4Terminal Learning Objective Page D-1 in Student Handout: ACTION:CONDITION:STANDARD:
5Identify the characteristics common ELOIdentify the characteristics commonto all fronts IAW FM
6OF DIFFERENT DENSITIES. WARMCOLDA FRONT IS A BOUNDARYBETWEEN AIR MASSESOF DIFFERENT DENSITIES.Property of Lear Siegler
7WARMCOLDFrontal formation: When two high pressure cells exist so that the circulation of air is converging betweenthem, a front is formed. The converging air currents veerupward creating a zone (trough) of low pressure.Property of Lear Siegler
30If speed of front exceeds 25 kts a squall WARNING!If speed of front exceeds 25 kts a squallline may form as much as 300 milesahead. Squall lines may includetornadoes, hail, and destructive winds!Speed
47stratiform predominant Warm FrontProperty of Lear Siegler
48b. Stratiform clouds predominate c. 400-600 mile band of coverage a. Slope - 1:200b. Stratiform clouds predominatec mile bandof coveraged. Wind SW behind, SEahead of the fronte. Moves Northeastf. 15kts avg speedProperty of Lear Siegler
51WARM AIR COLD AIR WARM FRONT Width of weather band MILES 25,000’ 20,000’Width of weather band15,000’Ci10,000’CsAsWARM AIRNsStCOLD AIR400 to 600 miles100200300400500MILESWARM FRONTProperty of Lear Siegler
60ELO Identify the general characteristics of a stationary front IAW FM
61H H Stationary Front A front which is not moving, speed of zero to less than 5 knots.HHProperty of Lear Siegler
62Stationary Front Slope similar to Clouds warm front Width of weather bandWindsDirection of movementSpeedSymbolsimilar towarm front
63Movement - unpredictable Stationary FrontWinds – light andvariable, tend toparallel isobars.Movement - unpredictableSpeed – zero to < 5 ktsHHProperty of Lear Siegler
64Stationary Front combination of symbols for cold and warm fronts, alternating sides ofline of frontNOTE: You must recognizein color and black and white.color – alternatingred and blueProperty of Lear Siegler
82ELO Identify the general characteristics of an occluded front IAW FM
83Occluded Front:The result of a faster moving cold front overtaking a slower moving warm front.The effect is one front on top of the othersqueezing warm air between.
84Warm Air Colder Cold Open Wave Occluded Front: The result of a faster moving cold front overtaking a slower moving warm front.The effect is one front on top of the othersqueezing warm air between.Property of Lear Siegler
85Warm Air Colder Cold Open Wave 25 kts. 15 kts. Property of Lear Siegler
86Open WaveWarm AirColderColdProperty of Lear Siegler
87Cold OcclusionWarm AirColderColdProperty of Lear Siegler
88Cold OcclusionWarm AirColderColdProperty of Lear Siegler
89Two types of occlusions: Cold front occlusion – The cold frontruns underneath the warm front.(coldest air is behind the cold front)Warm front occlusion – The cold frontoverruns the warm front.(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)
90Warm Air Colder Cold Open Wave Cold front occlusion – The cold front runs underneath the warm front.(coldest air is behind the cold front)Warm AirColderColdProperty of Lear Siegler
91Cold OcclusionWarm AirColderColdProperty of Lear Siegler
92Cold OcclusionWarm AirColderColdProperty of Lear Siegler
93Warm Air Cold Colder Open Wave Warm front occlusion – The cold front overruns the warm front.(coldest air is ahead of the warm front)Warm AirColdColderProperty of Lear Siegler
94Warm OcclusionWarm AirColdColderProperty of Lear Siegler
95Warm OcclusionWarm AirColdColderProperty of Lear Siegler
96Occlusions: cloud types Both warm and cold front typesstratiform and cumuliform
97Occlusions: weather Weather associated with each of these fronts combines widespread low ceilings and poorvisibilities of the warm front with the severeweather of the cold front.
98Occlusions: winds Ahead of the occlusion vary south to east generally from the southeast,behind the front generally from the northwest.
106ELO Identify the proper flight procedures to use when dealing with frontal weather IAW FM
107Each type front presents certain problems to the aviator. The aviator RECOGNITION OF TYPE:Each type front presents certain problems to the aviator. The aviatormust learn to recognize type of front inorder to apply proper procedures.
108FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Cold fronts and squall linesDON’T GO!
109FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Warm fronts Sufficient fuel for a long flight and possiblediversion to an alternate airfield
110FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Stationary fronts Same as warm front, plusalert for open wave and occlusion
111FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Open wave Avoid the crest of the wave andcold front, cold front proceduresfor cold side, warm frontprocedures for warm side
112WARNING! FLIGHT CONSIDERATIONS: Occluded fronts Occluded fronts offer worst possible weather! Avoid the apexof the occlusion by at least 50 to 100 miles.Circumnavigate to right (tailwinds). Do not fly through anoccluded front. Wait, circumnavigate, or fly throughstationary/warm front separately.