Presentation on theme: "Islam & the Arab Empire Ch 3.1, p. 43. Ch 3.1 Vocab Sheikh Quran Muslim Bedouin Allah Islam Hijrah Hajj Five Pillars of Islam Shariah Revelations."— Presentation transcript:
Islam & the Arab Empire Ch 3.1, p. 43
Ch 3.1 Vocab Sheikh Quran Muslim Bedouin Allah Islam Hijrah Hajj Five Pillars of Islam Shariah Revelations Submission
The Arab Empire Arabs arose in the Arabian Peninsula and spread their influence throughout Western Asia and beyond. This is a desert area, Arabs were nomads who moved constantly to find food and water for their animals. Arabs organized in tribes to help one another because of the harsh environment. Each tribe was ruled by a sheikh, who was chosen by elders.
Arabian Trade Arabs lived as farmers and herders near oases or on a small fertile area of the AP. After domestication of the camel, trade expanded further into the desert. – Communities along trade routes began to prosper. Arabs became major carriers of goods along the Silk Road. The official language on the S.R. was Arabic.
Early Arabs were polytheistic BUT recognized a supreme god called Allah Allahs Black Stone (meteorite) is located in a sacred central shrine in Makkah called the Kaaba. Arabian Peninsula routes are now more important because the usual trade routes are to dangerous. (fighting going on there) So trade increases along AP and cities prosper from increase trade. BUT tensions begin to arise…Wealthy merchants start to show little concern for lower income groups and slaves.
Black Stone Shrine, The Kaaba located in Mecca (aka Makkah)
Life of Muhammad Born in Mecca - Orphaned at age 5 he was a caravan manager, married Khadija a rich widow Troubled by gap between the generosity of most Makkans and the greediness of the wealthy elite. He heads to the hills to Meditate and receives revelations from God, through the angel Gabriel. Gabriel tells him to spread the word.
According to Muslim belief, Muhammad received his revelations from God through who? Where was Muhammad born? Shoulder buddy ????
Muhammad believed he was the final prophet of Allah (Moses and Jesus were others). Revelations written down in the Quran-holy book of Islam. Islam = peace through submission to the will of Allah Muslims=one who has submitted. Quran contains ethical guidelines and laws by which followers of Allah are to live. They believe there is but 1 God, Allah and Muhammad is his prophet.
To Muslims, Allah is the same God that is worshiped in Christianity and Judaism. However, Muslims view Jesus as a prophet, not as the Son of God. They regard the Qur'an as the word of Allah as revealed to Muhammad, in the same way the Jews and Christians believed the Torah and the Gospels were revealed to Moses and the New Testament writers.
Muslims believe that the Qur'an perfects the earlier revelations. To them, it is the final book, and Muhammad was the final prophet of God. All three religions believe in heaven and hell and a day of judgment.
Discouraged by persecution of his followers and Meccas rejection of his message he leaves for Madinah in 622 with only his closest followers (<30 ppl) This journey is called the Hijrah. 622 became year 1 of the official Islam calendar still used today. Bedouins join. Returns to Mecca 8 years later with….10,000 men, city surrenders-most convert. Muhammad declares Kaaba sacred site. Religious and political leader.
Five Pillars of Islam Each slightly more complicated than listed below, but know the general idea…
For Muslims, carrying out Allah's will means following the Five Pillars of Islam. 1. Faith- belief that- "There is no God but Allah, and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah." 2. Prayer Five times a day, Muslims face toward Mecca to pray.
3. Alms - Muhammad taught that all Muslims have a responsibility to support the less fortunate. Alms is money for the poor through a special religious tax. 4. Fasting During the Islamic holy month of Ramadan, Muslims fast between dawn and sunset. 5. Pilgrimage all Muslims who are physically and financially able perform the hajj, or pilgrimage to Mecca, at least once.
