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Communication Science 3 international communication

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1 Communication Science 3 international communication
Media, Culture and Globalisation Introduction & Overview Lecture 1 Instructor: Mr.T.G. Mokgosi

2 What is international communication?
The term international communication means every aspect of communication involved in the flow of cultural products across national boundries- from direct satellite broadcasting to individual “reading” of cultural commodities from other countries.

3 International communication is defined as communication that occurs across international borders.
International communication is also defined as the transmission or transfer of media products (or the media system itself) across national borders.

4 International communication refers to a more socio-political and economic analysis of communication across national boundaries. International communication refers to the global dimension across the globe, between nations for the expansion of national (imperial) and corporate (business) power.

5 Global mass communication
Global mass communication is a multifaceted phenomenon that takes a variety of forms. According to McQuail (2000; p.220) these include: Direct transmission or distribution of media channels or complete publications from one country to audiences in other countries. Certain international media, such as MTV Europe, CNN International, BBC Word etc

6 Content items such as (films, music, TV programmes, journalism items) that are imported to make up part of domestic media output Formats and genres of foreign origin that are adapted or remade to suit domestic audience

7 International news: items whether about a foreign country or made in a foreign country, that appear in domestic media Miscellaneous content such as sporting events, advertising and pictures that have a foreign reference or origin.

8 The Historical Context of International Communication Reading: Thussu, Chapter 1

9 Politics, Communication and Power
There are important connections between media, communication and power both in terms of means of communication (Information and Communication Technology) and the content of the information communicated.

10 The nexus of economic, military and political power has always depended on efficient systems of communication. (D. Kissan Thussu). In short, control over communication systems allows such powers to control key messages (for propaganda purposes) and to influence socio-economic development.

11 i) Communication and Empires
Communication has always been critical to the establishment and maintenance of power over distance. Form the Persian; Greek and roman empires to the British, sufficient network of communication were essential for the imposition of imperial authority, as well as for the international trade and commerce on which they were based.

12 Indeed, the extant of the efficiency of communication.
Communications networks and technologies were key to the mechanics of distributed government, military campaigns and trade.

13 Greater need for international communication
The growth of international trade and investment required a constant source of reliable data about international trade and economic affairs, while the British Empire required a steady supply of information essential for maintaining political alliances and military security.

14 ii) The Telegraph and 19th c. Imperial Communication
The bottom line is that control of telegraph cables was crucial to maintaining an empire thus, political and economic success

15 3) International News Agencies
The newspaper industry played an important role in the development of international communication and increases the demand of news. The establishment of the news agencies was the most important development in the newspaper industry of the nineteenth century altering the process of news dissemination, nationally and internationally.

16 Commercial newspapers were early adopters of the telegraph
Commercial newspapers were early adopters of the telegraph. International news agencies were established soon thereafter 1835 Havas—French, 1849 Wollf—German 1851 Reuters—English All were international, all were subsidized by their domestic government, all services privately owned newspapers

17 Their effect was to control international information markets
What is important about the formation of international news agencies is that it links content to control over ICTs (telegraph cables) and control over the information circulating through that network, important both for the formation of public opinion, but as importantly for financial markets

18 1) Propaganda, the Cold War and International Communication
The second world war saw an explosion in international broadcasting as propaganda tool on both sides (communist and capitalist) Propaganda was also a key battle ground during the Cold War Radio Moscow vs. the Voice of America/Radio Free Europe

19 In 1951 the US established a “Psychological Strategy Board’ to advise the US president on the most effective forms of “international anticommunist propaganda”. Radio Free Europe was set up under its auspices as a part of a broader strategy of psychological warfare in Europe funded by the CIA

20 The key point here is that there was a clear connection made between the power over communication systems and the ability to alter public opinion and thinking. From US side, the goal was simple: win the ‘war’ in favour of capitalism, the ‘free market’ and consumerism. The key battle grounds were the developing world in Asia and Africa and Eastern Europe (Third World).

