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Splash Screen.

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Presentation on theme: "Splash Screen."— Presentation transcript:

1 Splash Screen

2 Confrontation of the Superpowers
The division between Western Europe and Soviet-controlled Eastern Europe was the beginning of the Cold War.  The Soviet Union feared the capitalist West.  The United States feared communism. (pages 849–851) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-7

3 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
After World War II, the United States and Great Britain wanted the Eastern European nations to determine their own governments.  Stalin feared that the Eastern European nations would be anti-Soviet if they were allowed free elections. (pages 849–851) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-8

4 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
In early 1947, President Harry S Truman issued the Truman Doctrine, which stated that the United States would give money to countries threatened by Communist expansion.  As stated by Dean Acheson, the U.S. secretary of state, the United States was concerned that communism would spread throughout the free world if left unchecked. (pages 849–851) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-9

5 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
In June 1947, the European Recovery Program, better known as the Marshall Plan, began.  This program was set up to rebuild war-torn Europe.  The Soviet Union and its economically and politically dependent Eastern European satellite states refused to participate in the Marshall Plan. (pages 849–851) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-10

6 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
In 1949, the Soviet Union set up the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON) as a response to the Marshall Plan.  COMECON was established to help the economies of Eastern European states. (pages 849–851) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-11

7 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
In 1947, the United States adopted the policy of containment to keep communism within its existing boundaries and prevent further Soviet aggressive moves. (pages 849–851) Section 1-12

8 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
By 1948, Great Britain, the United States, and France worked to unify the three western sections of Germany and Berlin and create a West German government.  The Soviets opposed the creation of a West German state, so they tried to prevent it by setting up a blockade of West Berlin.  The United States and Great Britain set up the Berlin Air Lift to fly in supplies to West Berlin. (pages 849–851) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-13

9 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
The Soviets ended the blockade of West Berlin in May 1949. (pages 849–851) Section 1-14

10 Confrontation of the Superpowers (cont.)
The Federal Republic of Germany, or West Germany, was formally created in September  A month later, the German Democratic Republic was set up by the Soviets.  Berlin was divided into two parts. (pages 849–851) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-15

11 The Spread of the Cold War
Chinese Communists took control of the government of China in  As a result of the fall of China to communism and the Soviet Union’s explosion of its first atomic bomb in 1949, the Soviet Union and the United States began an arms race, in which both countries built up their armies and weapons. (pages 851–853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-17

12 The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
In April 1949, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed.  This military alliance, which included Great Britain, France, other Western European nations, and the United States and Canada, agreed to provide mutual help if any one of them was attacked.  In 1955, the Soviet Union and Albania, Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, East Germany, Hungary, Poland, and Romania formed the military alliance called the Warsaw Pact. (pages 851–853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-18

13 The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
The Korean War began in 1950 when the Communist government of North Korea, allied with the Soviet Union, tried to take over South Korea.  As a result, the United States extended its military alliances around the world.  By the mid-1950s, the United States was in military alliances with 42 nations. (pages 851–853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-19

14 The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
The United States, Great Britain, France, Pakistan, Thailand, the Philippines, Australia, and New Zealand formed the Southeast Asia Treaty Organization (SEATO) to stop the Soviet expansion in the East.  Turkey, Iraq, Iran, Pakistan, Great Britain, and the United States formed the Central Treaty Organization (CENTO) to stop Soviet expansion to the south. (pages 851–853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-20

15 The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
In 1957, the Soviets sent Sputnik I, the first man-made space satellite, to orbit the earth.  Americans feared there was a missile gap between the Soviet Union and the United States. (pages 851–853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-21

16 The Spread of the Cold War (cont.)
In August 1961, on the order of Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev, the East German government began to build a wall between West Berlin and East Berlin in order to stop the flow of East Germans escaping into West Berlin. (pages 851–853) Section 1-22

