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The Reformation and Scientific Revolution

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1 The Reformation and Scientific Revolution
Rethinking Our Place in the Universe

2 A Fork in the Road: People were getting access to books and writing in the vernacular. People were traveling again, trading, and exchanging new ideas. A wealthy merchant class was developing that wasn’t part of feudalism.

3 A Fork in the Road Why would the Church not like these things?
Why would some kings not like these things? Would some kings maybe like these changes?

4 Understand: Thinking “differently” from others could be very, VERY dangerous!

5 “Humanism”: Where it all started
An intellectual movement A focus on classical Greek and Roman culture Focused on worldly subjects rather than religious subjects Emphasized the study of the “humanities: grammar, rhetoric (the study of using language effectively), poetry and history

6 What was the Protestant Reformation?
In the 1500’s, the N. Renaissance sparked a call for big changes within the Roman Catholic Church Humanism caused people to question the Church, and the printing press gave them the means

7 Church Abuses during the Middle Ages
Popes and Kings struggled for political power. The Church always wanted to expand. Popes lived lavishly and churches were beautiful. (The Basilica, Krakow, Poland, 1300’s)

8 SOME popes began to live more like princes.
Pope Alexander VI Pope 1492 – 1503 Had two loves in his life: Gold and Women Most “famous” children Cesare Borgia Model for Machiavelli’s THE PRINCE Lucretzia Borgia

9 Lucretzia Borgia An active participant in her family’s excesses?
“Slimed” by her family’s enemies? Supposed expert at poisons? "THE “CANTARELLA," DEADLY POISON OF THE BORGIA,'

10 The Borgias are still with us in 2008!
I was going to come home for an evening of fun with my extended family. What do I get? I get the four of you going at each other like the Borgias on a bad day! Frasier

11 If that wasn’t bad enough!
The church increased fees and sold indulgences payment to reduce time a soul would spend in purgatory before going to heaven.

12 Early Revolts Against the Church
1300’s, in England, John Wycliffe used sermons & writings to seek change. Managed to die of a stroke – but the Church ordered his corpse to be burned. Jan Hus , Czech Republic, executed for leading a reform movement.

13 Fifty years later: Martin Luther (1483 – 1546)
German Monk, professor of theology. Led a holy life. Final straw when a priest sold indulgences in order to rebuild a cathedral in Rome. The indulgences got yourself and dead family into Heaven.

14 Martin Luther Indulgences meant that often peasants did not have hope to go to heaven. Created the 95 Theses (arguments against indulgences.)

15 Response to what Luther did?
Pope Leo X excommunicated Luther. Made it impossible for Martin Luther to ever go to heaven if he believed in such HERESY. HERESY: An opinion or a doctrine differing with established religious beliefs.

16 Not only was the Pope mad – the Holy Roman Emperor was upset!
Charles V, summoned Luther to the City of Worms & asked him to recant

17 Luther (cont) Luther refused to recant and was made an outlaw.
Luther had thousands who followed him and renounced the Pope.

18 Luther’s Teachings All Christians have access to God through faith and the Bible -- we don’t need elaborate ceremonies. Wanted ordinary people to be able to read the Bible (so translated it) Towns should have schools so kids can read the bible. Banned indulgences, confession, pilgrimages, and prayers to saints. Encouraged ex-priests to live as men and have families.

19 The Spread of Lutheranism
The printing press spread his ideas. Lutherans became called “Protestants” for those who protested against the Pope.

20 What Luther began was about a hundred years of warfare in Europe over Religion
Catholic v. Protestant Protestant v. Catholic Protestant v. Protestant Country v. Country

21 Attempts at Peace: The Peace of Augsburg: 1555
Emperor Charles V tried to force Luther back into the Catholic Church After several short wars they reached a settlement. Agreement allowed every prince to decide which religion would be followed in his lands.

22 Religious map of Europe

23 Swiss Reform John Calvin
John Calvin, priest and lawyer, published a book on how how to run a Protestant church. Shared Luther’s ideas, but had some ideas of his own. John Calvin

24 John Calvin He preached PREDESTINATION:
that God had already determined who would be saved The world was divided into two- -saints and sinners Only those who were saved could live truly Christian lives. See pg. 64, compare the 3 religions/copy chart

25 Geneva Protestants in city-state of Geneva, Switzerland, asked Calvin to lead their community. Calvin established a theocracy Government based on religion The community considered selves the “chosen people,” & faced fines or harsh punishment for fighting, swearing, dancing, laughing in church. -- model community!

26 The Spread of Calvinism
Reformers from all over Europe visited Geneva & took home ideas Calvinism spread into parts of Germany, France, the Netherlands, England and Scotland. There were wars between the countries above and the catholic church. Throughout Europe, Calvinists clashed with Lutherans and Catholics

27 The Catholics React: If you wanted to make people believe in your religion again, what would you do?

28 Catholic Reaction to the Reformation
The Inquisition Make people fear! Reform of the abuses in the Church Change the mistakes!

