SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 What did we learn?
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 - Elements What is risk? What is a TLV/Standard? What are the Steps in AREC? When OSHA visits What the Administrative Laws tells us What is exposure modeling? What is a baseline survey? What ventilation?
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 Risk and Cost- Time Red = Risk Blue = Cost
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Risk/Cost Driving down Risk costs $ How far do you drive down risk? What is the cost of mitigation? What residual risk is acceptable? –Risk management retains –Who is risk acceptor?
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Risk And Cost Costs: Managing & controlling Process Resources expended to remove hazard Costs associated with training
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Risk As you drive down risk, the cost increases!
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Review: Residual Risk – The risk remaining after mitigation has been applied. Residual risk
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Risk Risk = Probability * Consequence Probability of the event (1/1000 times) Consequence: injury, illness, fatality
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 Chemical Risks: How do I evaluate them? Synergistic effects, additive effects, unity?
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Chemical Risks Carcinogens Production products Similar routes of entry Degrading PPE Using VHI Standards (OSHA)
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 Safety Attitude: 1966 Safety was a management prerogative. They could have it or not. Workers looked out for themselves. Then – OSHA – 1970. Accidents changed the attitude
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Accidents: 1968 Mine Accident Farmington, West Virginia
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 Limitations of Toxicology and Standards Change – New TLVs –Applying toxicology studies –Animals to humans –Different organ systems –High tumor rates
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Toxicology & Standards Toluene – Change to current 20 ppm. Development of TLVs - A challenge – –Why?
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene TLVs and Changes New Data – laboratory –Carcinogens Epidemiological data NIOSH/CDC Data Lawsuits
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene New TLVs What Data do I use? What safety factor? –10x –100x What effect am I protecting against?
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Whats Next? New Screening methods Improved tests DNA Mapping Predictors of Disease
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Ventilation Systems How to select Ventilation Systems: –By the TLV –Vapor Pressure –How used.
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Ventilation Use Tables Apply K factors Dilution Formula – provides estimate
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 Basic Epidemiology - A group of workers exposed to a chemical.
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Epidemiology Time of Exposure Same Exposure Group Same symptoms Onset of Symptoms
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety 5120 History - The role of Alice Hamilton in risk.
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene AREC Process Anticipation – look forward Recognition – Noticing the hazards Evaluation – Examining the Operation Control – Establishing controls
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety Culture – Safety Climate Culture: shared values and beliefs of an organization commonly described as "the way we do things here." –The culture also can be thought of as the shared norms for behavior in the organization. Climate, prevailing influences on a particular area of functioning (such as safety) at a point in time. –Climate should be discussed in the context of being the climate for something: safety, quality, service, etc. It reflects employee perceptions about what gets rewarded, supported and expected in a particular setting.
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety Climate – Safety Culture Culture Climate Short term strengthing of climate Will only result in short-term improvement Safety Culture doesnt support Safety
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Accidents: Focus on Climate Accidents dont necessarily address culture issues
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety Culture Fatality occurs: Notes in the culture of the organization: –The people at this site were never unconcerned about safety –Did not set out to ignore safety procedures. –Important assumptions that worked against safety: –Being the best in the division was important to personnel at the site, –Being the best meant doing what they needed to do to maximize productivity. –Workers knew their jobs very well after all, they were highly experienced and successful so that having process steps checked by supervisors was not seen to have much value.
SAFE 5120Industrial Hygiene Safety Culture Emphasize Double Checking Safety as important as production Setting milestones/Performance goals Communicating!
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