Presentation on theme: "The Reformation and Scientific Revolution"— Presentation transcript:
1The Reformation and Scientific Revolution Rethinking Our Place in the Universe
2A Fork in the Road:People were getting access to books and writing in the vernacular.People were traveling again, trading, and exchanging new ideas.A wealthy merchant class was developing that wasn’t part of feudalism.
3A Fork in the Road Why would the Church not like these things? Why would some kings not like these things?Would some kings maybe like these changes?
4Understand: Thinking “differently” from others could be very, VERY dangerous!
5“Humanism”: Where it all started An intellectual movementA focus on classical Greek and Roman cultureFocused on worldly subjects rather than religious subjectsEmphasized the study of the “humanities: grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language effectively), poetry and history
6What was the Protestant Reformation? In the 1500’s, the N. Renaissance sparked a call for big changes within the Roman Catholic ChurchHumanism caused people to question the Church, and the printing press gave them the means
7Church Abuses during the Middle Ages Popes and Kings struggled for political power.The Church always wanted to expand.Popes lived lavishly and churches were beautiful.(The Basilica, Krakow, Poland, 1300’s)
8SOME popes began to live more like princes. Pope Alexander VIPope 1492 – 1503Had two loves in his life:Gold and WomenMost “famous” childrenCesare BorgiaModel for Machiavelli’s THE PRINCELucretzia Borgia
9Lucretzia Borgia An active participant in her family’s excesses? “Slimed” by her family’s enemies?Supposed expert at poisons?"THE “CANTARELLA," DEADLY POISON OF THE BORGIA,'
10The Borgias are still with us in 2008! I was going to come home for an evening of fun with my extended family. What do I get? I get the four of you going at each other like the Borgias on a bad day!Frasier
11If that wasn’t bad enough! The church increased fees and sold indulgencespayment to reduce time a soul would spend in purgatory before going to heaven.
12Early Revolts Against the Church 1300’s, in England, John Wycliffe used sermons & writings to seek change.Managed to die of a stroke – but the Church ordered his corpse to be burned.Jan Hus , Czech Republic, executed for leading a reform movement.
13Fifty years later: Martin Luther (1483 – 1546) German Monk, professor of theology.Led a holy life.Final straw when a priest sold indulgences in order to rebuild a cathedral in Rome.The indulgences got yourself and dead family into Heaven.
14Martin LutherIndulgences meant that often peasants did not have hope to go to heaven.Created the 95 Theses(arguments against indulgences.)
15Response to what Luther did? Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther.Made it impossible for Martin Luther to ever go to heaven if he believed in such HERESY.HERESY: An opinion or a doctrine differing with established religious beliefs.
16Not only was the Pope mad – the Holy Roman Emperor was upset! Charles V, summoned Luther to the City of Worms & asked him to recant
17Luther (cont) Luther refused to recant and was made an outlaw. Luther had thousands who followed him and renounced the Pope.
18Luther’s TeachingsAll Christians have access to God through faith and the Bible -- we don’t need elaborate ceremonies.Wanted ordinary people to be able to read the Bible (so translated it)Towns should have schools so kids can read the bible.Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints.Encouraged ex-priests to live as men and have families.
19The Spread of Lutheranism The printing press spread his ideas.Lutherans became called “Protestants”for those who protested against the Pope.
20What Luther began was about a hundred years of warfare in Europe over Religion Catholic v. ProtestantProtestant v. CatholicProtestant v. ProtestantCountry v. Country
21Attempts at Peace: The Peace of Augsburg: 1555 Emperor Charles V tried to force Luther back into the Catholic ChurchAfter several short wars they reached a settlement.Agreement allowed every prince to decide which religion would be followed in his lands.
23Swiss Reform John Calvin John Calvin, priest and lawyer, published a book on how how to run a Protestant church. Shared Luther’s ideas, but had some ideas of his own.John Calvin
24John Calvin He preached PREDESTINATION: that God had already determined who would be savedThe world was divided into two--saints and sinnersOnly those who were saved could live truly Christian lives.See pg. 64, compare the 3 religions/copy chart
25GenevaProtestants in city-state of Geneva, Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead their community.Calvin established a theocracyGovernment based on religionThe community considered selves the “chosen people,” & faced fines or harsh punishment for fighting, swearing, dancing, laughing in church. -- model community!
26The Spread of Calvinism Reformers from all over Europe visited Geneva & took home ideasCalvinism spread into parts of Germany, France, the Netherlands, England and Scotland.There were wars between the countries above and the catholic church.Throughout Europe, Calvinists clashed with Lutherans and Catholics
27The Catholics React:If you wanted to make people believe in your religion again, what would you do?
