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The Rise of Greek Civilization

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1 The Rise of Greek Civilization
Week 2: The Rise of Greek Civilization

2 Introduction: Greek Legacies
Scientific research Philosophy Fine arts (art, architecture, literature, drama, poetry) Democracy Value of the individual Toleration of dissent/open criticism Competitive spirit

3 Timeline

4 Early History of Greece
Bronze Age civilizations of Crete (Minoan) Greek mainland (Mycenean) Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

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6 Timeline: Bronze Age Greece

7 Minoan Civilization Peaceful, Prosperous society
Named for Minos, legendary king of Crete (cf. the Minotaur, the Labyrinth, Daedalus & Icarus) Flourished ca – 1500 BCE Linear A Island location: Large fleet Isolated position The palaces fulfilled a plethora of functions: they served as centres of government, administrative offices, shrines, workshops, and storage spaces (e.g., for grain). One of the most notable contributions of Minoans to architecture is their unique column, which was wider at the top than the bottom. Peaceful, Prosperous society

8 Minoan Civilization The palaces fulfilled a plethora of functions: they served as centres of government, administrative offices, shrines, workshops, and storage spaces (e.g., for grain). One of the most notable contributions of Minoans to architecture is their unique column, which was wider at the top than the bottom.

9 What happened to the Minoans?
Minoan Civilization ? What happened to the Minoans? The palaces fulfilled a plethora of functions: they served as centres of government, administrative offices, shrines, workshops, and storage spaces (e.g., for grain). One of the most notable contributions of Minoans to architecture is their unique column, which was wider at the top than the bottom.

10 Mycenean Civilization
Flourished ca BCE Linear B City-states (Mycenae, Pylos, Athens, etc.) More war-like Wealthy *Trojan War*

11 Mycenaean Civilization
What happened to the Mycenaeans? Weakened from war, raids, internal conflict? Dorian tribes invade? The palaces fulfilled a plethora of functions: they served as centres of government, administrative offices, shrines, workshops, and storage spaces (e.g., for grain). One of the most notable contributions of Minoans to architecture is their unique column, which was wider at the top than the bottom.

12 Greek Dark Ages!

13 Greek Dark Ages Chaos, displacement (Dorians move in, conquer or kick out inhabitants) Illiteracy returns (lack of written records) Poverty (crude architecture) Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

14 World of the Dark Ages Government
Kings have to consult council of nobles Society Class division: nobles, thetes, landless laborers, slaves Importance of religion Values Manliness, courage, excellence → personal honor Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

15 Birth of the Polis Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

16 Birth of the Polis Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

17 The Polis Central focus of political, cultural, religious, social life → citizens intensely loyal to polis Main qualities: Self-sufficient, politically independent unit Small scale Tightly-knit, personal Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

18 The Polis On the positive side: People work hard for the state
On the negative side: Rivalries & wars between poleis Also, internal class conflicts Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

19 Common Greek Identity Language Religion, customs
Athletic contests honoring the gods City-states form leagues Delphic Amphityony Peloponnesian League Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

20 Timeline

21 Age of Colonization Colonize!
New agriculture types > population growth Land can’t support population > farmers go into debt What to do with the surplus population? Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as… Colonize!

22 Age of Colonization Site for the colony (good soil, enough natural resources, defensible land, good spot for trade) Independent, but close ties to the mother city (metropolis) Settled all around Mediterranean Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

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24 Age of Colonization Colonies relieved population pressures
Less overcrowding > easier for farmers Provided resources to mother cities Supported craftsman (making goods for export) Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

25 Age of Colonization Fostered sense of cultural identity (Panhellenic spirit) Comparing selves with people from other areas (barbarians) Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

26 Question! The Greek colonization movement around 750 BCE occurred primarily because of: Fear of the Dorian invasion Overpopulation of Greek lands Need to escape from internal disputes between city-states Desire to trade and make money

27 Answer! The Greek colonization movement around 750 BCE occurred primarily because of: Fear of the Dorian invasion Overpopulation of Greek lands Need to escape from internal disputes between city-states Desire to trade and make money

