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Property of Lear Siegler. FRONTAL WEATHER Property of Lear Siegler.

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Presentation on theme: "Property of Lear Siegler. FRONTAL WEATHER Property of Lear Siegler."— Presentation transcript:

1 Property of Lear Siegler

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3 FRONTAL WEATHER Property of Lear Siegler

4 Terminal Learning Objective Page D-1 in Student Handout: ACTION: CONDITION: STANDARD:

5 ELO Identify the characteristics common to all fronts IAW FM

6 A FRONT IS A BOUNDARY BETWEEN AIR MASSES OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES. COLD WARM Property of Lear Siegler

7 Frontal formation: When two high pressure cells exist so that the circulation of air is converging between them, a front is formed. The converging air currents veer upward creating a zone (trough) of low pressure. COLD WARM Property of Lear Siegler

8 H H cP mT L

9 Frontal weather is caused by the lifting of warm moist air by colder more dense air. ALL FRONTS HAVE A TEMPERATURE INVERSION

10 FRONTAL DISCONTINUITIES TEMPERATURE DEWPOINT PRESSURE FALL THEN RISE WIND SHIFT : APPROX 90° DRIFT CORRECTION TO THE RIGHT Property of Lear Siegler

11 Primary factors affecting frontal weather are slope, speed, moisture content, and stability.

12 questions ?

13 ELO Identify the general characteristics of a cold front IAW FM

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17 Property of Lear Siegler

18 Cold Front The leading edge of a cold air mass, normally moving toward the southeast.

19 Property of Lear Siegler Cold Front Warm Front

20 Cold Front Slope Clouds Width of weather band Winds Direction of movement Speed Symbol

21 Cold Front Slope – avg. 1:80 80 miles 1 mile

22 CUMULONIMBUS 10,000 15,000 20,000 25,000 Property of Lear Siegler Cold Front cumuliform predominant

23 Property of Lear Siegler type of weather Cold Front Post-frontal, can be violent

24 Property of Lear Siegler Width of weather band 50 miles Cold Front

25 southwest northwest Cold Front Winds

26 Property of Lear Siegler

27 Property of Lear Siegler

28 southeast Direction of Movement

29 Average 25 knots Speed

30 WARNING! If speed of front exceeds 25 kts a squall line may form as much as 300 miles ahead. Squall lines may include tornadoes, hail, and destructive winds!

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32 Property of Lear Siegler

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34 SQUALL LINE Property of Lear Siegler

35 Symbol color - blue triangle shapes, pointing in direction of movement NOTE: You must recognize in color and black and white.

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37 questions ?

38 a. slope -1:80 b. cumuliform clouds c. 50 mile wide band of coverage d. winds NW behind front, SW ahead e. moves southeast f. 25 knots average speed Property of Lear Siegler

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42 ELO Identify the general characteristics of a warm front IAW FM

43 Property of Lear Siegler Warm Front The trailing edge of a cold air mass, normally moving generally toward the northeast, being overridden by warmer air.

44 Property of Lear Siegler Warm Front The trailing edge of a cold air mass, normally moving generally toward the northeast, being overridden by warmer air.

45 Warm Front Slope Clouds Width of weather band Winds Direction of movement Speed Symbol

46 Warm Front Slope – avg. 1: miles 1 mile

47 Property of Lear Siegler stratiform predominant Warm Front

48 a. Slope - 1:200 b. Stratiform clouds predominate c mile band of coverage d. Wind SW behind, SE ahead of the front e. Moves Northeast f. 15kts avg speed Property of Lear Siegler

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51 Ci Cs As Ns St 10,000 15,000 20,000 25, MILES Property of Lear Siegler Width of weather band 400 to 600 miles WARM FRONT

52 southeast southwest Winds

53 Property of Lear Siegler

54 WARM FRONT northeast Direction of Movement

55 WARM FRONT Speed Average 15 knots

56 WARM FRONT Symbol color - red NOTE: You must recognize in color and black and white. half moon shapes, pointing in direction of movement

57 Unstable Warm Front Property of Lear Siegler

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59 questions ?

