4Structure of Government Parliamentary Democracy.President.Prime Minister /Cabinet Secretariat.Independent Offices - UPSC, CAG, CVC, Planning Commission, EC, CBI, TRAI, National Commission for Women and National Commission for Population.28 Central Ministries.State Assemblies and Legislative Councils, Local Bodies.Judiciary-Supreme Court / High Courts / Subordinate Courts.
5Demographics Overall Population-1,027,015,247 (1.027 Billion) 0-6 Population million, about 15.8% of total population ( ranging 11.5% % in States)593 Districts (.64 million villages)1.23 million habitation0-4 population 117 million0-5 population 130 million0-6 population 154 million11-14 population million6-11 population million
6Continued--1.07million habitations with primary school within a distance of 1 Km.134.4 million children in primary + upper primary schools out of 212 million in 2002.IMR 68 in 2000 MDG goal for 2015 is 27.Under 5 MR 94.9 MDG goal for 2015 is 32.MMR 405 Under weight children 47%.Population BPL 26.1Adult literacy 57% (15 years and above) 1998.Literacy rate 7 years and above in 2001.
7continued Primary and Upper Primary gross Enrolment - 93.3% and 60.2%. Classes I-VIII gross enrolment 82.4%.Gender parity Classes I-VIII = 0.81, I-V = 0.83,VI-VIII = 0.7759 female teachers per 100 teachers.How ECD is DefinedECD Defined–National Policy on Education terms it ECCE and considers 0-6 age group.The largest Out Reach Program of ECD called Integrated Child Development Services(ICDS) also covers children of 0-6 age group.NCERT considers from 0-8 years.
8Policies /Action plan National Policy on Children 1974. National Policy on Education (NPE) 1986/92.NPE Program of Action 1992.National Plan of Action for Children 1992.National Health Policy 2002.National Nutrition Policy 1993.National Plan of Action Nutrition 1995.National Plan for SAARC decade for the Girl childCommunication Strategy for Child Development.
9Continued National Charter 2003 / National Commission for Children. Ratification of CRC in December 1992.Constitutional Provisions-86th Amendment.Fundamental Rights/Directive Principles.Programs of ECDICDS / Balwadis / ECE Centers / Nursery Schools / SSA / DPEP.Special Programs for Under threes: Crèche/Day care Center,National Creche Fund, Mobile creche, ECE centers Sneha (foster mother scheme), Shishu Greh.
10Continued---Operation “Sneha” was started in Orissa rehabilitate orphan children after the cyclone in state in Sponsorship services were also provided for families by institutions.Shishu greh scheme (MSJ&E) is for children 0-6, who have lost parental support,till such time that they are placed for adoption.Dular project in Bihar – in 7000 Aws of 31 blocks in 4 districts and links child's well being with mother’s well being.
11Continued--Bal Sanjeevani in Madhya Pradesh - targets reduction in malnutrition of children through improved feeding practices and growth monitoring throughout the State (State Policy on Nutrition 2000) SATCOM used for training.Anchal se Angan Tak in Rajasthan- works through Gram Sampark Samooh (GSSs) and Self Help Groups (SHGs), Kisori Balika Mandals, Mamta card for growth monitoring.Kano Parbo Na ( Why Can’t We Do It?) - A positive deviance in Early childhood care. Nutrition Counseling and child care centers are formed, Focused group Discussion are organized.
12Significant ECD Activities National Curriculum and ECCE Curriculum Review.Activities in States under SSA.Free and Compulsory Elementary Education Bill 2005 and ECCE.National Commission for Children.Kindergarten/Pre-schools and their structureOne year to three years duration.Structure varies –in ICDS, State run ECE centers, Pre-schools/private nurseries/pre-nurseries.
13Current IssuesCurriculum load, formal methods/homework, admission procedures, testing.States' capacity building/In-service/pre-service training.Lack of regulatory mechanism.Infrastructure facilities /worker-child ratio.Language issue/demand for English.Advocacy, convergence.Special needs of children.Linkage with primary, cultural context and community empowerment.