Islam is not just a religion but a way of life, after Muhammad's death Muslims developed a code of law =Shariah laws to regulate daily life. Islam openly regulates business dealings, government, and moral conduct. Followers are forbidden to gamble, eat pork, drink alcohol or be dishonest.
Shoulder Buddy ????? What is the journey to Mecca called? List the 5 pillars of Islam.
Islamic Law Stresses the need to obey will of Allah and practice Five Pillars – Belief, prayer, charity, fasting, pilgrimage Islam is considered a way of life, not just a religion Shariah (law) applies the Quran to everyday life – Regulates all aspects of life, NO separation of civil or political law
The Qur'an is written in Arabic, and Muslims consider only the Arabic version to be the true word of Allah. Only Arabic can be used in worship.
Popular World Religions Islam, Christianity and Judaism are all monotheistic Muslims believe that Allah revealed himself through Moses and Jesus but that Allahs final revelations came through Muhammad. – Muhammad is not divine to Muslims, just a prophet BUT Christians believe Jesus to be divine. Moses is a key prophet in all three faiths, but is critically important in Judaism.
Shoulder Buddy Qs: What is the code of Islamic law which also regulates everyday life? According to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received revelations from communication with whom?
Ch 3.1 Shoulder Buddy Qs What is the code of Islamic law which also regulates everyday life? – Shariah According to Islamic teaching, Muhammad received revelations from communication with whom? – Gabriel List the Five Pillars of Islam. – Belief, prayer, charity, fasting, and pilgrimage
Hot Sauce What is the significance of Shariah in the lives of Muslims? Why did communities on the Arabian Peninsula prosper economically? What was the significance of Gabriels messages to Muhammad according to Islamic teachings?
Muhammad dies who is in charge? No sons- male led society -? Followers pick his father in law-Abu Bakr He is named caliph-religious and political successor to Muhammad. held down tribal political and religious uprisings, expanded and united Muslim world Quran permitted jihad-fair, defensive warfare struggle in the way of God
Abu Bakr Muhammads father-in-law And chief advisor Chosen as political and religious successor in 632 Caliph Unites Muslim world despite revolts Conquests into Iraq, Syria, Egypt and Persian Empire ubber warriors cuz-Arab soldiers assured a place in paradise if died in battle.
Ruled the empire from Madinah Abu-Bakr also dies with no named successor! Lots of caliphs named after this, assignation central. Muhammads son-in- law=Ali is one of these. Christians and Jews in conquered areas allowed to keep religion but pay a tax.
Shoulder Buddy Q How did Abu-Bakr unite the Arab world? According to the Quran, fair, defensive warfare is a jihad, which means what?
How did Abu-Bakr unite the Arab world? He suppressed tribal political and religious uprisings and expanded Muslim territory. After Muhammads death territory doubled. Jihad-Struggle in the way of God.
And then….the Umayyads -Muawiyah, in 661 named Caliph. He made job title hereditary to his family. (Not chosen) Capital moved to Damascus from Medina Only used force when absolutely necessary Continued expansions-Entire coast of North Africa and Most of Spain, and parts of Asia! BUT setbacks ensued-The Byzantines and Franks defeated the Arabs in 717 and 732, halting inroads in Europe
The split in Islam- Hussein-Alis son and grandson to Muhammad challenges Umayyad rule. He loses but this splits Islam into 2 groups!! Shia-Muslims who only accept descendents of Ali as the true rulers of Islam. (Iran and Iraq) minority Sunni-Accept any Umayyad as caliph. They are the majority
Husseins revolt in Iraq!
