4Ch 3.1 Vocab Sheikh Quran Muslim Bedouin Allah Islam Hijrah Hajj Five Pillars of IslamShari’ahRevelationsSubmission
5The Arab EmpireArabs arose in the Arabian Peninsula and spread their influence throughout Western Asia and beyond. This is a desert area, Arabs were nomads who moved constantly to find food and water for their animals. Arabs organized in tribes to help one another because of the harsh environment. Each tribe was ruled by a sheikh, who was chosen by elders.
7Arabian TradeArabs lived as farmers and herders near oases or on a small fertile area of the AP.After domestication of the camel, trade expanded further into the desert.Communities along trade routes began to prosper. Arabs became major carriers of goods along the Silk Road. The official language on the S.R. was Arabic.
9Early Arabs were polytheistic BUT recognized a supreme god called Allah Allah’s Black Stone (meteorite) is located in a sacred central shrine in Makkah called the Kaaba.Arabian Peninsula routes are now more important because the usual trade routes are to dangerous. (fighting going on there)So trade increases along AP and cities prosper from increase trade. BUT tensions begin to arise…Wealthy merchants start to show little concern for lower income groups and slaves.
10Black Stone Shrine, The “Kaaba” located in Mecca (aka Makkah)
16Life of MuhammadBorn in Mecca -Orphaned at age 5 he was a caravan manager, married Khadija a rich widowTroubled by gap between the generosity of most Makkans and the greediness of the wealthy elite. He heads to the hills to Meditate and receives revelations from God, through the angel Gabriel. Gabriel tells him to spread the word.
17Shoulder buddy ????According to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his revelations from God through who?Where was Muhammad born?
18Muhammad believed he was the final prophet of Allah (Moses and Jesus were others). Revelations written down in the Quran-holy book of Islam. Islam = “peace through submission to the will of Allah” Muslims=one who has submitted.Quran contains ethical guidelines and laws by which followers of Allah are to live. They believe there is but 1 God, Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
19To Muslims, Allah is the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism. However, Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, not as the Son of God.They regard the Qur'an as the word of Allah as revealed to Muhammad, in the same way the Jews and Christians believed the Torah and the Gospels were revealed to Moses and the New Testament writers.
20Muslims believe that the Qur'an perfects the earlier revelations Muslims believe that the Qur'an perfects the earlier revelations. To them, it is the final book, and Muhammad was the final prophet of God.All three religions believe in heaven and hell and a day of judgment.
21Discouraged by persecution of his followers and Mecca’s rejection of his message he leaves for Madinah in 622 with only his closest followers (<30 ppl) This journey is called the Hijrah.622 became year 1 of the official Islam calendar still used today. Bedouins join.Returns to Mecca 8 years later with….10,000 men, city surrenders-most convert. Muhammad declares Kaaba sacred site. Religious and political leader.
23Five Pillars of IslamEach slightly more complicated than listed below, but know the general idea…
24For Muslims, carrying out Allah's will means following the Five Pillars of Islam. 1. Faith- belief that- "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah."2. Prayer Five times a day, Muslims face toward Mecca to pray.
253. Alms - Muhammad taught that all Muslims have a responsibility to support the less fortunate. Alms is money for the poor through a special religious tax.4. Fasting During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast between dawn and sunset.5. Pilgrimage all Muslims who are physically and financially able perform the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once.
26Islam is not just a religion but a way of life, after Muhammad's death Muslims developed a code of law =Shari’ah laws to regulate daily life.Islam openly regulates business dealings, government, and moral conduct.Followers are forbidden to gamble, eat pork, drink alcohol or be dishonest.
27Shoulder Buddy ?????What is the journey to Mecca called?List the 5 pillars of Islam.
29Islamic LawStresses the need to obey will of Allah and practice Five PillarsBelief, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimageIslam is considered a way of life, not just a religionShari’ah (law) applies the Quran to everyday lifeRegulates all aspects of life, NO separation of civil or political law
30The Qur'an is written in Arabic, and Muslims consider only the Arabic version to be the true word of Allah. Only Arabic can be used in worship.
31Popular World Religions Islam, Christianity and Judaism are all monotheisticMuslims believe that Allah revealed himself through Moses and Jesus but that Allah’s final revelations came through Muhammad.Muhammad is not “divine” to Muslims, just a prophetBUT Christians believe Jesus to be divine.Moses is a key prophet in all three faiths, but is critically important in Judaism.
33Shoulder Buddy Q’s:What is the code of Islamic law which also regulates everyday life?According to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received revelations from communication with whom?
34Ch 3.1 Shoulder Buddy Q’sWhat is the code of Islamic law which also regulates everyday life?Shari’ahAccording to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received revelations from communication with whom?GabrielList the Five Pillars of Islam.Belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage
35Hot SauceWhat is the significance of Shari’ah in the lives of Muslims?Why did communities on the Arabian Peninsula prosper economically?What was the significance of Gabriel’s messages to Muhammad according to Islamic teachings?
40Muhammad dies who is in charge? No sons- male led society -? Followers pick his father in law-Abu Bakr He is named caliph-religious and political successor to Muhammad.held down tribal political and religious uprisings, expanded and united Muslim worldQuran permitted jihad-fair, defensive warfare “struggle in the way of God”
41Abu Bakr Muhammad’s father-in-law And chief advisor Chosen as political and religious successor in 632 “Caliph”Unites Muslim world despite revoltsConquests into Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Persian Empire ubber warriors cuz-Arab soldiers assured a place in paradise if died in battle.