60 ELO Identify the general characteristics of a stationary front IAW FM

61 Stationary Front Property of Lear Siegler A front which is not moving, speed of zero to less than 5 knots.

62 Stationary Front Slope Clouds Width of weather band Winds Direction of movement Speed Symbol similar to warm front

63 Stationary Front Property of Lear Siegler Winds – light and variable, tend to parallel isobars. Movement - unpredictable Speed – zero to < 5 kts

64 Stationary Front Property of Lear Siegler color – alternating red and blue NOTE: You must recognize in color and black and white. combination of symbols for cold and warm fronts, alternating sides of line of front

65 questions ?

66 ELO Identify the general characteristics of an open wave IAW FM

67 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave A wave-like appearance with one portion a cold front and the other a warm front with an open area in between.

68 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave Vertical cross section.

69 Stationary Front Property of Lear Siegler Mostly forms along a stationary front, but may form from any existing front.

70 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave

71 Property of Lear Siegler

72 Open Wave

73 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave

74 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave

75 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave Weather Cold front WX Warm front WX Warm air

76 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave Movement Travels in easterly direction along the line of the original front

77 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave Weather chart portrayal Cold front Warm front

78 Property of Lear Siegler

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80 questions ?

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82 ELO Identify the general characteristics of an occluded front IAW FM

83 Occluded Front: The result of a faster moving cold front overtaking a slower moving warm front. The effect is one front on top of the other squeezing warm air between.

84 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave Occluded Front: The result of a faster moving cold front overtaking a slower moving warm front. The effect is one front on top of the other squeezing warm air between.

85 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave 15 kts. 25 kts.

86 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave

87 Property of Lear Siegler Cold Occlusion

88 Property of Lear Siegler Cold Occlusion

89 Two types of occlusions: Cold front occlusion – The cold front runs underneath the warm front. (coldest air is behind the cold front) Warm front occlusion – The cold front overruns the warm front. (coldest air is ahead of the warm front)

90 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave Cold front occlusion – The cold front runs underneath the warm front. (coldest air is behind the cold front)

91 Property of Lear Siegler Cold Occlusion

92 Property of Lear Siegler Cold Occlusion

93 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave Warm front occlusion – The cold front overruns the warm front. (coldest air is ahead of the warm front)

94 Property of Lear Siegler Warm Occlusion

95 Property of Lear Siegler Warm Occlusion

96 Occlusions: cloud types Both warm and cold front types stratiform and cumuliform

97 Occlusions: weather Weather associated with each of these fronts combines widespread low ceilings and poor visibilities of the warm front with the severe weather of the cold front.

98 Occlusions: winds Ahead of the occlusion vary south to east generally from the southeast, behind the front generally from the northwest.

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100 Occlusions: movement Similar to an open wave, to the east

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102 Property of Lear Siegler Cold Occlusion Travels in easterly direction along the line of the original front

103 Portrayal: cold occlusion

104 Property of Lear Siegler Warm Occlusion Portrayal: warm occlusion

105 questions ?

106 ELO Identify the proper flight procedures to use when dealing with frontal weather IAW FM

107 RECOGNITION OF TYPE: Each type front presents certain problems to the aviator. The aviator must learn to recognize type of front in order to apply proper procedures.

108 FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Cold fronts and squall lines DONT GO!

109 FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Warm fronts Sufficient fuel for a long flight and possible diversion to an alternate airfield

110 FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Stationary fronts Same as warm front, plus alert for open wave and occlusion

111 FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Open wave Avoid the crest of the wave and cold front, cold front procedures for cold side, warm front procedures for warm side

112 FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Occluded fronts WARNING! Occluded fronts offer worst possible weather! Avoid the apex of the occlusion by at least 50 to 100 miles. Circumnavigate to right (tailwinds). Do not fly through an occluded front. Wait, circumnavigate, or fly through stationary/warm front separately.

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114 questions ?

115 ELO Identify indications of frontal passage IAW FM

116 On the ground wind shift Temperature Dew point pressure

117 In flight more difficult to recognize best indicator is OAT gauge anticipate drift correction to right (with possible exception of occlusion)

118 Property of Lear Siegler

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126 questions ?

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128 Property of Lear Siegler Open Wave

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132 The end

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