.”
14CARCINOGENS Carcinogens are cancer-causing compounds. Some chemicals are known human carcinogens, others are only suspected as carcinogens.There are specific regulations on the following carcinogens:Vinyl ChlorideArsenicEthylene OxideCadmiumButadieneMethylene ChlorideBenzeneHexavalent Chromium“Benzene, Vinyl chloride are rarely used anymore. Methylene chloride is found in many paint strippers. Cadmium is sometimes found in metal coatings or in paint pigments. Ethylene oxide is used as a sterilant in hospitals. Arsenic can be found in many things, but its use has dropped in recent years. Acrylonitrile and butadiene are used to make plastics. Hexavalent chromium is a special type of chromium found in stainless steel and some primer paints.All of these chemicals have been found to be cancer causing carcinogens when workers were exposed to large quantities or constant exposure over long periods of time.DOSH (California Division of OSH) has regulations covering the general use of carcinogens, and has specific regulations for several known human carcinogens.
15CORROSIVES Sulfuric Acid Ammonia Chromic acid Lye Acetic Acid Chlorine Acids and bases (caustics) are common corrosive chemicals.Corrosive chemicals are capable of damaging eyes, skin and the respiratory system.Corrosives can cause visible skin burns or damage.The extent of skin damage depends on how long the corrosive is on the skin and how concentrated the corrosive is“Corrosive chemicals may or may not have an internal effect on the body, but usually affect the skin or eyes, irritating or destroying tissue. This can also happen in the lungs if corrosive chemical vapors are inhaled.”“The longer the corrosive is on your skin, the greater the injury. The more concentrated the corrosive, the greater the damage.”“Goggles are essential to protect the eyes when handling strong corrosives. Eyewashes are required where corrosives are handled. Damage to the eyes can be minimized by quick and thorough rinsing of the eyes. The photo shows an eye severely damaged by a corrosive”“These are just a few examples of corrosive chemicals.”
16FLAMMABLE LIQUIDSThe vapor of a flammable liquid ignites and causes fire or explosion – not the liquid itself.The flammability of a liquid depends on its physical properties:Vapor PressureFlash PointLimits of FlammabilityVapor DensityVapor pressure is a measure of how fast a liquid evaporates.The higher the vapor pressure the more rapidly the liquid will evaporate.Vapor pressure goes up and down with the temperature of the liquid.The flash point is the lowest temperature that a flammable liquid can generate enough vapor to form a mixture with air that will ignite.Metals can be both physical hazards and health hazards.Some metals can ignite and explode – magnesium, or dusts/filings of other metals such as aluminumSome metals are almost non-toxic – iron, aluminumOthers are very toxic – mercury, lead, cadmium, beryllium
17LABELING NFPA = National Fire Protection Association Blue = Health Red = FlammabilityYellow = ReactivityWhite = Other hazards or special handling4 types of hazardsEach hazard has a scale ranging from 0 to 4. 4 being the worst.The NFPA labeling system is typically used on the exterior of the building to allow fire fighters and other emergency personnel know what chemicals are in the facility..Scale: 0 (No Hazard) to 4 (Extreme Hazard)
18NFPA 704 Here you can see how each hazard is rated. In the white or SPECIAL hazard box you notice the description of the hazard. This will tell if the chemical reacts with water, if it is corrosive, has a radiation exposure or other special hazard the handler or employee should be made aware of.
19HMIS LabelingThe HMIS labeling system operates on the same principle as the NFPA diamond.It also uses a numerical system from 0-4 to indicate the severity of the hazard.These labels should be used on individual containers of hazardous materialsBarrels, bottles, cans, buckets, tubs, etcThe HMIS (Hazardous Materials Information System ) is often used indoors on container labels, to give specific information to the employees using the chemicals about the safety measures and hazards associated with the chemical.There is also a 3rd type of labeling system we will not be covering in depth but I wanted to speak just a second about it. The Globally Harmonized System (GHS) of Classification and Labeling of Chemicals is a worldwide initiative to promote standard criteria for classifying chemicals according to their health, physical and environmental hazards. It uses pictograms, hazard statements, and the signal words “Danger” and “Warning” to communicate hazard information on product labels and safety data sheets in a logical and comprehensive way.Key To HMIS Label Numerical RatingsHEALTH4 Deadly: even the slightest exposure to this substance would be life threatening. Only specialized protective clothing, for these materials, should be worn.3 Extreme Danger: serious injury would result from exposure to this substance. Do not expose any body surface to these materials. Full protective measures should be taken.2 Dangerous: exposure to this substance would be hazardous to health. Protective measures are indicated.1 Slight Hazard: irritation or minor injury would result from exposure to this substance. Protective measures are indicated.0 No Hazard: exposure to this substance offers no significant risk to health.FLAMMABILITY4 Flash Point Below 73ºF and Boiling Point Below 100ºF: this substance is very flammable, volatile or explosive depending on its state. Extreme caution should be used in handling or storing of these materials.3 Flash Point Below 100ºF: flammable, volatile or explosive under almost all normal temperature conditions. Exercise great caution in storage or handling of these materials.2 Flash Point Below 200ºF: moderately heated conditions may ignite this substance. Caution procedures should be employed in handling.1 Flash Point Above 200ºF: this substance must be preheated to ignite. Most combustible solids would be in this category.0 Will Not Burn: substances that will not burn.REACTIVITY4 May Detonate: substances that are readily capable of detonation or explosion at normal temperatures and pressures. Evacuate area if exposed to heat or fire.3 Explosive: substances that are readily capable of detonation or explosion by a strong initiating source, such as heat, shock or water. Monitor from behind explosion-resistant barriers.2 Unstable: violent chemical changes are possible at normal or elevated temperatures and pressures. Potentially violent or explosive reaction may occur when mixed with water. Monitor from a safe distance.1 Normally stable: substances that may become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures or when mixed with water. Approach with caution.0 Stable: substances which will remain stable when exposed to heat, pressure or water.
