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‘Reading’ picture stories Explorations in Picture Story Tasks of the LESLLA Learner Susanna Strube, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands,

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Presentation on theme: "‘Reading’ picture stories Explorations in Picture Story Tasks of the LESLLA Learner Susanna Strube, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands,"— Presentation transcript:

1 ‘Reading’ picture stories Explorations in Picture Story Tasks of the LESLLA Learner Susanna Strube, Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands, svenemastrube@casema.nl

2 Introduction Little research on the Leslla classroom Mezirow, Dakenwald, and Knox (1975) Beder and Medina (2001) Condelli, Wrigley et al. (2003) Kurvers and Van der Zouw (1990) Strube

3 Research focus The research project strives to find those characteristics which are specific for the Leslla learner in an educational setting. The focus is on oral skills practice.

4 Method - design Longitudinal study Based on classroom observation (during one school year) Pre- and post assessments

5 Method - Participants Five centers of adult education Six literacy classes Six literacy teachers 68 literacy students

6 Participants - selection Selection based on: Type of classroom organization (oral and written skills) Geographical location Institution size Classroom size

7 Classroom organization Type 1Type 2Type 3 lesson time allotted to oral and written skills 50% - 50% not fixed placement of students according to level in each skill class stays together materialsspecific materials for each skill various materials

8 Nova College – 1 ROC Amsterdam – 1 Nova College – 3 ROC Midden Nederland – 3 ROC Rijn IJssel – 2 ROC de Leijgraaf – 2

9 Learner Characteristics of Literacy Students, January 2007. Classroom (and type) Age Mean GenderCountry of origin Years of schooling L1 DSL Mean Mean Years in the Netherlands Mean 1 (1)35.314 Fvarious1.70.89.3 2 (1)41.011 Fvarious0.31.34.9 3 (2)46.46 F 1 M various1.1 2.6 4 (2)33.010 F 1 M various3.80.83.8 5 (3)48.013 F12 Morocco 1 Russia 0.61.315.4 6 (3)42.811 F10 Morocco 1 Turkey 01.814.5 Totals/ averages 41.065 F 3 M 1.31.28.4

10 Classroom data Observation Classroom structure Audio recordings Classroom instructional interaction Learner data Learner background Pre- and post assessments Data collection

11 Assessments Interview Vocabulary – receptive and productive Retention task Picture description task Picture story task

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13 Analysis picture story tasks Relevance Coherence Morphosyntax

14 Relevance A relevant utterance is one in which the words of the speaker have a direct bearing on the picture; the relationship between what is said by the speaker and what is seen in the picture can easily be perceived.

15 Minimal distinctive elements for a picture story task. EntitiesActivities/ properties man woman gift give woman gift hold woman gift open woman vase take

16 Minimal distinctive elements - illustrated Picture storyMinimal distinctive elementsStory told by Royah Story told by Asomi EntitiesActivities/ properties man, woman, gift give Gift. (partially relevant) This man gives gift for this woman. (relevant) woman, giftholdAlso gift take. (partially relevant) This woman look at gift. (partially relevant) woman, giftopenThat maybe T-shirt or so. (not relevant) This woman open the gift. (relevant) woman, vasetakeThat vase. (partially relevant) This woman take the mug. (relevant) RelevancePartially and non- relevant utterances Relevant and partially relevant utterances

17 Minimal distinctive elements for 14 students for one picture story Student Entities (n=56)Activities and properties (n=56) RelevantPartially relevant Not relevant RelevantPartially Relevant Not relevant 1013310110033 2003212010043 3221111430001 4400400331100 5003113100034 6103301220022 7003212220022 8111320110033 9014102000044 10440000330011 11003410330011 12000143100034 13022121020042 14002123100133 Total12112827161822211233 Ass. 1 Ass. 2 21.4% 19.6% 50.0% 48.2% 28.6% 32.1% 39.3% 37.5% 1.8% 3.6% 58.9%

18 Coherence Coherence concerns the continuity of a text. In this case a text is the whole picture story. Throughout, the utterances for the picture story must in some way be connected and it must be easy to infer the relationships between them. Explicit - cohesive elements and deictic markers Implicit - reasoning and mutual knowledge

19 Explicit coherence - cohesion Linguistic devices that connect utterances. (Halliday and Hassan, 1979) Reference - I wash my apple before eating it. Substitution - I like red apples, but my friend likes green ones. Ellipsis - I bought red apples, but my friend green ones. Conjunction - She washed her apple and ate it. Then put on her coat to go to school. Lexical cohesion – I eat a lot of fruit. Just yesterday I ate six apples.

20 Implicit coherence John can open Bill’s safe. He knows the combination. Hobbs, J. R. (1979)

21 Coherence in three picture stories Picture story Story told by Royah Story told by Yamina Story told by Asomi Gift.Gift, gift. I uuh give. This man gives gift for this woman. Also gift take.I here to house.This woman looks at gift. That maybe T- shirt or so. Broken.This woman open the gift. That vase.Jug uuh jug.This woman take the mug. CoherenceNon-coherent story Coherent story

22 Coherence – a comparison LearnersPercentage Coherence Strube studyAss. 1 Ass. 2 2 (n=14) 14.3% Kurvers studyLiterates Pre-schoolers Illiterates 19 (n=19) 14 (n=19) 9 (n=20) 100.0% 73.7% 45.0%

23 Morphosyntaxis – focus on verb Syntaxis Verb presence Verb position Agent presence Morphology Uninflected Inflected – correct Inflected - incorrect

24 Morphosyntax in the picture stories Picture storyStory told by Royah Story told by Yamina Cadeautje. Gift. Cadeautje, cadeautje. Ik uuuh geef. Gift, gift. I uuh give. Ook cadeautje pakken. Also gift take. Ik hier naar huis. I here to house. Die misschien T-shirt of zo. That maybe T- shirt or so. Kapot. Broken. Die vaas. That vase. Kan uuuh kan. Jug uuh jug.

25 Morphosyntax in the picture stories Picture story Story told by Gita Story told by Asomi De meneer voor deze vrouw doorgeef cadeautje. The man for this woman pass on gift. Deze meneer geeft cadeautje voor deze mevrouw. This man gives gift for this woman. De vrouw cadeautje halen. The woman gift get. Deze mevrouw kijkt naar cadeautje. This woman looks at gift. Dan kom voor thuis misschien openmaken. Then come for home maybe to open. Deze mevrouw open de cadeautje. This woman open the gift. Dan kijk mooie, de naam weet ik niet. Then look pretty, the name I don’t know. Deze mevrouw pakken de beker. This woman take the mug.

26 Verb use in four picture stories RoyahYaminaGitaAsomi Maximum scores 1. Verb present1144 4 2. Verb position correct0124 4 3. Agent present0124 4 4. 1 + 2 + 30124 4 5. Uninflected121 6. Inflected – correct112 7. Inflected - incorrect11

27 Verb use in picture story of 14 students Assessment 1 Assessment 2 Average Assessment 1 + 2 1.Verb present58.9%67.9%63.4% 2.Verb position correct54.5%42.1%48.3% 3. Agent present54.5%55.3%54.9% 4. 1 + 2 + 342.4%28.9%35.7% 5. Uninflected63.6%60.5%62.1% 6. Inflected – correct9.1%5.3%7.2% 7. Inflected – incorrect27.2%34.2%30.7%

28 Noteworthy characteristics Telling characteristics Picture-by-picture telling Overuse of deictic elements Picture misinterpretation Dialoging Overall lack of coherence Verb use ca. 60% of the utterances contained a verb Verb position usually incorrect Agent usually absent Prominent use of uninflected verbs - little verb inflection


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