17 The Cuban Missile Crisis
In 1959, President Kennedy approved a secret plan for Cuban exiles to invade Cuba at the Bay of Pigs and revolt against the Soviet-supported Cuban dictator, Fidel Castro.  The invasion failed. (page 853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-24

18 The Cuban Missile Crisis (cont.)
The Soviet Union sent arms and military advisers to Cuba.  In 1962 Khrushchev began to place nuclear missiles in Cuba to counteract U.S. nuclear weapons placed in Turkey, close to the Soviet Union.  In October 1962, President Kennedy found out that Soviet ships carrying nuclear missiles were headed to Cuba.  So he ordered a blockade of Cuba to stop the ships from reaching Cuba. (page 853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-25

19 The Cuban Missile Crisis (cont.)
Khrushchev agreed to send the ships back and remove nuclear missiles in Cuba if Kennedy agreed not to invade Cuba.  Kennedy agreed.  The Cuban missile crisis brought the world close to nuclear war. (page 853) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-27

20 Vietnam and the Domino Theory
The Vietnam War had an important impact on the Cold War.  Its purpose was to keep the Communist government of North Vietnam from gaining control of South Vietnam.  U.S. policy makers applied the domino theory to the Vietnam War.  According to this theory, if South Vietnam fell to communism, then other countries in Asia would fall like dominoes to communism. (pages 853–854) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-29

21 Vietnam and the Domino Theory (cont.)
An antiwar movement escalated in the United States as a result of the growing number of American troops sent to Vietnam and the mounting destruction of the war, which was brought into American homes by television. (pages 853–854) Section 1-30

22 Vietnam and the Domino Theory (cont.)
President Johnson decided not to run for reelection because of public opinion against his handling of the war.  Former Republican vice president Richard M. Nixon won the election with the promise to end the war and reunite the American people.  In 1973, Nixon reached an agreement with North Vietnam allowing the United States to withdraw its troops.  Within two years, Vietnam was forcibly reunited by Communist armies from the North. (pages 853–854) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 1-31

23 The Reign of Stalin The economy of the Soviet Union was devastated by World War II.  To create a new industrial base, goods were produced almost exclusively for export.  The money from export goods was used to buy machinery and Western technology. (pages 855–856) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-7

24 The Reign of Stalin (cont.)
By 1950, the Soviet Union had built new power plants, canals, and giant factories.  Heavy industry, the manufacture of machines and equipment for factories and mines, increased.  The testing of the hydrogen bomb in 1953 and the launch of the first space satellite, Sputnik I, in 1957 made the Soviet Union a world power. (pages 855–856) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-8

25 The Reign of Stalin (cont.)
In 1946, the Soviet government said that all literary and scientific work must conform to the political needs of the state.  Stalin died in 1953. (pages 855–856) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-9

26 Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer.
The Reign of Stalin (cont.) What were the effects of the Soviet government’s economic methods enacted after World War II? By 1950, Russian industrial production surpassed prewar levels by 40 percent. The Soviet people, however, had a shortage of consumer goods and a severe shortage of housing. (pages 855–856) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the answer. Section 2-10

27 The Khrushchev Era After Stalin’s death, Nikita Khrushchev became the chief policy maker in the Soviet Union.  Under his leadership, de-Stalinization, or the process of eliminating some of Stalin’s ruthless policies, was put in place.  Khrushchev loosened government controls on literature.  For example, he allowed the publication of a work by Alexander Solzhenitsyn that depicted life in a Siberian forced-labor camp. (pages 856–857) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-11

28 The Khrushchev Era (cont.)
He tried to increase the production of consumer goods and agricultural output.  Khrushchev’s attempts to increase agricultural output failed, and the industrial growth rate also declined.  In 1964, he was forced into retirement. (pages 856–857) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-13

