Presentation on theme: "Cultures, Generations, Communications MICM Lectures Utrecht / The Hague 15 / 28 November 2006 Henk Vinken www.henkvinken.nl."— Presentation transcript:
Cultures, Generations, Communications MICM Lectures Utrecht / The Hague 15 / 28 November 2006 Henk Vinken www.henkvinken.nl
This Lecture Definitions and relations of dimensions of cultures : Hofstede & Inglehart Break Dynamics: cultural change and generations Culture and communications End Before, during, after this lecture: Interrupt, question, criticize as often as possible !!!
Cultures Culture belongs to a collective : a group, an organisation, a nation Culture is transferred from generation to generation : it is not congenital, but learned Culture is a guiding principle : it influences people’s behaviour
Cultures Core element : values (change slowest) Also : heroes, symbols, rituals (change faster) Value: fundamental tendency to prefer a certain state of affairs over another; the desired (vs. the desirable); that what is regarded good, beautiful, true
Cultural dimensions Latent (non-observable) collections of several interrelated values with which to compare groups, etc. Researchers seek to find the smallest set of dimensions (7, 5 or 2) with which to explain biggest set of behaviours
Hofstede Hofstede’s five dimensions of national cultures 1 Power distance (pdi) : equality or inequality ? 2 Uncertainty avoidance (uai) : ambiguity or certainty ? 3 Collectivism/Individualism (idv) : together or solo ? 4 Femininity/Masculinity (mas) : caring men and women or caring women and assertive men ? 5 Short/Long-term orientation (lto) : rewards now or later ? gender identity hierarchy virtue truth
FIGURE 1 : mas & uai in europe fem : Well-being Quality of life Modesty caring & compromise mas Achievement Material growth Ambition assertiveness uncertainty tolerant : What is different is interesting Tolerance more truths Easy with rules uncertainty avoidant : What is different is dangerous Xenophobia one truth Respect for rules gre sla cze ire pol tur por spa ita aus fra bel gb swi den nor fin nl swe wgwg rom hun bul rus est Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502.
FIGURE 2 : mas & idv in europe (in work domain) fem : empathy Instrumental work values Promotion by achievement Quality of Life Separation work-private life Service mas : challenge Material work values Promotion by protection Wealth and getting ahead Mix work-private life Leadership idv : individual What I want is what all want Task above relationships Work relations business-like Success = Personal excellence col : group Group needs unique Relationship above task Work relations moralistic Success = Conformism gre sla cze ire pol tur por spa ita aus fra bel gb swi den nor fin nl swe wd rom hun bul rus est Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502.
FIGURE 3 : pdi & idv In europe low pdi : equal treatment Decentralized power Student centered Pragmatic relations Rejection privileges / status symbols Boss: resourceful democrat high pdi : obedience / authority Centralized power Teacher centered Emotional relations Privileges and status symbols popular Boss: well-meaning autocrat (father) idv : individual What I want is what all want Task above relationships Work relations business-like Success = Personal excellence col : group Group needs unique Relationship above task Work relations moralistic Success = Conformism gre sla cze ire pol tur por spa ita aus fra bel gb swi den nor fin nl swe wd rom hun bul rus est Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502. ido chi bra gre sla cze ire pol tur por spa ita aus fra bel gb swi den nor fin nl swe wg rom hun bul rus est Source: Own analyzes based on Hofstede, 2001: 500-502.
Inglehart Modernization : from traditional to secular-rational authority Postmodernization : from survival to self-expression (postmaterialism) Plotting an increasing number of nations on these 2 dimensions with the World Values Survey (wvs)
FIGURE 4 : inglehart in europe survival : Economic and physical security Unhappy Have/would not sign petitions Homosexuality unjustifiable Low personal trust self-expression : quality-of-life Happy Have/would sign petitions Homosexuality justifiable High personal trust sec-rat authority : God unimportant indepen- dence and determination Weak national pride Permissiveness Less respect for authority trad authority : God important obedience and faith Strong national pride Strict moral rules More respect for authority nir ire pol tur por spa ita aus fra bel gb swi den ice nor fin nl swe wd od rom hun lit slo bul blr rus czs lat est Source: Own analyzes based on estimates derived from Inglehart, 1997: 93.
Summary pdi individual control survival/self-expression gap east-west west : value self- determination, need for autonomy uai, mas group integration trad/sec-rat authority gap north-south south : normative, favour big, all- encompassing organisations Dekker e.a. 2006 Europese Verkenningen 4 [European Outlook 4] The Hague: Sdu/Ministery of Foreign Affairs
Dynamics Impression: cultures change, e.g., in NL … higher mas & uai less empathy & quest for one truth (assertive ‘macho’ call for ‘integration’= adaptation to a monoculture) yet: emotional debate less self-expression, more traditional authority (limit public nuisance, more law enforcement, defense of ‘old’ securities)
Dynamics Assumptions: cultural diversity … is stable across time (distances between cultures are stable) Hofstede data: likely for pdi & uai, unlikely for idv & mas is changing over time (distances decrease and/or increase) Inglehart data: no simple, uni- directional change
Generations Vehicles of cultural change = Generations Generations emerge when conscious of novelty of shared history ánd destiny (members remain different when growing old) New generations provide new answers to newly arising problems / challenges Cultures change by generational replacement (old die, new take over)
The pace of change Generation formation relates to pace of change 1 Slow : Continuation of tradition (no new answers needed / no new generations ) 2 Moderate : New cultures (new answers / generations ) 3 Fast : Constant innovation (new answers do not spread / no new generations ) In the midst of phase 3, or all youth merge in one superculture ?
The rise of a McWorld generation ? Globalization yields one similar global culture Presupposes acceptance of globalization (other responses: rejection, coexistence, synthesis) (e.g., ‘Davos’ culture in business/academic world) The McWorld generation (participation in global modernity) (engagement in pop culture / media) (similar in valeus and choices) Evidence ? (young generations from different cultures should be more similar)
whole population young people (born 1970-1987) source: world values survey/european values study 1999-2000
Preliminary conclusions Across the board : Young people close to national responses Which are very different in both Western and Asian societies Especially so on values of child rearing Less so on gendered values of combining work and family life Young generation NOT clear forerunner of value convergence Preliminary : survey studies have limitations Preliminary : repeat analysis with dimensions Preliminary: use repeated surveys to see if generations change
Communications Focus on individualism / collectivism (idv / col) On self-expression / survival ? idv : sample cues ‘inside’ persons (personal beliefs, attitudes, values) : behavior shaped by attitude (individual traits fixed : change situation) col : sample cues about events/groups (norms, roles, situations agreements) : behavior shaped by duties (situation fixed : adaptable self)
Communications idv : sample content of communication (verbal) col : sample context (level of voice, eye contact, emotional expression, the non-verbal) The self (I am busy) The other (my co-students think I am busy) Beware of prejudice and stereotyping ! Statements on cultures are not on individuals
Discussion All people want the same out of life; culture doesn’t matter I am different than others in my culture of origin, c.q. my cultural origin is not telling you who I am Understanding cultural diversity doesn’t help much in communication