Presentation on theme: "FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS"— Presentation transcript:
1FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS CHAPTER 1FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONSNo warm-up today. Take out your 5 themes of geo. Polytheism religions chart.
2PRE-CIVILIZATION Small groups could not irrigate rivers or defend Predecessors to civilizationsSmall farming villages 1st appeared in S.W. Asia (Turkey)Catal Huyuk as exampleSelf-sufficient agricultural village in TurkeyEvidence of trade, tool making, artisansEvidence of complex religionSpecialized occupations: politics, military, religiousEvidence of metal working (Copper Age)
3CIVILIZATION Civilization as Advanced Culture Cities as political, economic, culture centersFrom Latin civitas = citiesPermanent institutionsGovernment, Religion, military = WarSocial, labor, gender divisions, slaveryClearly defined sense of other: barbarian, nomadTechnology becomes more importantForm of record keeping, specifically writing
6Warm-up 9/3 A-3Take out your Hammurabi’s Code papersPick 1 law that is economicPick one that is religiousPick one that is socialPick one that is politicalBonus: Pick one that is geographic
7Warm-up 9/8You have a few more minutes to answer the questions from your reading. Gilgamesh epic and Egyptian hymn.After warm-up – 20 minutes to work with partner to finish AP study guide.
8Partner quiz over AP study guide questions What system did the Zhou use to rule China? Briefly explain how this system worked?What were 2 challenges people faced living in Mesopotamia?In what part of the World did the Olmec and Chavin Civilizations develop? What is something unique about each civilization?Name 3 areas of the World where civilizations developed. Areas not cities!!!What important religious beliefs did the Aryans bring?How would you describe Women’s status in Egypt? What evidence can you use to support that statement?
9ENVIRONMENT AS CATALYST Mesopotamia (land between rivers)Harsh heat, drought; unpredictable floodsFew natural resources short of mud; no woodNo natural defensive areas such as MountainsArea open to invasion by migrating nomadsPeople in area must join together toProvide permanent food supplyRegulate water supply. Irrigate crops.Provide defense against invaders. Build wallsTrade for materials such as timber and metal
10TIGRIS-EUPHRATES “Necessity is the mother of invention” Sumer in S. Iraq was first civilizationCuneiform writing, sciences, math aided farmingPolytheistic religionReligion was to appease gods, control natureArt, architecture dedicated to gods (Ziggurats), religionPriests, later kings rule city-statesLand owning aristocracy dominateWarlike society with slaveryTrade for needed materials
11LATER MESOPOTAMIANS Cycle of Civilization Akkad “First” Nomads come in and conquer sedentary peopleConquerors assimilate local sedentary cultureNew civilization blends cultures, thrives for a while“New” civilization grows old, invaded by nomadsAkkad “First”First EmpireSargon conquered all of SumerBabylonian “First”City at junction of Tigris-EuphratesHammurabi’s Law CodeLaws included in Jewish Torah
13THE NILE RIVER Society very different from Sumer Achievements Nile flooded regularly, predictablyProvided rich soil, Easy soil to farmCivilization regulated by flooding, surveying bygeometryLocation isolated – deserts and seas protectedPharaoh was considered god-kingTheocracy, almost absolutepyramid tombs for deadEgypt unified for most of long historyAchievementsMathematics especially geometry; architectureSciences, Medicine (mummification)Art was both secular and sacredReligion was positive, egalitarian in many ways – all citizens might enjoy paradise.
14INDUS VALLEY Arose around 2,500 BCE Mohenjo Daro, Harappa main citiesIndependent city-states, strong governmentExtremely well-planned, coordinated citiesElaborate writing system (not yet deciphered)Religion worshipped mother goddessLittle evidence of warfare until endDevastated by environmental upheavalsDestroyed by Indo-European (Aryan) nomads
15HUANG-HE (YELLOW) RIVER Developed in isolationCompare with ancient EgyptXia Dynasty (Mythical?)God-like kingsTaught irrigation, sericultureShang DynastyWarlike kings, landed aristocracy; few priestsMost people worked land as peasantsElaborate bronze workings; naturalistic art
16CHINESE WRITING Ideographic Elitist technique = scholar-bureaucrats Writing denotes ideasFirst used on Oracle BonesPriests asked gods questionsWrote questions on bonesTossed into fire; cracks read by priests (divination)Elitist technique = scholar-bureaucratsExtremely difficult to readRequired well-educated class to useOnly elite had time to learnCuneiform, hieroglyphs had similar effects
17DYNASTIC CYCLE One ruling family replaces another Stages in Cycle The Dynasty ChangesDue to the loss of the Mandate of HeavenStages in CycleNew dynasty arises, takes control of ChinaStrengthens rule, reestablishes prosperity, peaceWeakens, becomes lazy, problems ariseInvasions, revolts toss out reigning dynastyShang replaces Xia, Zhou replaces Shang
18MANDATE OF HEAVEN Chinese political idea Indicators of a Lost Mandate Rulers exercise power given by heavenRulers continue to rule if heaven pleasedHeaven will take back mandate to ruleHeaven will replace ruling dynastyIndicators of a Lost MandateWars, invasions, military disastersOver-taxation, disgruntled peasantsSocial, moral decline of elite classesIncreased crime, banditry
20HERITAGES First heritages passed on Writing systems inheritedIntellectual systems, art copiedReligious, philosophical systems copiedUseful inventions rarely forgotten, easily spreadRiver valley civilizations decline by 1000BCEAll subject to nomadic invasionsIndo-Europeans and Semites were strongestGeographical centers shifted (all except China)Political Structures often not continued
21CIVILIZATION SPREADS Phoenician Sailors in Lebanon City-states traded across MediterraneanInvented alphabetLydians, Hittites in Asia MinorIntroduced Iron, coinage to areaHebrews in PalestineLarge Semitic migration in areaEthical monotheismConduct determines salvationThere is only one God speaking through prophets, priestsGod made a covenant with the Jews, his Chosen people
22NOMADS: BARBARIANS? Pastoral herding on fringes Seen as savages Interaction vs. conflictNomads traded, coexisted with settled areasNomads warred on, conquered settled areasOften protected merchants, allowed tradePrior to 1500 BCE little major threatChariot Peoples (Central Asian Indo-Europeans)Domesticated horse, invented chariot, iron weaponsPushed into SW Asia, S. Asia, E. Asia, EuropeResponsible for spread of ideas, trade
23Warm-up 9/11 Dear Ancient Chinese mystic philosopher, I’m angry that the city counsel voted not to fund the new homeless shelter. I am thinking about organizing a protest and march to disrupt the city’s traffic. What do you think I should do?What advice would Lao Tze and Confucius give to this person?