29 Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain
After World War II, Soviet-controlled Communist governments took control of Eastern European countries.  However, in Albania, the Communist government grew increasingly independent of the Soviet Union.  After World War II, Yugoslavia, led by Josip Broz, or Tito, was an independent Communist state until Tito’s death in 1980. (pages 857–858) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-15

30 Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain (cont.)
Between 1948 and 1953, Eastern European satellite states instituted Soviet-type five-year plans with emphasis on heavy industry.  They began to collectivize agriculture.  They set up secret police and military forces. (pages 857–858) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-16

31 Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain (cont.)
After Stalin’s death many Eastern European states tried to make reforms.  The Soviet Union, however, made it clear–especially in Poland, Hungary, and Czechoslovakia–that it would not allow its Eastern European satellites to become independent. (pages 857–858) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-17

32 Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain (cont.)
In 1956 revolts against communism erupted in Poland, and a series of reforms were adopted.  Fearful of a Soviet armed response, however, the Poles pledged to remain loyal to the Warsaw Pact. (pages 857–858) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-18

33 Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain (cont.)
In 1956, after calls for revolt from Soviet control, Hungarian leader Imre Nagy declared Hungary a free nation.  Three days later, Soviet troops attacked Budapest and reestablished control of the country. (pages 857–858) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-19

34 Eastern Europe: Behind the Iron Curtain (cont.)
In January 1968, Alexander Dubček was elected first secretary of the Communist party in Czechoslovakia.  He introduced reforms to the country, including freedom of speech and press.  By August 1968, the Soviet Army invaded Czechoslovakia, crushed the reform movement, and reestablished Soviet control. (pages 857–858) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 2-20

35 Western Europe: Recovery
The Marshall Plan helped the countries of Western Europe recover relatively rapidly from the devastation of World War II.  The 1950s and 1960s were periods of dramatic economic growth and prosperity in Western Europe. (pages 860–862) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-7

36 Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
For almost 25 years after World War II, France was mostly led by Charles de Gaulle.  He established the Fourth Republic, which featured a strong parliament and a weak presidency.  But the government was largely ineffective, and de Gaulle withdrew from politics.  He returned in 1958 and established the Fifth Republic, which featured a strong presidency. (pages 860–862) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-8

37 Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
De Gaulle became the first president of the Fifth Republic.  France became a major industrial producer and exporter.  Government deficits and a rise in the cost of living led to unrest.  De Gaulle resigned from office in 1969. (pages 860–862) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-9

38 Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
From 1949 to 1963, Konrad Adenauer, leader of the Christian Democratic Union, served as chancellor of West Germany.  Under Adenauer’s leadership and that of the minister of finance, Ludwig Erhard, West Germany’s economy was revived.  The unemployment rate fell greatly.  Erhard became chancellor from to  The Social Democratic Party, led by Willy Brandt, became West Germany’s leading political party in 1969. (pages 860–862) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-10

39 Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
At the end of World War II, Great Britain had large economic problems.  The Labour Party, which promised far-reaching reforms, defeated Churchill’s Conservative Party.  Prime Minister Clement Attlee and the Labour Party created a modern welfare state–a state in which the government takes responsibility for providing citizens with services and a minimal standard of living.  The British welfare state became the norm for most European states after the war. (pages 860–862) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-11

40 Western Europe: Recovery (cont.)
The cost of building a welfare state caused Great Britain to dismantle the British Empire.  Many British colonies gained their independence. (pages 860–862) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-12

41 Western Europe: The Move toward Unity
After World War II, many Europeans wanted European unity.  Nationalism, however, was too strong for European nations to give up their sovereignty.  Instead the countries focused on economic unity. (pages 862–863) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-14

42 Western Europe: The Move toward Unity (cont.)
In 1957, France, West Germany, the Benelux countries, and Italy created the European Economic Community (EEC), also known as the Common Market.  The six member nations would impose no tariffs on each other’s goods.  By the 1960s, the EEC was an important trading bloc–a group of nations with a common purpose. (pages 862–863) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-15