21 2) New World Information/Communication Order (NWICO)
Going into the final battle in forming international communication as we know it today, there was one last stand between competing visions of how it might be structured. The developing word—made up largely of former colonies—had a broad list of demands, including:

22 An end to the one-way flow of information—from North to South
An end to information ‘haves’ and ‘have nots’ A shift from horizontal flows of information (from the top down, from north to south, etc) to vertical flows An end to information as commodity subject to market logic An end to the international information and communication system helping to reproduce international inequality

23 Media and Development The Mass Media were seen as an important vehicle for socio-economic development not as a commercial means to ‘entertain’ and sell products

24 The Mac Bride Commission
The international communication for the study of the communication problems that was established under the chairmanship of Sean Mac Bride by UNESCO occupies a prominent place in the debate regarding the establishment of a NWICO.

25 The commission report, commonly known as the Mac Bride report, gave intellectual justification for evolving a new global. The commission was established to study for main aspects of global communication:

26 The current state of world communication;
The problems surrounding a free and balanced flow of information; How the needs of the developing countries link with the flow; How in light of the NIEO, a NWICO could be created, and how the media could become the vehicle for educating opinion about world problems.

27 The MacBride Report Report Summary: A democratic communication system is fundamental to both a more democratic social order and human rights.

28 the MacBride Commission’s Key recommendations
Developing countries needed greater access to information and less dependence on existing communication systems Democratic communication policies should be a priority for all developing countries Educational and informational use of communication should be given equal priority with entertainment

29 Communication systems (i. e
Communication systems (i.e. print, broadcasting, and telecommunications) must be developed on a national level Funding, for such development, can come in part from international initiative The focus should be less on profits and more on maximizing the free flow of information

30 Telecommunications should remain under state control to ensure the focus is on the free flow of information, not corporate profits Finally, both the electro-magnetic spectrum and geostationary orbit—both finite natural resources—should be more equitably shared as the common property of humanity

31 One specific recommendations was the need to foster non-corporate and non-state media (opening media access to) i) radical opposition in politics ii) community media iii) trade unions The idea was to establish a countervailing force to the dominant forms of corporate media to make media systems more democratic

32 Called for a number of Communication Rights and Freedoms
Rights to communicate and receive information-related political, economic, social and cultural rights Freedoms of the press (from state and corporate control) of expression

33 Theorizing International Communication Reading: Thussu, Chapter 2
International communication has borrowed and/or adapted theories and paradigms from (sub)disciplines such as international relations and media studies and applies these to discourses related to global communication (Madikiza & Bornman: 2007 pp.11–44)

34 Two broad but often interrelated approaches to theorizing communication can be seen:
­The Political-Economy Approach: concerned with the underlying structures of economic and political power relations (roots in the critique of capitalism (Marx), but it evolved over the years to incorporate a wide range of critical thinkers – question of relationship between economic, political and cultural power – examination of the pattern of ownership and production in the media and communication industries)

35 Cultural Studies: focused more on the role of communication and media in creating and maintaining shared values and meanings (started in Britain in the 1970s with the study of popular and mass culture and their role in the reproduction of social hegemony and inequality – now more concerned with how media texts work to create meaning, and how culturally situated individuals work to gather meaning from texts – discovery of polysemic texts).

Both seek to identify & critique dominant interests in the media and cultural spheres Both focuses on power distribution between the working class and the bourgeoisie

37 1. Free flow of information
The free-flow principle reflected Western (specifically US) opposition to the state regulation and censorship of the media by its communist opponents and its use for propaganda. The ‘free flow’ doctrine was essentially a part of the liberal, free-market discourse that championed the rights of media proprietors to sell wherever and whatever they wished.

38 The concept of ‘free flow’ served both economic and political purposes – media organisations of the media-rich countries hoped to dissuade others from erecting trade barriers to their products or from making it difficult to gather news or make programmes on their territories (arguments drew on premises of democracy, freedom of expression, the media’s role as ‘public watchdog’ and their assumed global relevance.

39 For the businessmen, ‘free flow’ assisted them in advertising and marketing their goods and services in foreign markets, through media vehicles whose information and entertainment products championed the Western way of life and its values of capitalism and individualism.

40 For Western governments, ‘free flow’ helped to ensure the continuing and unreciprocated influence of Western media on global markets, strengthening the West in its ideological battle with the Soviet Union.

41 2. Modernisation theory complementary to the doctrine of ‘free-flow of information in international communication was the key to the process of modernization and development for the so-called ‘Third World’.

42 The theory arose from the notion that international mass communication could be used to spread the message of modernity and transfer the economic and political models of the West to the newly independent countries of the South. Modernisation/ development theory is based on the belief that the mass media would help transform traditional societies.