28 Hoplite Phalanx A compact formation of heavily armored soldiers (“hoplites”) with spears & overlapping shields Hoplites included farmers, craftsmen, merchants Crucial for development of poleis & for colonization Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

29 Hoplite Phalanx Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

30 New Concept of Warfare Battles become short, brutal, head-on clashes
Wars resolved quickly Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

31 Rise of Greek Democracy
Two main paths to democracy: In agricultural poleis, farmer-hoplites gain more political power gradually, peacefully In commercial poleis, disgruntled nobles (w/ frustrated middle class) seize power, set up tyranny; later, a revolution and tyrant replaced by more democratic government Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

32 Early Greek Democracy High value placed on equality (at least among citizens) Polis largely dominated by middle class (small landholders, merchants, craftsmen) Scope and damage of war limited by hoplite style of warfare Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

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34 Important Poleis Sparta Athens
Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

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37 Rise of Sparta Instead of colonizing, conquered neighboring Messenians
First Messenian War, ca. 725 BCE Second Messenian War, ca. 650 BCE Turned Messenians into slave-farmers (Helots) Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

38 Rise of Sparta Constantly on guard against Helot revolt
Became military state This shaped many aspects of Spartan society… Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

39 Rise of Sparta Infants Would be inspected for weakness, defects
State judged whether should live or die Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

40 Rise of Sparta Boys Age 7 – go to live in barracks
Age 12 – Spartan training truly begins Age 18 – two years in secret police Age 20 – enter army Age 30 – full citizen Age 50 – able to move home Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

41 Rise of Sparta Girls Arduous training and exercise in order to bear strong, healthy children Supervise Helots and run farms More liberated, outspoken, free Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

42 Rise of Sparta Government Two kings – lead army
Five officials (ephors) + council of elders Assembly of all Spartan men – vote on issues Incredibly stable system, with checks & balances Led Peloponnesian League Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

43 Rise of Sparta Produced incredible soldiers Physical prowess
Discipline Intense training Loyal to the polis above all Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

44 Question! The Spartans felt compelled to make the army the primary focus of their society because: Of the threat of conquest by Corinth Of the danger of a Persian invasion They wanted to conquer the Peloponnesus Of the threat of rebellion by their slaves

45 Answer! The Spartans felt compelled to make the army the primary focus of their society because: Of the threat of conquest by Corinth Of the danger of a Persian invasion They wanted to conquer the Peloponnesus Of the threat of rebellion by their slaves

46 Athens Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

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49 Rise of Athens When Attica was united, conquered people made Athenian citizens (cf Spartan Helots) Aristocratic rule, council of nobles Archons (magistrates), but limited power 632 BCE Cylon attempts a coup 621 BCE Draco commissioned to write laws 600 BCE Solon given powers to reform state Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

50 Solon’s Economic Reforms
Outlawed export of grain, encouraged olive & grape cultivation Profits used to import grain from Black Sea Developed trade & manufacturing in Athens Especially pottery Abolished debts & debt slavery Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

51 Solon’s Political Reforms
Wealth, not birth, now determined whether someone could hold public office Council of 400 (includes middle classes) Poorest citizens admitted into popular assembly and juries Citizenship extended to immigrant tradesmen, merchants, artisans Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

52 The Tyrant Peisistratus
After several failed tries, seizes power in 546 BCE Public works and urban improvement ~ provided lower classes with land & jobs on building projects Economic prosperity ~ secured grain supply by gaining control of town in Black Sea region ( → eventual clash with Persia) The arts Had scholars compile the definitive Iliad Greek tragic drama evolved Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

53 Fall of Tyranny in Athens
Peistratus’s son Hippias ruled oppressively Hippias driven out by Spartan soldiers Spartans driven out by Cleisthenes Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

54 Cleisthenes’s Reforms
Established 10 tribes to break up old factions Only loyalty to Athens remained Council of 400 becomes council of 500 Gives popular assembly (of all Athenian citizens) more power Main law-making body Financial & foreign affairs duties Open debates Also on islands of the Aegean, but nothing as influential as…

55 Timeline


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