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Biotech Applications in Livestock Production. Biotechnology Definition Definition The science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Biotech Applications in Livestock Production. Biotechnology Definition Definition The science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biotech Applications in Livestock Production

2 Biotechnology Definition Definition The science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals The science of altering genetic and reproductive processes in plants and animals

3 Two areas Genetic engineering Genetic engineering Reproductive systems Reproductive systems

4 Genetic Engineering is based on a technology involving recombinant DNA is based on a technology involving recombinant DNA Deoxyribonucleic acid Deoxyribonucleic acid

5 Genetic Engineering involves taking a tiny bit of DNA containing the desired gene from one organism and splicing it into the DNA strand of another organism involves taking a tiny bit of DNA containing the desired gene from one organism and splicing it into the DNA strand of another organism

6 Genetic Engineering purpose - to have the recipient organism take on the characteristic controlled by the transferred gene purpose - to have the recipient organism take on the characteristic controlled by the transferred gene

7 Genetic Engineering

8 Examples disease resistant animals disease resistant animals growth regulators growth regulators BST & PST BST & PST new drugs and vaccines new drugs and vaccines Identification / parentage testing Identification / parentage testing

9 Examples specify size and sex of animals specify size and sex of animals DNA-based genetic evaluation DNA-based genetic evaluation organism that eats oil used in the Persian Gulf organism that eats oil used in the Persian Gulf

10 Examples What are we going to look at? What are we going to look at? BST BST PST PST Cloning Cloning Semen Sexing Semen Sexing

11 BST Bovine Somatotropin (Bovine Growth Hormone) Bovine Somatotropin (Bovine Growth Hormone) Somatotropins are proteins that affect the utilization of energy in the body Somatotropins are proteins that affect the utilization of energy in the body Mainly used in the dairy industry Mainly used in the dairy industry

12 BST Introduced in the early 1980s and tested on over 20,000 cows Introduced in the early 1980s and tested on over 20,000 cows Finally Approved on November 5, 1993 Finally Approved on November 5, 1993

13 BST causes energy derived from feed to be used for milk production rather than weight gain causes energy derived from feed to be used for milk production rather than weight gain

14 BST does not reduce energy available for body maintenance does not reduce energy available for body maintenance increases energy available by improving breakdown of fat and increasing appetite increases energy available by improving breakdown of fat and increasing appetite

15 BST Small amounts of BST are produced naturally in the cow by the pituitary gland Small amounts of BST are produced naturally in the cow by the pituitary gland

16 BST Previously, the only source of BST for research has been from pituitary glands of dead cows Previously, the only source of BST for research has been from pituitary glands of dead cows Now, because of genetic engineering, large quantities of BST can be produced Now, because of genetic engineering, large quantities of BST can be produced

17 BST Gene that controls BST production is spliced into the DNA of a bacteriaAgrobacteria Gene that controls BST production is spliced into the DNA of a bacteriaAgrobacteria Is injected into a cow Is injected into a cow

18 BST causing increased BST production in the cow causing increased BST production in the cow

19 BST research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Cornell University in New York has showed possible increases of 40% over lactation (305 days) research at the University of Wisconsin-Madison and Cornell University in New York has showed possible increases of 40% over lactation (305 days)

20 Formula 20,000# X 40% = 8000# of extra milk 20,000# X 40% = 8000# of extra milk $10/cwt =$800 $10/cwt =$800

21 Porcine Somatotropin is produced naturally by the pituitary gland of the pig is produced naturally by the pituitary gland of the pig it acts as a growth regulator it acts as a growth regulator

22 PST production decreases as an animal matures production decreases as an animal matures

23 PST produced through rDNA technology produced through rDNA technology

24 PST how it works how it works A. causes an increase in cell division in muscle tissue. A. causes an increase in cell division in muscle tissue.

25 PST B. causes decrease in fat storage and increases in accumulation of protein. B. causes decrease in fat storage and increases in accumulation of protein. C. improves feed efficiency and decrease fat deposition C. improves feed efficiency and decrease fat deposition

26 Results A. increase in feed efficiency 29% A. increase in feed efficiency 29% B. increase daily gain 19% B. increase daily gain 19% C. increase loin eye area 12% C. increase loin eye area 12% D. decreases fat 33% D. decreases fat 33%

27 Disadvantage Labor and cost Labor and cost Must be injected daily Must be injected daily

28 Cloning Cloning is the process of making a identical duplicate of one individual. Cloning is the process of making a identical duplicate of one individual.

29 Cloning Very controversial Very controversial Ethical? Ethical? Personal Opinions? Personal Opinions?

30 Cloning Discovered by accident while doing research on fertility in human embryos in 1993 Discovered by accident while doing research on fertility in human embryos in 1993 Animals had been previously cloned during embryonic research in 1986 Animals had been previously cloned during embryonic research in 1986

31 Cloning Gene Dolly

32 Cloning Animals have been cloned and threatening to use in humans. Animals have been cloned and threatening to use in humans. Involves taking DNA and reproducing an animal/human from one sample of DNA. Involves taking DNA and reproducing an animal/human from one sample of DNA.

33 Cloning Started in Lab rats and then moved to sheep Started in Lab rats and then moved to sheep Dolly Gene Dolly Gene Life expectancy is uncertain Life expectancy is uncertain

34 Cloning Advantages (when works) Advantages (when works) Maintain Superior Animal Maintain Superior Animal Save endangered species Save endangered species Maximize profits Maximize profits Know what kind of animal you are going to get Know what kind of animal you are going to get

35 Cloning Disadvantages Disadvantages Life expectancy Life expectancy Moral concerns Moral concerns Idea that we are going to create 100 Abraham Lincolns Idea that we are going to create 100 Abraham Lincolns Little research due to regulations Little research due to regulations

36 Cloning So…where are we going with cloning? So…where are we going with cloning?

37 Cloning Factory Farming Factory Farming Attempt to clone large group of chickens Attempt to clone large group of chickens August 15, 2001 August 15, 2001

38 Cloning Billions of clones could be produced each year to supply chicken farms with birds that all grow at the same rate, have the same amount of meat and taste the same'' Billions of clones could be produced each year to supply chicken farms with birds that all grow at the same rate, have the same amount of meat and taste the same''

39 Cloning Future Future Government regulations are restrictive Government regulations are restrictive Not very promising Not very promising Personal Opinions Personal Opinions

40 Semen Sexing Determining sex of animal before animal is born Determining sex of animal before animal is born Work with X and Y chromosome Work with X and Y chromosome

41 Semen Sexing Two ways Two ways A. E xtract one cell from an early embryonic stage and with the use of a DNA probe, one can determine the sex A. E xtract one cell from an early embryonic stage and with the use of a DNA probe, one can determine the sex

42 Semen Sexing B. sorting of semen, one sperm at a time, into males and females B. sorting of semen, one sperm at a time, into males and females detecting by laser beam detecting by laser beam X sperm glows brighter X sperm glows brighter

43 Semen Sexing Advantages Advantages Can eliminate unwanted sex Can eliminate unwanted sex Maternal over Terminal Maternal over Terminal Females vs. Males Females vs. Males

44 Semen Sexing Disadvantages Disadvantages Cost Cost Labor Labor Limited Sources Limited Sources Accuracy Accuracy

45 Genetic Engineering Questions on genetic engineering? Questions on genetic engineering? BST BST PST PST Cloning Cloning Semen Sexing Semen Sexing


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