28Catholic Reaction to the Reformation The InquisitionMake people fear!Reform of the abuses in the ChurchChange the mistakes!
29The Inquisition“for punishment does not take place primarily and per se for the correction and good of the person punished, but for the public good in order that others may become terrified and weaned away from the evils they would commit."1578 justification
30The Catholic Reform Movement: The Council of Trent in 1545 Reaffirmed Catholic belief that salvation comes through faith and good works.Admitted there was corruption that had to end in the ChurchSought better education for priests.
31The Jesuits “Soldiers of God” with spiritual and moral discipline. Very educated to combat heresy.Advisors to Catholic kings.Traveled secretly in Protestant lands to administer to the Catholics.Traveled to Africa, Asia, and the Americas to spread the faith.
32Teresa of AvilaA Spanish noblewoman who found the convent she was at was not strict enough.Started her own order for women to dedicate themselves to prayer and meditationLive in isolation.Eating and sleeping little.
33Teresa of AvilaThe Catholic Church picked up on her ideas and used them to reform monasteries and convents.
34Differences between Protestants and Catholics continue in 2008 Intellectual disagreementsViolence still happens.Northern Ireland
35While people were battling over issues of religion …
36Something was happening that would change EVERYTHING. THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION
37What was so dangerous?The Reformation had people rethinking their relationship with God.
38The Scientific Revolution Had people rethinking our position in the universe.Science and the Bible.
39Four Men that took the Red Pill - And led all of humankind down the rabbit hole.Nicholas CopernicusTycho BraheJohannes KeplerGalileo Galilei
40After The Library of Alexandria burned: The Church in the Dark and Middle Ages took an “Earth Centered” view of the Universe.Man was at the center of everything.
41Early Christianity’s Main Points about the earth and the relationship to the sun and stars. UniquenessCentralityFixity
42The Problems This View Created? It was WRONG!Trying to track the path of planets got VERY confusing.It didn’t fit the perfect circles.
43The first to say the Earth was not the center? Giordano Bruno (1548 – 1600)Suggested a HELIOCENTRIC system:The SUN was the center of the system, NOT the earth.Questioned the relationship between science and faith.
44Giordano Bruno was declared a heretic Burned at the stake.
45Nicholas Copernicus Polish mathematician and astronomer. Picked up on what Arab and Indian astronomers had written about:HELIOCENTRIC System.Sun centered universe
46Nicholas Copernicus ( 1473 – 1547) Did NOT publish his ideas until he was on his deathbed!Also thought if he dedicated his book to the Pope, it would help.
47Copernicus On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres. There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres.The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere.All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.
48It was three years after Copernicus died before people realized his ideas Denounced the theory as being against the absolute truth of the Bible.In its full text it was prohibited reading for Catholics.1633 Galileo was convicted of grave suspicion of heresy for "following the position of Copernicus, which is contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture,"[
49Along comes Tycho Brahe: 1546 – 1601Danish nobleman who had a passion for astronomy.To prove Copernicus WRONG, there needed to be detailed observations of the movement of the planets over years.
50Tycho Brahe Lost his nose in a duel over a mathematic equation. Didn’t help that he was drunk and the sword fight was in the dark.Wore a silver or gold nose that he colored to look like flesh.
51Tycho Brahe Kept an observatory in Hven, Denmark. Entertained royalty and others and invited them to watch the night sky with him.No telescopes yet!Naked eye observations that were INCREDIBLY accurateTycho’s Tame Elk story.
52Tycho Brahe’s “unusual” death Rule of the time: If dining with a king, you couldn’t leave the table until the king was finished and ready to get up.Tycho really “had to go.”Either he burst his bladder or stretched it so bad an infection set in.
53Tycho Brahe’s Death"Let me not seem to have lived in vain.”
54Tycho Brahe’s Records: Incredibly detailed in tracking planetary and star movement.Thought he was going to prove a GEOCENTRIC universe.The Earth at the center.
55Tycho Found Problems with the “fixity” of the universe! eternally unchangeable.But in 1578, Brahe witnessed a SUPERNOVA!A birth of a new star.
56The Tychonic Universe the Sun annually circles a central Earth While the five planets orbit the Sun.In Tycho's model the Earth does not rotate daily!
57Johannes Kepler to the rescue! 1571 – 1630.Tycho’s assistant.Had the math background that Tycho didn’t.Wanted to read the Mind of God.Math and science could help him.Believed in the Copernican Theory.
