4Roles of Animals in Biotech Animals are involved in lab experiments.Without the use of animals humans might be in danger.
5Animal Models Non-Living systems 4 models apply for the use of animals.Living animalsLiving animal tissues or systemsNon-Living systems
6Animal ModelsComputer and Mathematical approaches
7Living AnimalsThese animals are living and usually have no threat to their well being.Such animals may be known as laboratory or scientific animals.
8Living AnimalsAgricultural Research often uses experimental groups of animals.
9Living animal tissues or systems Animal tissues can be cultured in a lab.This saves the use of animals as well as the expense of feeding, housing, and cleaning up after the animals.
10Non-Living SystemsInvolves using non living mechanical models that reflect animal activity.These often relate to skeletal movement and locomotion
11Non-Living SystemsArtificial replacement parts, such as hip joints can be studied using non living systems.
12Computer and mathematical approaches Computer simulations with virtual reality and other uses help in biotechnology.Computer modeling may be done with a propose biotechnology practice before it is tested with animals.
13Laboratory animalsA laboratory animal is an animal used for laboratory or research purpose.Good tending is needed to assume that the research is properly carried out.
14Laboratory animalsWithout research involving animals, scientists would not have a base of information.
15Animal SpeciesMost animals are subjects of study at one time or another.Most common species used in research laboratories are mice, rats, and hamsters.
16Animal SpeciesA primate is an animal with thumb and forefinger opposition.A non human primate is similar to humans but is not a human.
17Animal ReproductionReproduction is a process by which offspring are produced.Sexual Reproduction is the union of a sperm and egg to ultimately produce a new individual.
18Animal ReproductionThe union of the sperm and egg is called fertilization.Semen- the fluid produced by the male reproductive organs, contains sperm.
19Animal ReproductionCopulation- is the sexual uniting of animals so the male can ejaculate semen near the eggs in the reproductive tract of the female.
20Reproductive Development Puberty-is the time at which an animal is capable of reproduction.Fertilization- union of the sperm and egg results in the formation of a zygote
21Reproductive Development Gestation- is the period of pregnancy in animals.Parturition- is the birthing process.Lactation- is the secretion of milk by the mammary glands.
22Reproductive Development Dry time is a time when mammals are not lactating.
23The Estrous CycleEstrous is a time when a female is fertile and receptive to a male.The estrous cycle is the time between the estrous.
24The Estrous CycleThe three periods in the estrous cycle that follow estrous are metestrus, diestrus, and proestrus.
25Artificial Insemination Artificial insemination is the transfer of collected semen to a recipient female. It is used with sheep, beef cattle, turkeys, and swine.Generally female estrous cycles are regulated with hormone injections.
26Artificial Insemination Sperm are collected from males by artificially promoting ejaculation.
27Gender PreselectionGender preselection is choosing the gender of a potential offspring.Gender preselection may be done by sorting sperm.
28Gender PreselectionThe DNA content of sperm varies slightly based on the gender of the offspring that would result from conception.
29Embryo TransferEmbryo transfer is the harvesting of fertilized ova from a donor and implanting them into a recipient.The harvested embyros are transferred to a recipient.
30Embryo TransferNon surgical transfer involves flushing the embryos from the uterine horn.
31Bovine SomatotropinBovine somatotropin is a natural occurring growth hormone produced in the pituitary gland in the endocrine system.By treating dairy cattle with the hormone, milk production is increased approximately 15%.
32Bovine SomatotropinSome small dairy producers do not use BST and incorporate that fact in their advertising.
33Transgenic Animals and Products Pigs- have been used to manufacture human hemoglobin.A xenograft is the practice of grafting an organ or a tissue from one species into another.
34Transgenic Animals and Products Mice- transgenetic mice have been used in several ways.One of the best known is to produce human antibodies.Cattle- are used to control disease such as mastitis in dairy cows.
35Methods of creating transgenetic animals Step One- collect embryosWith proper stimulation far more embryos can be obtained than would be the natural result of the reproductive process.
36Methods of creating transgenetic animals Step Two- Inject embyros.A pro nucleus is the haploid nucleus of the sperm or ovum that have united in fertilization to form a zygote.
37Methods of creating transgenetic animals Step Three- Zygote CultureThe zygotes are placed in the oviduct of a recipient female.