43 Lerner ()examined the degree to which people in the Middle East were exposed to national and international media, especially radio. – proposed that contact with the media helped the process of transition from a ‘traditional’ to a ‘modernized’ state, as the media is said to enable individuals to experience events in far-off places, forcing them to reassess their traditional way of life.

44 Schramm (key modernization theorist): saw the mass media as a ‘bridge to a wider world’, as the vehicle for transferring new ideas and models from the North to the South, and, within the South, from urban to rural areas.

45 3. Dependency theory aimed to provide an alternative framework to analyse international communication central was the view that transnational corporations (TNCs) exercise control over the developing countries by setting the terms for global trade – dominating markets, resources, production and labour.

46 Development for these countries was shaped in a way to strengthen the dominance of the developed nations and to maintain the ‘peripheral’ nations in a position of dependence – to make conditions suitable for ‘dependent development’ Outcome of such relationships: ‘the development of underdevelopment’

47 The dependency theorists aimed to show the links between discourse of ‘modernisation’ and the policies of transnational media and communication corporations and their backers among Western governments.

48 4.Media and Cultural imperialism
Oliver Boyd-Barret defined media Imperialism- is defined as “the process whereby the ownership, structure, distribution of content of the media in any one country are singly or together subject to substantial external pressures from the media interests of any other country or countries without proportionate reciprocation of influence by the country so affected (1977: 117)

49 The absence of reciprocation of media influence by the affected country combines both the elements of cultural invasion by another power and element of imbalance of power resources between the countries concerned. The two element of invasion and imbalance of power resources justify the use of the term ‘imperialism’.

50 McQuail notes that the term implies a deliberate attempt to dominate, invade or subvert the ‘cultural space’ of others and suggest a degree of coercion in the relationship. The ‘invading’ nation’s cultural and other values are imposed on the audiences of the ‘invaded’ nation.

51 Media and cultural imperialism thesis
Global media promote relations of dependency rather than economic growth The imbalance in the flow of mass media content undermines cultural autonomy or holds back its development

52 The unequal relationship in the flow of news increases the relative global power of large and wealthy news producing countries and hinder the growth of an appropriate national identity and self-image Global media flow give rise to a state of cultural homogenisation leading to a dominant form of culture that no specific connection with real experience to most of the people.

53 Criticisms clear definitions of fundamental terms are absent (e.g. imperialism) lack of empirical evidence to support the arguments ignores the question of media form and content as well as the role of the audience

54 media texts can be polysemic and are amendable to different interpretations by audiences who are not merely passive consumers, but active participants in the process of negotiating meaning (Fiske) does not take on board issues such as how global media texts work in national contexts, ignoring local patterns of media consumption.

55 Limitation of cultural and media imperialism approach: it does not fully take into account the role of the national elites, especially in the developing world.

56 4. Hegemony (Gramsci ) The dominant social group/nation has the capacity to excercise intellectual and moral directionover society at large and to build a news system of social alliances to support its aims–not instrumented by military force, but rather by building consent by ideological control of cultural production and distribution – ‘common sense’

57 This happens when this group excersise control over mass media, schools, religion etc
The dominant class then coersively imposses its will on subodinate classes

58 In international communication, the notion of hegemony is widely used to conceptualize political function of the mass media, as a key player in propagating and maintaining the dominant ideology and also to explain the process of media and communication production, with dominant ideology shaping production of news and entertainment.

59 It is thus argued that although the media in the West are notionally free from direct governmental control, they nevertheless act as agents to legitimise the dominant ideology.

60 5. Critical theory The industrial production of cultural goods – films, radio programmes, music and magazines, etc. – as a global movement, they (critical theorist) argued that in capitalist societies the trend was toward producing culture as a commodity.

61 Adorno and Horkheimer believed that cultural products manifested the same kind of management practices, technological rationality and organizational schemes as the mass production industrial goods such as cars.

62 This industrially produced and co modified culture, led to the deterioration of the philosophical role of culture. Instead, this mediated culture contribute to the incorporation of the working classes into the structures of advanced capitalism and it limiting their horizons to political and economic goals that could be realized within the capitalist system without challenging it.

63 The critical theorist argued that the development of the ‘culture industry’ and its ability to ideologically inoculate the masses against socialist ideas benefited the ruling classes.