29 The Inquisition “for punishment does not take place primarily and per se for the correction and good of the person punished, but for the public good in order that others may become terrified and weaned away from the evils they would commit." 1578 justification

30 The Catholic Reform Movement: The Council of Trent in 1545
Reaffirmed Catholic belief that salvation comes through faith and good works. Admitted there was corruption that had to end in the Church Sought better education for priests.

31 The Jesuits “Soldiers of God” with spiritual and moral discipline.
Very educated to combat heresy. Advisors to Catholic kings. Traveled secretly in Protestant lands to administer to the Catholics. Traveled to Africa, Asia, and the Americas to spread the faith.

32 Teresa of Avila A Spanish noblewoman who found the convent she was at was not strict enough. Started her own order for women to dedicate themselves to prayer and meditation Live in isolation. Eating and sleeping little.

33 Teresa of Avila The Catholic Church picked up on her ideas and used them to reform monasteries and convents.

34 Differences between Protestants and Catholics continue in 2008
Intellectual disagreements Violence still happens. Northern Ireland

35 While people were battling over issues of religion …

36 Something was happening that would change EVERYTHING.

37 What was so dangerous? The Reformation had people rethinking their relationship with God.

38 The Scientific Revolution
Had people rethinking our position in the universe. Science and the Bible.

39 Four Men that took the Red Pill -
And led all of humankind down the rabbit hole. Nicholas Copernicus Tycho Brahe Johannes Kepler Galileo Galilei

40 After The Library of Alexandria burned:
The Church in the Dark and Middle Ages took an “Earth Centered” view of the Universe. Man was at the center of everything.

41 Early Christianity’s Main Points about the earth and the relationship to the sun and stars.
Uniqueness Centrality Fixity

42 The Problems This View Created?
It was WRONG! Trying to track the path of planets got VERY confusing. It didn’t fit the perfect circles.

43 The first to say the Earth was not the center?
Giordano Bruno (1548 – 1600) Suggested a HELIOCENTRIC system: The SUN was the center of the system, NOT the earth. Questioned the relationship between science and faith.

44 Giordano Bruno was declared a heretic
Burned at the stake.

45 Nicholas Copernicus Polish mathematician and astronomer.
Picked up on what Arab and Indian astronomers had written about: HELIOCENTRIC System. Sun centered universe

46 Nicholas Copernicus ( 1473 – 1547)
Did NOT publish his ideas until he was on his deathbed! Also thought if he dedicated his book to the Pope, it would help.

47 Copernicus On the Revolution of Heavenly Spheres.
There is no one center of all the celestial circles or spheres. The center of the earth is not the center of the universe, but only of gravity and of the lunar sphere. All the spheres revolve about the sun as their mid-point, and therefore the sun is the center of the universe.

48 It was three years after Copernicus died before people realized his ideas
Denounced the theory as being against the absolute truth of the Bible. In its full text it was prohibited reading for Catholics. 1633 Galileo was convicted of grave suspicion of heresy for "following the position of Copernicus, which is contrary to the true sense and authority of Holy Scripture,"[

49 Along comes Tycho Brahe:
1546 – 1601 Danish nobleman who had a passion for astronomy. To prove Copernicus WRONG, there needed to be detailed observations of the movement of the planets over years.

50 Tycho Brahe Lost his nose in a duel over a mathematic equation.
Didn’t help that he was drunk and the sword fight was in the dark. Wore a silver or gold nose that he colored to look like flesh.

51 Tycho Brahe Kept an observatory in Hven, Denmark.
Entertained royalty and others and invited them to watch the night sky with him. No telescopes yet! Naked eye observations that were INCREDIBLY accurate Tycho’s Tame Elk story.

52 Tycho Brahe’s “unusual” death
Rule of the time: If dining with a king, you couldn’t leave the table until the king was finished and ready to get up. Tycho really “had to go.” Either he burst his bladder or stretched it so bad an infection set in.

53 Tycho Brahe’s Death "Let me not seem to have lived in vain.”

54 Tycho Brahe’s Records:
Incredibly detailed in tracking planetary and star movement. Thought he was going to prove a GEOCENTRIC universe. The Earth at the center.

55 Tycho Found Problems with the “fixity” of the universe!
eternally unchangeable. But in 1578, Brahe witnessed a SUPERNOVA! A birth of a new star.

56 The Tychonic Universe the Sun annually circles a central Earth
While the five planets orbit the Sun. In Tycho's model the Earth does not rotate daily!

57 Johannes Kepler to the rescue!
1571 – 1630. Tycho’s assistant. Had the math background that Tycho didn’t. Wanted to read the Mind of God. Math and science could help him. Believed in the Copernican Theory.

