Presentation on theme: "CHAPTER 1 FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS No warm-up today. Take out your 5 themes of geo. Polytheism religions chart."— Presentation transcript:
CHAPTER 1 FIRST RIVER VALLEY CIVILIZATIONS No warm-up today. Take out your 5 themes of geo. Polytheism religions chart.
PRE-CIVILIZATION Small groups could not irrigate rivers or defend Predecessors to civilizations Small farming villages 1st appeared in S.W. Asia (Turkey) Catal Huyuk as example Self-sufficient agricultural village in Turkey Evidence of trade, tool making, artisans Evidence of complex religion Specialized occupations: politics, military, religious Evidence of metal working (Copper Age)
CIVILIZATION Civilization as Advanced Culture Cities as political, economic, culture centers From Latin civitas = cities Permanent institutions Government, Religion, military = War Social, labor, gender divisions, slavery Clearly defined sense of other: barbarian, nomad Technology becomes more important Form of record keeping, specifically writing
THE MAP OF 1 ST CIVILIZATIONS
Warm-up 9/3 A-3 Take out your Hammurabis Code papers Pick 1 law that is economic Pick one that is religious Pick one that is social Pick one that is political Bonus: Pick one that is geographic
Warm-up 9/8 You have a few more minutes to answer the questions from your reading. Gilgamesh epic and Egyptian hymn. After warm-up – 20 minutes to work with partner to finish AP study guide.
Partner quiz over AP study guide questions 1)What system did the Zhou use to rule China? Briefly explain how this system worked? 2)What were 2 challenges people faced living in Mesopotamia? 3)In what part of the World did the Olmec and Chavin Civilizations develop? What is something unique about each civilization? 4)Name 3 areas of the World where civilizations developed. Areas not cities!!! 5)What important religious beliefs did the Aryans bring? 6)How would you describe Womens status in Egypt? What evidence can you use to support that statement?
ENVIRONMENT AS CATALYST Mesopotamia (land between rivers) Harsh heat, drought; unpredictable floods Few natural resources short of mud; no wood No natural defensive areas such as Mountains Area open to invasion by migrating nomads People in area must join together to Provide permanent food supply Regulate water supply. Irrigate crops. Provide defense against invaders. Build walls Trade for materials such as timber and metal
TIGRIS-EUPHRATES Necessity is the mother of invention Sumer in S. Iraq was first civilization Cuneiform writing, sciences, math aided farming Polytheistic religion Religion was to appease gods, control nature Art, architecture dedicated to gods (Ziggurats), religion Priests, later kings rule city-states Land owning aristocracy dominate Warlike society with slavery Trade for needed materials
LATER MESOPOTAMIANS Cycle of Civilization Nomads come in and conquer sedentary people Conquerors assimilate local sedentary culture New civilization blends cultures, thrives for a while New civilization grows old, invaded by nomads Akkad First First Empire Sargon conquered all of Sumer Babylonian First City at junction of Tigris-Euphrates Hammurabis Law Code Laws included in Jewish Torah
MESOPOTAMIA AS A CHART
THE NILE RIVER Society very different from Sumer Nile flooded regularly, predictably Provided rich soil, Easy soil to farm Civilization regulated by flooding, surveying by geometry Location isolated – deserts and seas protected Pharaoh was considered god-king Theocracy, almost absolute pyramid tombs for dead Egypt unified for most of long history Achievements Mathematics especially geometry; architecture Sciences, Medicine (mummification) Art was both secular and sacred Religion was positive, egalitarian in many ways – all citizens might enjoy paradise.
INDUS VALLEY Arose around 2,500 BCE Mohenjo Daro, Harappa main cities Independent city-states, strong government Extremely well-planned, coordinated cities Elaborate writing system (not yet deciphered) Religion worshipped mother goddess Little evidence of warfare until end Devastated by environmental upheavals Destroyed by Indo-European (Aryan) nomads
HUANG-HE (YELLOW) RIVER Developed in isolation Compare with ancient Egypt Xia Dynasty (Mythical?) God-like kings Taught irrigation, sericulture Shang Dynasty Warlike kings, landed aristocracy; few priests Most people worked land as peasants Elaborate bronze workings; naturalistic art
CHINESE WRITING Ideographic Writing denotes ideas First used on Oracle Bones Priests asked gods questions Wrote questions on bones Tossed into fire; cracks read by priests (divination) Elitist technique = scholar-bureaucrats Extremely difficult to read Required well-educated class to use Only elite had time to learn Cuneiform, hieroglyphs had similar effects
DYNASTIC CYCLE One ruling family replaces another The Dynasty Changes Due to the loss of the Mandate of Heaven Stages in Cycle New dynasty arises, takes control of China Strengthens rule, reestablishes prosperity, peace Weakens, becomes lazy, problems arise Invasions, revolts toss out reigning dynasty Shang replaces Xia, Zhou replaces Shang
MANDATE OF HEAVEN Chinese political idea Rulers exercise power given by heaven Rulers continue to rule if heaven pleased Heaven will take back mandate to rule Heaven will replace ruling dynasty Indicators of a Lost Mandate Wars, invasions, military disasters Over-taxation, disgruntled peasants Social, moral decline of elite classes Increased crime, banditry
HOW THE CYCLE AND MANDATE WORK TOGETHER
HERITAGES First heritages passed on Writing systems inherited Intellectual systems, art copied Religious, philosophical systems copied Useful inventions rarely forgotten, easily spread River valley civilizations decline by 1000BCE All subject to nomadic invasions Indo-Europeans and Semites were strongest Geographical centers shifted (all except China) Political Structures often not continued
CIVILIZATION SPREADS Phoenician Sailors in Lebanon City-states traded across Mediterranean Invented alphabet Lydians, Hittites in Asia Minor Introduced Iron, coinage to area Hebrews in Palestine Large Semitic migration in area Ethical monotheism Conduct determines salvation There is only one God speaking through prophets, priests God made a covenant with the Jews, his Chosen people
NOMADS: BARBARIANS? Pastoral herding on fringes Seen as savages Interaction vs. conflict Nomads traded, coexisted with settled areas Nomads warred on, conquered settled areas Often protected merchants, allowed trade Prior to 1500 BCE little major threat Chariot Peoples (Central Asian Indo-Europeans) Domesticated horse, invented chariot, iron weapons Pushed into SW Asia, S. Asia, E. Asia, Europe Responsible for spread of ideas, trade
Warm-up 9/11 Dear Ancient Chinese mystic philosopher, Im angry that the city counsel voted not to fund the new homeless shelter. I am thinking about organizing a protest and march to disrupt the citys traffic. What do you think I should do? What advice would Lao Tze and Confucius give to this person?