64 The concentration of the ownership of a cultural production in a few producers resulted in a standardized commercial commodity, contributing to what they called a ‘mass culture’ influenced by the mass media and one which thrived on the market rules of supply and demand.

65 In their view, such a process undermined the critical engagement of masses with important socio– political issues and insured a politically passive social behavior and the subordination of the working classes to the ruling elite.

66 In an international context the idea of ‘mass culture’ and media and cultural industries has influenced debates about the flow of information between countries. etc. – as a global movement, they argued that in capitalist societies the trend was toward producing culture as a commodity.

67 6. The theory of public sphere
The public sphere is define as an arena, independent of government and also enjoying autonomy from partisan economics forces, which is dedicated to rational debate (i.e. to debate and discussion which not ‘interest’, ‘disguised’ or ‘manipulated’) and which is both accessible to entry and open to inspection by the citizenry (Holub, 1991).

68 The public sphere provides a useful concepts in understanding democratic potential of communication processes. The globalisation of media and communication led to the evolution of a ‘global public sphere’ where issues of international significance –environment, human rights, gender and ethnic equality can be articulated through the global mass media.

69 7.Theories of the information society
According to its supporters, an international information society is being created via the Internet, which will digitally link every home, office and business in a networked society based on what has been termed the ‘knowledge economy’ – these networks provide the infrastructure for a global information society (Negroponte)

70 Criticism: these changes are technologically determined and ignore the social economic and political dimensions of technological innovation. ‘The medium is the message’: media technology has more social effect on different societies and cultures than media content (McLuhan)

71 ’Global village’: new communication and information technologies would help bring people closer together (McLuhan) It is argued that US society has moved from an industrial to a post-industrial society, characterised by the dominant of information and information-related industries (Bell) – the ‘information age’

72 8. Discourses of globalisation
New information and communication have made global interconnectivity a reality Globalisation is seen as fostering international economic integration and as a mechanism for promoting global liberal capitalism – it is to be welcomed for the effect that it has in promoting global markets and liberal democracy (liberal interpretation)

73 Idea of cosmopolitan: emphasises social and cultural life – the expansion of information and communication technologies coupled with market-led liberal democracies are contributing to the creation of what has been called a global civil society.

74 ‘Glocalisation’: expresses the global production of the local and the localisation of the global.
Global culture includes the proliferation of media technologies, especially cable television and satellite (creates ‘global village’)

75 Models such as globalisation and international communism forget the complexity of the interaction of class with nationalism, religion, race, ethnicity and feminism to produce local political struggles.

76 Global Communication Infrastructure Reading: Thussu, Chapter 3
The process of deregulation and privatisation in the communications and media industries combined with new digital information and communication Technologies to enable a quantum leap in international communication, illustrated most vividly in the satellite industry.

77 Free Trade in Global communication
The new information and communication technologies have helped to create a global communication infrastructure based on regional and global satellite networks, used for telecommunications, broadcasting and electronic commerce

78 Privatizing Space (the global satellite industry)
For most of the 20th century, the state was the main provider of national telecommunications infrastructure and equipment and regulator of international traffic (e.g. PTT) People began to oppose national monopolies, arguing that a competitive environment would improve services and reduce costs

79 In 1984 US President Ronald Reagan announced as ‘open skies’ policy, breaking the public monopoly and allowing private telecommunications networks to operate in the national telecommunication arena. The general shift from the public–service role of telecommunication to private competition and deregulation had a major impact on international telecommunication policy, shaped by the USA, Britain and Europe, all of whom have companies with global ambitions.

80 Uruguay Round of the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT): established in 1947 to provide a framework for international trade after WWII – included trade in services for the first time on a par with the traditional commercial and manufacturing sectors (reflected the neo-liberal push towards opening up protected markets)

81 However, there was tension between the free-marketers and those who argued for a more regulated system to protect domestic markets and interests The WTO argued that dismantling barriers to the free flow of information was essential for economic growth – it is not possible to have significant trade in goods and services without a free trade of information

82 General Agreement on Trade Services: first multilateral, legally enforceable agreement covering trade and investment in the services sector and the one with the most potential impact on international communication (most significant component: GATS Annex on Telecommunications – equal accessibility for both foreign and national suppliers)

83 Privatizing News Avenues (the world of News Corporation)
Global news and information networks/News agencies: AP (USA; world’s largest news gathering organisation) Reuters (UK; largest financial information provider) Agence France Presse (AFP) (France; financial provider of news)