42Ruled the empire from Madinah Abu-Bakr also dies with no named successor! Lots of caliph’s named after this, assignation central. Muhammad’s son-in-law=Ali is one of these.Christians and Jews in conquered areas allowed to keep religion but pay a tax.
43How did Abu-Bakr unite the Arab world? Shoulder Buddy QHow did Abu-Bakr unite the Arab world?According to the Quran, fair, defensive warfare is a jihad, which means what?
44How did Abu-Bakr unite the Arab world How did Abu-Bakr unite the Arab world? He suppressed tribal political and religious uprisings and expanded Muslim territory. After Muhammad’s death territory doubled.Jihad-Struggle in the way of God.
46And then….the Umayyads-Mu’awiyah, in 661 named Caliph. He made job title hereditary to his family. (Not chosen) Capital moved to Damascus from Medina“Only used force when absolutely necessary”Continued expansions-Entire coast of North Africa and Most of Spain, and parts of Asia!BUT setbacks ensued-The Byzantines and Franks defeated the Arabs in 717 and 732, halting inroads in Europe
47The split in Islam- Hussein-Ali’s son and grandson to Muhammad challenges Umayyad rule. He loses but this splits Islam into 2 groups!!Shia-Muslims who only accept descendents of Ali as the true rulers of Islam. (Iran and Iraq) minoritySunni-Accept any Umayyad as caliph. They are the majority
51Abbasid Dynasty and Seljuk Turks In 750, Abu al-’abbas (descendant of Muhammad’s uncle) overthrew the UmayyadsAbbasid dynasty is bornCapital moved to Baghdad
52Abbasid Dynasty Influenced by Persians and other foreign culture Shift of focus from warriors to judges, merchants and bureaucratsLots of trade and tolerance of foreign ideasArt and literature flourishMore complex bureaucracy
53Abbasid Cont’d. Decline and Division Financial corruption Fighting over successionShortage of qualified ‘Arabs’ so Persians and Turks start to dominate key positionsOver time this leads to division in the Muslim Empire
54Seljuk Turks Originally nomadic ppl from central Asia Served in the Abbasid ArmyConverted to IslamSlowly took over eastern provinces of Abbasid domainIN 1055 a Seljuk Turk became the political leader (sultan) of the empireWhile the Abbasid caliph remained head of religion
56Shoulder Buddy Q’sWhat is the significance of Abu Bakr being named Caliph?Why was there tension over who should rule the empire after the death of Muhammad?What changes did the Abbasid rulers bring to the world of Islam?
64Thriving trade –gold, slaves, silk, porcelain, ivory, spices, grain, linens, precious stones, dates, oil. Ideas and Islam too!!!Extensive trade network, Africa to India to China using ships and camel caravansCities grew and were prosperous Baghdad, Cairo and Damascus-Awesome palaces, mosques, public buildings, fountains and bazaarsBanking (checks) and coins used
66Muslims could not be slaves in Islamic society!! Social Structure – equal to Allah, but not everyone else…BUTUpper class-Muslim at birth2nd class-converts to Islam3rd class-protected people-Jews, ChristiansSlaves- Inferior, usually served as soldiers or domestic servants.Muslims could not be slaves in Islamic society!!
67Ruling families Nomadic elites Senior officials Wealthy merchants Upper Class (Muslim at birth)Ruling familiesNomadic elitesSenior officialsWealthy merchants
68Most came from Africa and Asia SlavesMost came from Africa and AsiaSometimes capture in warMany served in army or as domestic servantsIslamic law says that slaves must be treated fairly AND that it was a “good act” to free them. Slaves could also purchase freedom
69Women are equal per Quran, but Men decided otherwise…Arranged marriages by guardians Quran says that women have spiritual and social equality with men.Right to own and inherit property shared by both men and women.And BTW-Islamic law says men can have up to 4 wives, most cannot afford dowry for more than 1. ($/property to bride)
70BUT over time Islamic ideas were eroded by older customs, WOMEN HAVE LOST RIGHTS Every woman has a male guardianSome kept from contact w/ malesBody covering = mandatory
74Philosophy, Science and History Preservation of ancient knowledge translating Greek works to Arabic.Especially good when the Library at Alexandria burnedMath: invented algebra, adopted numerals from India including “0”zeroAstronomy-study of position of starsPerfected the astrolabe-enabled European explores to sail to Americas.
76Medicine- encyclopedia, stressed contagious nature of certain diseases Medicine- encyclopedia, stressed contagious nature of certain diseases. Identified spread of disease by contaminated water.Historian, Ibn-Khaldun, adopted cyclical theory of history. Civilizations go through regular cycles of birth, growth, and decay.
78Ch 3.3 Shoulder Buddy Q’sT/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world.What was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs?
79Ch 3.3 Shoulder Buddy Q’sT/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world. TWhat was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs? Algebra
80Literature, Art and Architecture Literary works-10,001 Nights-collection of fairy tales, parables and legends. Aladdin, Ali Baba and 40 thieves.Visual- Islamic art included Arab, Turkish and Persian traditions. Geometric patterns important, Islam-NO creating pictures of living beings.Mosques & Palaces- arabesques, minaret
92T/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world. What was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs?How far did Arab trade routes extend?
93T/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world. TrueWhat was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs?AlgebraHow far did Arab trade routes extend?From Morocco to Asia
94MOAR! (sic)Why was the bazaar an important part of a Muslim city or town?What were the major contributions of Islamic scholars?What factors allowed both urban and rural areas to flourish after the eighth century within the Arab empire?