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Epidemiology [epidi:mi: ɔ ləd ʒ i:] of Respiratory Infectiom Philip Keith Pattemore and Lance C. Jennings.

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Presentation on theme: "Epidemiology [epidi:mi: ɔ ləd ʒ i:] of Respiratory Infectiom Philip Keith Pattemore and Lance C. Jennings."— Presentation transcript:

1 Epidemiology [epidi:mi: ɔ ləd ʒ i:] of Respiratory Infectiom Philip Keith Pattemore and Lance C. Jennings

2 Teaching Points Technological developments molecular [mə'lekjələ] Known viruses are more prevalent ['prevələnt] New viruses continue to be discovered The study of morbidity [m ɔ ' biditi] and mortality [m ɔ 'tæliti] …lack of precise definitions and specific, practical diagnostic methds. Children in developing countries account for [ə'kauntfər] 70% Malnutrition ['mælnju'tri ʃ ən], poverty, indoor smoke, and comorbid conditions including malaria [mə'l ɛ əriə], tuberculosis [tju:bə:kju'lə ʊ s ɪ s] etc greatly increase the risks Emerging respiratory diseases present an ongoing risk…

3 Common Respiratory Viruses Respiratory syncytial virus ['respərə,t ɔ :ri:, ri'spaiərə-] Influenza [influ:'enzə] virus type A and B Parainfluenza[pærəinfluenzə] viruses Adenoviruses Rhinoviruses [rainə ʊ vaiərəs] In younger children, viruses are the cause of 90% of LRTIs … Symptomatic [simtə'mætik] substantial [səb'stæn ʃ əl]

4 Laboratory Detection Conventional diagnostic methods - antigen detection, serology[siə'r ɔ ləd ʒ i], culture… Tab 31-1( ) Molecular diagnostic [daiə ɡ 'n ɔ stik] methods - PCR, three to five times as sensitive as cell culture… - Figure 31-1 viral identification breakdown in three studies: A: nasal lavage, RT-PCR; B: nasopharyngeal [,neizəufə'rind ʒ iəl] swabs,PCR/RT-PCR, immunoflurescence and viral culture; C: not described speciments, immunoassay, culture, PCR

5 Previously Unkown Viruses human metapneumoviruses(hMPV) new human coronaviruses: - SARS-Cov, hCov NL63, hCo-HKU1 Another viruses: hBoV nucleic['nju:kliik] acid['æsid] polymerase['p ɔ limə,reis] dominant['d ɔ minənt] 'Relative pro'portion

6 Multiple infections Multiple infection: % 27% - more frequently in young children (less than 4yr) - experience a median of 4.4 to 5.5 alternatively[ ɔ :l'tə:nətivli] Shedding continum residual.[ri'zid ʒ u:əl]

7 Epidemiology Periodicity.[piri:ə'disiti:] Seasonality Circulate biennial.[bai'eni:əl] predominant tropical.[tr ɔ pikəl] Latitude colloquially [kə'lə ʊ kwi:əl] adj. elucidate.[i'lu:si'deit]

8 Signs and Symptoms resemble.[ri'zembl] vt. surpass.[sə'p ɑ :s] vt. Croup typical.['tipikəl] classic.['klæsik] febrile.['febrəl, fi:brəl] myalgia[mai'æld ʒ iə] Bronchiolitis obliterans Ubiquitous.[ju:'bikwitəs] adj.

9 ALRTI: Scope and Limitations consolidation, parenchyma [pə'reŋkimə] obliteration [ə,blitə'rei ʃ ən] alveolar [ æl'viələ,ælvi'əulə] purulent ['pjuərulənt] exudate ['eksjudeit] Indrawing [in'dr ɔ :iŋ], Grunting auscultatory [ ɔ :'sk ʌ ltətəri] crackle [krækəl] immobility [imə ʊ 'biliti], reconciling.['rekənsail] inherent facilities expertise [,ekspə'ti:z]

10 WHO case manage guideline


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