84 Other major agencies: United Press International (UPI, USA), Xinhua (China), ITAR-TASS (Russia), (WTO, IMF) These players dominate the global financial news services and international television news (especially AP and Reuters)

85 CNN is the world leader in international news channels (in front of BBC and Sky News) – symbolises globalisation of American television journalism, influencing news agendas across the world and shaping international communication

86 THE GLOBAL MEDIA MARKETPLACE Reading: Thussu, Chapter 4
The deregulation and liberalization of the international communication sector in the 1990s were paralleled in the media industries and, in conjunction with the new communication technologies of satellite and cable, have resulted in the concentration of media power in the hands of a few large transnational corporations, undermining media plurality and democratic discourse .

87 The largest growing application of international communication infrastructure is for the delivery of media products information, news and entertainment. The convergence of both media and technologies, and the process of vertical integration of the media industries to achieve this aim, have resulted in the concentration of media power in the hand of a few large transnational companies, with implications for global democracy.

88 With deregulation and the relaxation of cross-media ownership restrictions, media companies look to broaden and deepen their existing interests which has lead to convergence and acquisitions

89 Media conglomerates Time Warner (USA; entertainment & infotainment company – CNN/Warner Bros) Disney (USA; film & entertainment company – Disney Channel, ESPN) Sony (Japan; electronics & multimedia entertainment – Columbia Pictures) Bertelsmann (Germany; largest publisher of books and magazines) Viacom/CBS (USA; large entertainment company – Paramount Pictures/MTV)

90 Media power being concentrated in hands few corporations (mainly American) conglomerates may act like an alliance in production and distribution of global information and entertainment (McChesney, Bagdikian). In other words, the media may become the mouthpiece for these corporations and their supporters in governments (existent relationship between the media and the government).

91 A significant proportion of the revenue of leading media companies comes from television (partly due to establishment of satellite TV) – mainly documentaries and adult entertainment TV (easily exported to all nations/cultures), but also sport and popular music Global cinema and television screens are dominated by Hollywood, and English-language publishing is predominant (led by the USA/ UK: ‘duopoly’)

92 Televising Sport Globally Commercialisation
Historically sports have been used as forms of entertainment However, they have never been more commercialised than today Commercial sports are organised and played to make money as entertainment events They depend on gate receipts, sponsorships and sale of media rights. Therefore commercial sports are more suited to certain conditions i.e.

93 most prevalent in market economies where material rewards are high
Usually exist in densely populated cities for large spectator base Require people in a society to have time, money transportation and availability to media outlets (print and electronic)

94 5. Commercial sports require large amounts of capital to build and maintain stadiums and arenas (therefore naming rights are important for $) 6. Commercial sports are most likely to flourish in cultures where lifestyles involve high rates of consumption and emphasise material status symbols (therefore everything associated with sports can be marketed and sold - i.e. autographs, merchandise, even team names)

95 Class relations and commercial sports
Which sports have become commercialised in society? Often those sports followed and watched by people who possess or control economic forces in society E.g. Golf - the sport does not lend itself to a sporting “spectacle” in terms of high spectator numbers yet TV coverage is immense - a lot of money involved

96 Those who play golf are wealthy powerful people and are important in terms of sponsorships and advertising However, why does women’s golf attain less TV and media? And then, which women attract the majority of attention? Despite these being gender issues they ultimately come down to money and market economies

97 Arguably any sport can be marketed and promoted as an important sport to watch.
When wealthy and powerful people are interested in a sport, it will be covered, promoted and presented as if it has a cultural significance in society

98 Athletes and sporting teams have a global marketing capacity
Sport as BIG business Corporations understand the importance of sport as a marketing and branding tool for their product Athletes and sporting teams have a global marketing capacity Even sports stadiums have been branded

99 Hosting the Olympics is not about prestige, it is about money
Big sport is big money Hosting the Olympics is not about prestige, it is about money Politicians know what hosting the Olympics will mean to the economy (and votes)-increased tourism, global exposure, more jobs-building venues-roads, infrastructure money for public amenities, jubilant voters etc

100 A successful national or global sporting team can mean important revenue for the city e.g. Manchester United, Chicago Bulls, Adelaide Crows, Port Power (notice these are all male sports) Big sport also creates huge revenue for media outlets - Locally, Nationally, Globally