43 The United States in the 1950s
Between 1945 and 1970, the ideals of Franklin Roosevelt’s New Deal determined the patterns of American domestic politics.  Prosperity at home and Cold War struggles abroad characterized the 1950s in the United States.  Between 1945 and 1973 real wages–the actual purchasing power of income–grew an average of 3 percent a year. (pages 863–864) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-17

44 The United States in the 1950s (cont.)
The Cold War led to widespread fear that Communists had infiltrated the United States.  Senator Joseph R. McCarthy charged that hundreds of Communists were in high government positions.  This created a massive “Red Scare.” (pages 863–864) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-18

45 The United States in the 1960s
President John F. Kennedy, the youngest elected president of the United States, was assassinated in  Vice President Lyndon Johnson became president and was elected in a landslide victory to another term in  President Johnson’s Great Society programs included health care for the elderly, measures to fight poverty, and aid to education. (pages 864–865) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-20

46 The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
The U.S. civil rights movement began in 1954 with the Supreme Court ruling that made racial segregation in public schools illegal.  In 1963 the Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr., a leader of the civil rights movement, led a march on Washington, D.C., for equality.  He advocated the use of passive disobedience in gaining racial equality. (pages 864–865) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-21

47 The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
President Johnson worked for civil rights.  In 1964 the Civil Rights Act helped end segregation and discrimination in the workplace and in public places.  The Voting Rights Act of 1965 made it easier for African Americans to vote in southern states. (pages 864–865) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-23

48 The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
In 1965, race riots began in the Watts district of Los Angeles.  In 1968, after the assassination of Martin Luther King, Jr., race riots broke out in over a hundred cities in the United States.  The race riots caused a “white backlash,” and racial division in the United States continued.  As the Vietnam War continued through the second half of the 1960s, antiwar protests throughout the United States grew. (pages 864–865) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-24

49 The United States in the 1960s (cont.)
Republican Richard M. Nixon was elected president based on his ”law and order” campaign in 1968. (pages 864–865) Section 3-25

50 The Development of Canada
After World War II, Canada increased its industrial development.  Much of the Canadian growth was financed by people from the United States, leading to U.S. ownership of many Canadian businesses.  Some Canadians feared American economic domination of Canada.  Canada was a founding member of the UN in 1945 and joined NATO in 1949. (page 866) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-27

51 The Development of Canada (cont.)
The Liberal government of Canada created a welfare state by enacting a national social security system and a national health insurance program. (page 866) Section 3-28

52 The Emergence of a New Society
Postwar Western society had a changing social structure.  Managers and technicians joined the middle-class groups.  The number of people in farming declined dramatically.  The number of industrial workers declined as white-collar workers increased.  A consumer society developed as real wages increased. (pages 866–868) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-30

53 The Emergence of a New Society
(cont.) Buying on credit became widespread in the 1950s.  The automobile was a sign of consumerism. (pages 866–868) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-31

54 The Emergence of a New Society
Women in many Western countries had gained the right to vote after World War I.  Women in France and Italy gained voting rights in the 1940s.  Women who had worked during World War II returned to traditional roles.  Birthrates rose, creating a “baby boom” in the late 1940s and the 1950s. (pages 866–868) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-32

55 The Emergence of a New Society
By the end of the 1950s, birthrates declined.  Married women entered the workforce.  Women earned much less than men did for equal work.  Many women worked and raised families at the same time. (pages 866–868) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-33

56 The Emergence of a New Society
By the late 1960s, women renewed their interest in the women’s liberation movement.  The Second Sex by Simone de Beauvoir influenced both the American and European women’s movements. (pages 866–868) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-34

57 The Emergence of a New Society
Growing discontent in European and U.S. universities led students to revolt in the late 1960s.  In the 1970s and 1980s, student rebels became middle-class professionals. (pages 866–868) Click the mouse button or press the Space Bar to display the information. Section 3-35


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