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What do teachers do? A look at the oral skills practices in the non-literate adult L2 classroom Susanna Strube - Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

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Presentation on theme: "What do teachers do? A look at the oral skills practices in the non-literate adult L2 classroom Susanna Strube - Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands."— Presentation transcript:

1 What do teachers do? A look at the oral skills practices in the non-literate adult L2 classroom Susanna Strube - Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands –

2 Classroom organization oral skills Type 1Type 2Type 3 lesson time allotted to oral skills 50%aimed at 50%not fixed placement of students according to oral skills level class stays together materialsoral skills materials various materials

3 Classroom activities TypeTopicMaterials Classroom 11Weekend storyNone Classroom 21Weather and news of the weekNone Classroom 32The houseFloor plan Classroom 42Shopping ( products and packaging ) Work sheet and real objects Classroom 53Routines and the calendarNone Classroom 63Making sentencesReal objects

4 Classroom interaction Real conversation A: What time is it? B: It’s ten o’ clock. A: Thanks. Classroom talk A: What time is it? B: It’s ten o’ clock. A: That’s right.

5 The IRF/E exchange pattern Iinitiativeteacher’s input Rresponsestudent’s response F/E feedback/follow-up/evaluation teacher’s reaction

6 IRF in the classroom - basic T:Welke maand meisjes, maand februari? (Initiative) Which month girls, month February? S:Twee. (Response) Two. T:Maand twee, maand, twee. (Follow-up) Month two, month two. [N3/3:3]

7 IRF in the classroom – extended T:Wat doe jij met de kelder?(Initiative) What do you do with the cellar? S:Ja, kelder, uuh.(Response) Yes, cellar, uuh. T:Wat zet jij in de kelder?(re-Initiative) What do you put in the cellar? T:Wat zet jij er in?(re-Initiative) What do you put in it? S:Boodschappen.(Response) Groceries. T:Ja, de extra boodschappen.(Follow-up) Yes, the extra groceries. [Lg2/3:2]

8 Types of questions -1 Referential questions [Real or genuine questions] Answers not known by teacher Responses not restricted in form More than a few words What did you do yesterday? Display questions [Test or tutorial questions] Answers known by teacher Responses restricted in form Short answers Routine type of questions Check for understanding What day is it today?

9 Types of questions -2 Open questions Require more than a ‘yes’or ‘no’ answer Often wh-questions What did you do yesterday? Closed questions ‘Yes/no’questions Only one possible answer Simple multiple choice questions What day is it today? Is today Friday?

10 Types of questions OpenClosed Referential Referential open (ro) Where will you go this afternoon? Referential closed (rc) Do you like carrots? Is your house big or small? Display Display open (do) Where is your pencil? Display closed (dc) Is this a pen? What day was it yesterday?

11 IRF in the classroom – focus on form 1 T:Wat is dit?Initiative - display closed What is this? S:Vaas.Response Vase. T:Ja. Feedback Yes. T:En wat is ‘t, de of het vaas? Initiative - display closed And what is it, the or (the) vase? S:de vaas.Response the vase. T:De vaas, goed zo, ja.Feedback The vase, good, o.k. [MN3/1:4]

12 IRF in the classroom – focus on form 2 T (I-dc):Wat heeft Betty? What does Betty have? S (R) :Uuh ‘n doos. Uuh a box. T (F1) :Ja, maar de hele zin maken, Betty… Yes, but make a complete sentence, Betty... S (R) :Betty hebbe een doos. Betty have a box. T (F2) :Betty… Betty… S (R) :hebbe doos. have box. T (F3) :Betty heb een doos, is dat goed? Betty have a box, is that correct? S (R) :Nee. No. T (F4) :Betty… Betty… S (R) :heb ik have I T (F5) :Heeft, Betty heeft een doos. Heel goed. Heel goed. Has, Betty has a box. Very good, Very good. [RIJ2/3:8]

13 IRF in the classroom – focus on message 1 T:Wat zet je nog meer in de kelder?Initiative – referential open What else would you put in the cellar? S:Glas extra uuh kranten.Response 1 Glass extra uuh newspapers. T:Ja, de alle extras,de boodschappen.Feedback 1 Yes, all the extras, the groceries. S:Ja, boodschappen.Response 2 Yes, groceries. T:Glazen, kopjes, wat je zo over hebt.Feedback 2 Glasses, cups, whatever you have left over. [Lg2/3:2]