58 Kepler and the Copernican Theory
Wanted to believe that the orbits of the planets around the sun were perfect circles. Continue the belief of the universe: Unique Centrality Fixity

59 Kepler’s Problem He couldn’t make it WORK!
The data of Tycho’s didn’t fit his perfect circle math!

60 Kepler’s problem Religion said that the universe was circular.
But the math said it wasn’t. WHO SHOULD HE BELIEVE??

61 Kepler’s Choice: Follow the math.
ELLIPTICAL orbits made the math work with Tycho’s observations! But they weren’t perfect! They weren’t central! They weren’t fixed!

62 Kepler’s NEW problem He thought he had “read the mind of God.”
How does he tell people and not end up dead? Kepler’s mother had been accused of witchcraft. He wasn’t sure he had royal or religious protection.

63 Kepler HAD to tell what he knew!
Wrote the first science fiction work: THE DREAM Shows the feasibility of a heliocentric system. Feasibility = possibility Has a trip to the moon. What it would be like looking out from another planet.

64 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
The orbit of a planet/comet about the Sun is an ellipse with the Sun's center of mass at one focus

65 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
A line joining a planet/comet and the Sun sweeps out equal areas in equal intervals of time

66 Kepler’s Laws of Planetary Motion
The squares of the periods of the planets are proportional to the cubes of their semi-major axes:

67 Johannes Kepler Excommunicated from the Lutheran Church.
Lost his wife and all but two children to smallpox. Saved his mother from being burned as a witch.

68 Johannes Kepler: The End
Made a living teaching astronomy and astrology* Said astrology “evil-smelling dung!” Did some math writing, but kept a low profile.

69 An Earth Centered Universe
Why would people think that the Earth is the center? Why would the Church prefer to think that man was the center of the Universe?

70 A new way of thinking! A shift in thinking to the assumption that mathematical laws governed nature and the universe; therefore, the physical world could be known, managed and shaped by people.

71 Galileo: The Lightning Rod
The one who swallowed the red pill and REALLY took us all down the rabbit hole!

72 Galileo 1564 – 1642 Italian mathematician, astronomer.
“Invented” the telescope. LOVED to create controversy.

73 Galileo felt confident in creating controversy: He had protection!
Lorenzo “the Magnificent” de Medici was his patron. Proved Aristotle wrong about gravity. Turned his telescope to the heavens.

74 What did Galileo see? The universe was NOT: Unique
He found other moons circling planets. We were not unique. Perfect The moon had a rough surface. Fixed Supernovas and sunspots!

75 Galileo did NOT keep his observations quiet!
Wrote The Starry Messenger to tell about what he saw. Proposed the Heliocentric system.

76 Why did Galileo do this? Thought with Lorenzo the Magnificent’s protection he could be safe and teach that the universe was different than how the Bible interpreted it. To be safe: He named the moons of Saturn after Lorenzo’s daughters. Io, Europa, Ganymede, and Calysto.

77 Galileo’s Argument: “Just look in the BLEEP! telescope!”

78 The Catholic Church felt they had to make a stand and example:
Western Christian biblical references Psalm 93:1, Psalm 96:10, and 1 Chronicles 16:30 include text stating that "the world is firmly established, it cannot be moved." In the same tradition, Psalm 104:5 says, "the LORD set the earth on its foundations; it can never be moved." Further, Ecclesiastes 1:5 states that "And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place, etc

79 Galileo’s Counter Argument:
“Just look in the BLEEP telescope!” The Bible isn’t wrong, it is the interpretation that is wrong. It is a HELIOCENTRIC universe out there!

80 Galileo’s Trial for HERESY
Galileo was required to abjure the the idea that the Sun is stationary was condemned as "formally heretical.” He was ordered imprisoned; the sentence was later commuted to house arrest. His offending books were banned; and in an action not announced at the trial, publication of any of his works was forbidden, including any he might write in the future.[

81 Galileo He knew he had escaped the worst the Inquisition could have done to him. Accepted the sentence and died after 9 years either in prison or house arrest.

82 Galileo It took until 1835 for the Catholic Church to admit the heliocentric universe. 1992 Pope John Paul II apologized for what the Church had done. "most audacious heroes of research ... not afraid of the stumbling blocks and the risks on the way.”

83 The Birth of the Scientific Method
A new way to problem solve.

84 The Old Way: Aristotle’s Method
People used to make guesses, could not prove or disprove any thing, and had vague theories. EXAMPLE: Aristotle claimed that human males have more teeth than females.

85 The Old Way Galileo, Kepler, Tycho and Copernicus all battled with the old methods to try to explain what they were discovering.

86 A New Way: The Scientific Method
Created by Sir Francis Bacon (1564 – 1626) The method was to be inductive and experimental, amassing data on important subjects, classifying them, and developing from them wider rules and hypotheses.

87 Inductive Reasoning in the Scientific Method
3+5=8 and eight is an even number. Therefore, an odd number added to another odd number will result in an even number. This ice is cold. All ice is cold.

88 The Steps of the Scientific Method
Observe a condition or behavior. Make a “guess” as to why that condition or behavior exists. Experiment to see if you can make it happen again. Analyze the results. New “guess” needed or not?

89 The Stage was set for the FUTURE
Newton Einstein Hawking

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