20HMIS LabelingHere you can see different designations that may be listed in the special category. Different chemicals required different types of protection. For example a chemical with a “C” special class requires the employee use safety glasses, gloves and an apron when handling it.
21CARCINOGENS Signs available from multiple vendors Compliancesign.com Labelmaster.comUline.comHere are a few vendors that sell the proper signage for both NFPA and HMIS systems. They also sell DOT placarding for those of you who may need placards for your trucks and trailers transporting these hazardous materials.Summit does not endorse any of these companies specifically and there are several other resources available. If you have another resource you currently order your signage from check with them to see if they can provide you with your Hazcom sign needs.
22PROTECTION FROM HAZARDS Engineering / job specific controlsKnowing what is in the product your work withUsing the smallest amount of a chemical to do the jobMaintaining machinery and equipment to prevent leaks or releasesSome methods of protection from chemicals:Know what chemicals you are using, do not substitute chemicals because the ingredients are “close” to the same ingredients.Don’t take a 55 gallon drum of a chemical to use when you can use a spray bottle ( if its properly labeled and the chemical doesn’t pose a threat if sprayed)Preventive maintenance of equipment will help reduce spills and leaks.
23PROTECTION FROM HAZARDS Using available ventilation to reduce amounts of chemicals in the airUse plenty of ventilation when working with chemicals. Make sure equipment such as paint booths have proper fans and filters in place before using paints .Don’t leave chemical containers open if you are not using them. When moving chemicals from large quantity containers to smaller containers, make sure all products are handled and labeled correctly and containers stored properly after use.Keeping lids, doors or covers closed on chemical processes
24Personal Protective Equipment Dust masks and respiratorsGlasses, goggles, and face shieldsHearing protectionGlovesFoot protectionHead protectionAprons or full-body suitsMSDS sheets and product labels will outline the needed Personal Protective equipment to safely handle a chemical. Read and follow these requirements to reduce the risk of exposure to your employees.Some of the chemicals you use may require the use of some of these protective items.
25Administrative Controls Change the chemicals being used for less toxic substitutesRotating workers in shifts in hazardous areasSeparating work / eating areas to reduce exposureImplementation of hand washing proceduresSome administrative controls:Changing chemicals that are toxic for more “green” or eco friendly chemicals will reduce the exposure.If a hazard is present that requires certain levels of PPE be used, respirators, face shields. Etc. rotating workers in and out of the area will reduce the risk of an employee being exposed to a chemical over the PEL.Written practices for hand washing and smoking areas will reduce the risk of a worker injecting a chemical or inhalation while smoking.Specific regulations are in place for the use of Lead, Cadmium that require clean rooms, different clothing, and cleansing before a worker can enter or leave the area, as well as testing throughout the workers employment to monitor exposure levels. Blood levels are measured, and if a workers acute exposure levels are above the standard they must be removed from the area and continually monitored until these levels are back under the PEL.
26Training(h)Employers shall provide employees with effective information and training on hazardous chemicals in their work area at the time of their initial assignment, and whenever a new physical or health hazard the employees have not previously been trained about is introduced into their work area.OSHA Standard states employers must provide training when new chemicals are put into use, when new employees are hired. Training must be provided when a process changes that requires new or substituted chemicals. No annual re-training is required. Only when a process changes or chemicals change and a new employee is hired.
27Recordkeeping(d)(1)(i)(C) The medical records of employees who have worked for less than (1) year for the employer need not be retained beyond the term of employment if they are provided to the employee upon the termination of employment.(d)(1)(ii) "Employee exposure records." Each employee exposure record shall be preserved and maintained for at least thirty (30) years, except that:These standards can be hard to read and understand sometimes. IF the employee is at your facility less than 1 year. You do not have to keep the records of exposure AS LONG AS you provide those records to the employee upon termination. If you do not provide the records to that employee you have to keep the records for the 30 years outlined in the standard just below.All exposure records must be kept for 30 years for employees that are employed at your facility for a time period of greater than one year. The MSDS sheets qualify as an exposure record as well.
28Recordkeeping(d)(1)(ii)(B) Material safety data sheets and paragraph (c)(5)(iv) records concerning the identity of a substance or agent need not be retained for any specified period as long as some record of the identity (chemical name if known) of the substance or agent, where it was used, and when it was used is retained for at least thirty (30) yearsAlong with exposure records, chemical records must be kept for 30 years after the chemical is used in your facility. You do NOT have to keep the entire MSDS sheet as long as you keep a record of each chemical. I recommend keeping the complete MSDS sheet as a best practice. This can be a daunting task but will be beneficial to your company in the event these records are needed many years after an employee leaves your facility.
29QUESTIONSWe at Summit have a Reference Hazard Communication Program available. If you feel as if your current Hazcom program is lacking, or you do not currently have a Hazcom program and feel you need this in place. Speak with your Summit Loss Control Consultant about receiving a copy of this program and assistance with its implementation. This is only a reference program and will need to be customized to your facility.
30RESOURCES St. Lawrence University OSHA Washington state OSHA OSHAWashington state OSHAOklahoma State UniversityUniversity of Tennessee