101 Do Sports Depend on the Media?
No, when they exist for the players themselves Yes, when they are forms of commercial entertainment Media coverage attracts attention and provides news of results Television has been a key factor in the growth and expansion of commercial sport (Television expands commercial value of sports)

102 Have the Media Corrupted Sports?
This is not likely because: Sports are not shaped primarily by the media in general or TV in particular (Sports are social constructions that emerge in connection with many different social relationships) The media, including TV, do not operate in a political and economic vacuum (Government regulates the media, and economic factors set limits to control)

103 Do the Media Depend on Sports?
Most media do not depend on sports for content or sales Daily newspapers have depended on “sports sections” to boost circulation and advertising revenues Many television companies have depended on sports to fill program schedules, attract male viewers and the sponsors that want to reach them (Many sport events have audiences with clearly identifiable “demographics”-ie watch the ads-KFC cricketers box during cricket, footy pie)

104 Trends in Televised Sports
Rights fees have escalated rapidly since the 1960s Sports programming has increased dramatically As more events are covered, ratings for particular events have decreased (Audience fragmentation has occurred- basketball from Winter to Summer, Uncle Toby Super Series surf lifesaving pulled completely) Television companies use sports events to promote other programming Television companies increasingly own teams and events (particularly in the US-although 7 Network and Telstra Dome have close links)

105 Corporate sponsorship
Many male executives of large media corporations love sports and the notion of being linked to sports Masculine culture is deeply embedded in these corporations (i.e. masculinised hierarchy) When sport emphasizes competition, domination, and achievement, executives feel that these are crucial factors in their companies (They will pay big money to hire coaches to motivate employees around these themes ….also pay large sums to sponsor teams and events)

106 Setting the global news agenda
News, more than any cultural form, carries the burden of defining the world in which citizens operate” [Lewis] Unlike news, maps are objective to the most part. News affects our mental maps (how we see the world, and from which angle). News stories are selected (agenda setting)

107 Certain news however is not reported on.
Africa is the least reported continent in the Western World News Agencies (AFP, Reuters, AP) set news agendas The ‘institutional gatekeeper’ are the news agencies. News Agencies are relatively monopolistic.

108 Decolonization after WWII  News Nation States  News flows keep mirroring the centre periphery.
UNESCO tried to form a contra-flow of news Idea was that 3rd world countries would receive truthful representations.

109 Yet, news in developing countries is often channelled through London or Paris.
There is limited agency is African countries and for foreign news, they rely on world agencies as they have no foreign correspondents .

110 News Agencies in the developing world
Rely on the state for economic survival Depend on the agencies of ex-imperial powers for world news Are told that national news agencies in the national scope are not to be trusted.

111 The New World Information and Communication Order (NWICO) Controversy
Developed during and after the cold war Developing countries are the victims of domination in information Subject to imperialism The motive (is almost) always to control

112 Trends in mass media led to concentration and monopolization
Greater risk of on-sidedness and conformity Greater gap between rich and poor Imbalance in news flows News is framed (generally negative for third world)

113 This has NOT changed over the years, as news is reported on in ethnocentric ways (where one society feels it is better than all others).

114 Ideological Shifts within UNESCO
1950s: Free flow was key for the Western world. Info available for those with the necessary resources 1960s/70s: Free flow actually seen as “one-way” flow. National news agencies in the developing world seen ideological support for politics 1984: USA and UK leave UNESCO due to one way flow.

115 News Agencies Today Three Leading News Agencies: AP, Reuters and AFP
Fewer corporations are providing information using fewer resources Age of hyper-commercialism and infotainment Western Societies decline in the amount of quality of foreign news reporting.

116 News agencies are forming CNN, BBC, Al Jazeera
Still too western Agenda Setting and Imperialism Increased homogenization

117 Traditional Model News coverage: reliable news on national and international level for customers Distribution: distribute it via global networks telex or satellite

118 Today’s Model Everybody can publish Everybody can distribute
No longer single agency of news “Perceived economic value of content is approaching zero”

119 International Journalism after 911 (West vs. Middle East)
Current research has demonstrated that the majority of the news that is found on the Internet come from only a handful of preeminent media outlets. The rise of news networks such as Al-Jazeera pushed for a reassessment of those claims.