Cultural Exposure Byzantine/Islamic Art – Monreale Cathedral (Sicily) Persian Islamic Architecture – Shiraz, Iran
Abbasid Dynasty and Seljuk Turks In 750, Abu al-abbas (descendant of Muhammads uncle) overthrew the Umayyads – Abbasid dynasty is born – Capital moved to Baghdad
Abbasid Dynasty Influenced by Persians and other foreign culture – Shift of focus from warriors to judges, merchants and bureaucrats – Lots of trade and tolerance of foreign ideas Art and literature flourish – More complex bureaucracy
Abbasid Contd. Decline and Division – Financial corruption – Fighting over succession Shortage of qualified Arabs so Persians and Turks start to dominate key positions – Over time this leads to division in the Muslim Empire
Seljuk Turks Originally nomadic ppl from central Asia Served in the Abbasid Army Converted to Islam Slowly took over eastern provinces of Abbasid domain IN 1055 a Seljuk Turk became the political leader (sultan) of the empire – While the Abbasid caliph remained head of religion
Shoulder Buddy Qs What is the significance of Abu Bakr being named Caliph? Why was there tension over who should rule the empire after the death of Muhammad? What changes did the Abbasid rulers bring to the world of Islam?
Thriving trade –gold, slaves, silk, porcelain, ivory, spices, grain, linens, precious stones, dates, oil. Ideas and Islam too!!! – Extensive trade network, Africa to India to China using ships and camel caravans Cities grew and were prosperous Baghdad, Cairo and Damascus-Awesome palaces, mosques, public buildings, fountains and bazaars Banking (checks) and coins used
Islamic Society Social Structure – equal to Allah, but not everyone else…BUT – Upper class-Muslim at birth – 2 nd class-converts to Islam – 3 rd class-protected people-Jews, Christians – Slaves- Inferior, usually served as soldiers or domestic servants. Muslims could not be slaves in Islamic society!!
Upper Class (Muslim at birth) – Ruling families – Nomadic elites – Senior officials – Wealthy merchants
Slaves Most came from Africa and Asia – Sometimes capture in war – Many served in army or as domestic servants – Islamic law says that slaves must be treated fairly AND that it was a good act to free them. Slaves could also purchase freedom
Women are equal per Quran, but Men decided otherwise…Arranged marriages by guardians – Quran says that women have spiritual and social equality with men. Right to own and inherit property shared by both men and women. And BTW-Islamic law says men can have up to 4 wives, most cannot afford dowry for more than 1. ($/property to bride)
– BUT over time Islamic ideas were eroded by older customs, WOMEN HAVE LOST RIGHTS Every woman has a male guardian Some kept from contact w/ males Body covering = mandatory
Modern Muslim Female Garb
Abbasid House of Wisdom
Philosophy, Science and History – Preservation of ancient knowledge translating Greek works to Arabic. Especially good when the Library at Alexandria burned – Math: invented algebra, adopted numerals from India including 0zero – Astronomy-study of position of stars – Perfected the astrolabe-enabled European explores to sail to Americas.
– Medicine- encyclopedia, stressed contagious nature of certain diseases. Identified spread of disease by contaminated water. Historian, Ibn-Khaldun, adopted cyclical theory of history. Civilizations go through regular cycles of birth, growth, and decay.
Ch 3.3 Shoulder Buddy Qs T/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world. What was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs?
Ch 3.3 Shoulder Buddy Qs T/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world. T What was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs? Algebra
Literature, Art and Architecture Literary works-10,001 Nights-collection of fairy tales, parables and legends. Aladdin, Ali Baba and 40 thieves. Visual- Islamic art included Arab, Turkish and Persian traditions. Geometric patterns important, Islam-NO creating pictures of living beings. Mosques & Palaces- arabesques, minaret
The Great Mosque of Samarra
Muezzin-crier=calls the faithfull
Dervish Dancing Contd.
T/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world. What was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs? How far did Arab trade routes extend?
T/F: Slavery was widespread in the Islamic world. – True What was a mathematical discipline invented by the Arabs? – Algebra How far did Arab trade routes extend? – From Morocco to Asia
MOAR! (sic) Why was the bazaar an important part of a Muslim city or town? What were the major contributions of Islamic scholars? What factors allowed both urban and rural areas to flourish after the eighth century within the Arab empire?