58Kepler and the Copernican Theory Wanted to believe that the orbits of the planets around the sun were perfect circles.Continue the belief of the universe:UniqueCentralityFixity
59Kepler’s Problem He couldn’t make it WORK! The data of Tycho’s didn’t fit his perfect circle math!
60Kepler’s problem Religion said that the universe was circular. But the math said it wasn’t.WHO SHOULD HE BELIEVE??
61Kepler’s Choice: Follow the math. ELLIPTICAL orbits made the math work with Tycho’s observations!But they weren’t perfect!They weren’t central!They weren’t fixed!
62Kepler’s NEW problem He thought he had “read the mind of God.” How does he tell people and not end up dead?Kepler’s mother had been accused of witchcraft.He wasn’t sure he had royal or religious protection.
63Kepler HAD to tell what he knew! Wrote the first science fiction work:THE DREAMShows the feasibility of a heliocentric system.Feasibility = possibilityHas a trip to the moon.What it would be like looking out from another planet.
64Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion The orbit of a planet/comet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one focus
65Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion A line joining a planet/comet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time
66Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their semi-major axes:
67Johannes Kepler Excommunicated from the Lutheran Church. Lost his wife and all but two children to smallpox.Saved his mother from being burned as a witch.
68Johannes Kepler: The End Made a living teaching astronomy and astrology*Said astrology “evil-smelling dung!”Did some math writing, but kept a low profile.
69An Earth Centered Universe Why would people think that the Earth is the center?Why would the Church prefer to think that man was the center of the Universe?
70A new way of thinking!A shift in thinking to the assumption that mathematical laws governed nature and the universe; therefore, the physical world could be known, managed and shaped by people.
71Galileo: The Lightning Rod The one who swallowed the red pill and REALLY took us all down the rabbit hole!
72Galileo 1564 – 1642 Italian mathematician, astronomer. “Invented” the telescope.LOVED to create controversy.
73Galileo felt confident in creating controversy: He had protection! Lorenzo “the Magnificent” de Medici was his patron.Proved Aristotle wrong about gravity.Turned his telescope to the heavens.
74What did Galileo see? The universe was NOT: Unique He found other moons circling planets.We were not unique.PerfectThe moon had a rough surface.FixedSupernovas and sunspots!
75Galileo did NOT keep his observations quiet! Wrote The Starry Messenger to tell about what he saw.Proposed the Heliocentric system.
76Why did Galileo do this?Thought with Lorenzo the Magnificent’s protection he could be safe and teach that the universe was different than how the Bible interpreted it.To be safe: He named the moons of Saturn after Lorenzo’s daughters.Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Calysto.
77Galileo’s Argument:“Just look in the BLEEP! telescope!”
78The Catholic Church felt they had to make a stand and example: Western Christian biblical references Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 include text stating that "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved." In the same tradition, Psalm 104:5 says, "the LORD set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved." Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc
79Galileo’s Counter Argument: “Just look in the BLEEP telescope!”The Bible isn’t wrong, it is the interpretation that is wrong.It is a HELIOCENTRIC universe out there!
80Galileo’s Trial for HERESY Galileo was required to abjure the the idea that the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally heretical.”He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest.His offending books were banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.[
81GalileoHe knew he had escaped the worst the Inquisition could have done to him.Accepted the sentence and died after 9 years either in prison or house arrest.
82GalileoIt took until 1835 for the Catholic Church to admit the heliocentric universe.1992 Pope John Paul II apologized for what the Church had done. "most audacious heroes of research ... not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way.”
83The Birth of the Scientific Method A new way to problem solve.
84The Old Way: Aristotle’s Method People used to make guesses, could not prove or disprove any thing, and had vague theories.EXAMPLE: Aristotle claimed that human males have more teeth than females.
85The Old WayGalileo, Kepler, Tycho and Copernicus all battled with the old methods to try to explain what they were discovering.
86A New Way: The Scientific Method Created by Sir Francis Bacon (1564 – 1626)The method was to be inductive and experimental, amassing data on important subjects, classifying them, and developing from them wider rules and hypotheses.
87Inductive Reasoning in the Scientific Method 3+5=8 and eight is an even number.Therefore, an odd number added to another odd number will result in an even number.This ice is cold.All ice is cold.
88The Steps of the Scientific Method Observe a condition or behavior.Make a “guess” as to why that condition or behavior exists.Experiment to see if you can make it happen again.Analyze the results.New “guess” needed or not?
89The Stage was set for the FUTURE NewtonEinsteinHawking