14 IRF in the classroom – focus on message 2 T (I-rc) :Tulun, is de televisie niet goed thuis? Tulun, is the t.v. not good at home? S (R) :Turkish Nederland beetje niet goed. Turkish Netherlands little not good. T (I-rc) : Maar heb jij ‘n televisie thuis? But do you have a t.v. at home? S (R) :Nee, uuh, mijn dochter samen computer. No, uuh, my daughter together computer. T (F) :Ja, Yes, T (I-rc) :jij, maar kijk jij televisie thuis? you, but do you watch t.v. at home? S (R) :Turkije nee, nee. Turkey no, no. T (F1) :Jij kijkt alleen Turkse televisie? You only watch Turkish t.v? S (R) :Uuh computer, kenne praten Turkije computer. Uuh, computer, can talk Turkey computer. T (F2) :Jij praat met de computer? You talk with the computer? S (R) :Turkije familie Nederland. Turkey family Netherlands. [A1/1:7]

15 IRF and classroom initiatives TypeTotal initiatives Student initiatives Teacher initiatives Embedded IRF teacher initiatives Classroom % % % Classroom % 28 80% % Classroom % % % Classroom % % % Classroom % % % Classroom % % 20 87%

16 Teacher questions in the classroom TypeReferential open Referential closed Display open Display closed Giving information Classroom Classroom Classroom Classroom Classroom Classroom TOTALS

17 Student initiation -1 T (I) : Nieuw in the nieuws in Amsterdam, oh vorige week in Amsterdam Noord, nu in Amsterdam West, hebben jullie het echt niet gehoord? Weer ‘n Turkse meneer doodgeschoten. New in the news in Amsterdam, oh last week in Amsterdam North, now in Amsterdam West, haven’t you really heard it? Again a Turkish man shot dead. S1 (R) : Andere? Other one? T (F) : Ja, in Amsterdam West. Yes, in Amsterdam West. S2 (R) : In Amsterdam West. In Amsterdam West. S3 (looks in newspaper) T (F) : Goed zo Malika, daar is de foto. Good Malika, there is the picture. T (I) : Hebben jullie het echt niet gehoord? Haven’t you really heard? S4 (I) : Waarom? Why? T (R) :Dat weet ik niet. Dat weet ik niet waarom. That I don’t know. That I don’t know why. S2 (I) : Twee mensen in Zaandam. Two people in Zaandam. T (R) :Twee mensen in Zaandam ook? Two people in Zaandam too? S2 (R) :Ja. Yes. T (I) :Waren dat ook Turkse mensen? Were they also Turkish people? S2 (R) :Ja, Turkse mensen. Yes, Turkish people. S1 (I) :Waarom altijd Turkse mensen? Why always Turkish people? T (R) :Ik weet het niet. Ik weet het niet, Farida. I don’t know. I don’t know, Farida. [A1/1:6]

18 Student initiation -2 T (I-dc):En wat is de datum, Fatima? And what is the date, Fatima? S1:(no response) T (I-dc):Wat is de datum vandaag? What is the date today? S1 (R):Uuh zes februari. Uuh six February. T (F):Zes februari. Six February. S2 (I):Januari thuis. January at home. T (F):Ja, januari is thuis. Dit is februari. Yes, January is home. This is February. [N3/3:3]

19 Student initiation -3 T (I-ro): Nou, Aida, vertel eens wat heeft Souad gedaan het weekend? Now, Aida, tell us what did Souad do this weekend? S1:(no response) T (I-dc): Kan je het vertellen? Can you tell about it? S1 (R): Zaterday ik ga naar winkel. Saturday I go to store. T (F): Nee, No, T (I-ro): Wat heeft Souad gedaan, Souad? What did Souad do, Souad? S1 (R): Ja, uuh, brief voor dochter voor zalf uuh Yes, uuh, letter for daughter for cream uuh T (F): Jaaa. Yeees. S1 (R): Ik weet heet niet precies voor uuh Ik don’t know exactly for uuh S2 (I):Voor bril voor mijn dochter. For glasses for my daughter. T (F):Okay. O.K. S2 (I):Klaar met uuh. Ready for uuh. T (F):Voor de crèche voor de kinderopvamng? For the nursery for the daycare center? S2 (R):Nee voor bril. No for glasses. T (F):Okay, okay, ze moest ‘n nieuwe bril, ah ze moet ‘n nieuwe bril. O.K. she had to have new glasses, ah she had to have new glasses. S2 (I):Ja. Yes. [N1/1:4]

20 IRF evaluated Disadvantages Teacher has all the control. 86,3%T – 13.7% S Teacher talks the most. Students only respond. No topic development. Limitations of utterance. 2.4 words Advantages Rote learning Checking knowledge Scaffolding instruction Can challenge students to think. to point of “handover”


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