120 Al-Jazeera English offers an alternative mode of news journalism that fosters a stereotypical attitude towards the “other” The advent of Al-Jazeera redefine the traditional wartime news angle of reporting in the U.S. media, reconfiguring the counter-hegemonic debate in U.S. war reporting.

121 images tend to be modified through re-broadcasting by other news network.
Counter-hegemonic contra-flows have pushed U.S. local news stations to be defensive and offensive towards their reports concerning different world views, perceived as threatening to the U.S. national security.

122 U.S. news networks consistently “self-censored all counter-hegemonic news material from Al-Jazeera, without regard to the principles of objectivity and impartiality” (Samuel-Azran, 2010: 42).

123 Most of the images were consistent with U.S. Administration demands.
How do they do so? News on the War in Afghanistan was “framed as a targeted attack on the Taliban’s terrorists regime”. Most of the images were consistent with U.S. Administration demands.

There is a great debate about the relationship between the news media and the foreign policy decision-making process, and the impact the former may have on the latter. Two theories have risen to explain this matter, the so-called "CNN effect" and the "manufacturing consent" thesis.

125 The globalisation of certain television formats may give the impression of homogenisation, but television is simultaneously global and national, shaped by the globalisation of media economics and the pull of local and national cultures Many global media corporations also produce regional editions of their newspapers and magazines to provide a regional perspective on issues relevant to their respective readers

126 The so-called "CNN effect", is understood in a variety of ways.
The "CNN effect" The so-called "CNN effect", is understood in a variety of ways. The capability of the news media (television in particular) to "shape the policy agenda”. The "power" of news journalism "to move governments.

127 3. The idea that real-time communications technology could provoke major responses from domestic audiences and political elites to global events. 4. The argument that the media drives Western conflict management by forcing Western governments to intervene militarily in humanitarian crises against their will.

128 The manufacturing consent theory
The manufacturing consent theory "argues that the media does not create policy, but rather that news media is mobilized (manipulated even) into supporting government policy”. There are two ways in which manufacturing consent may take place:

129 The executive version, in which there is framing that, conforms to the official agenda; and
The elite version, in which news coverage is critical of executive policy as a consequence of elite dissensus.

130 Media, Foreign Policy and Events
The relevance of the relationship between the news media and foreign policy makers goes beyond the fact that the former cover foreign events and the latter make policies regarding foreign events. The importance of this relationship, thus, relies on two claims about it:

131 Firstly, the claims that the coverage of certain events has the potential to drive the policies that foreign policy makers conduct regarding the events covered (the CNN effect), Secondly, the claim that foreign policy makers are the ones who drive media attention towards certain foreign events, and even determine the way those events are being framed (Manufacturing consent).

The general pattern of the media ownership indicates that the west, led by the USA, dominates the international flow of information and entertainment in all major media sectors. Some argue that such globally transmitted programming will promote a shared media culture, a global village based on the English language and Western lifestyles and values

133 But what is the impact of such one way flows of global information and entertainment on national and regional media cultures? It has been argued that international communication and media are leading to the homogenization of culture, but the patterns of global/national/local interaction may be more complex.

134 Hybridity: how global genres are adapted to suit national cultural codes
Television has a much wider reach than the print media, as millions of people still cannot read or write Television is thus central to a ‘global mass culture’ – dominated ‘by the image, imagery and styles of mass advertising’ (Hall)

135 One reason for the global appeal of US popular culture is its openness and mingling of a multiplicity of cultures, many of which are themselves imports from outside the USA.

136 Three reasons for the worldwide success of US television
The universality of some of its themes and formulae (makes programmes psychologically accessible) The polyvalent/open potential of many of the stories (their value as projective mechanisms and as material for negotiation and play in the families of man)

137 The sheer availability of American programmes in a marketplace where national producers cannot fill more than a fraction of the hours they feel they must provide NB: The fact that particular television programmes have had such worldwide success, is not necessarily due to their entertainment quality or interest, but rather because they are promoted by the huge media conglomerates (global branding and the internationalisation of the advertising industry)

138 With the proliferation of television globally (more channels/networks) dedicated children’s channels have become an integral part of the international television market (also linked to global toy market) Advantage for children’s TV channels: animation translates well in overseas market (minimal need for cultural interpretation)

139 UNESCO studies have proven that there is generally a one-way traffic, mainly in entertainment-oriented programming, from the major Western-exporting nations to the rest of the world

140 One key result of the privatisation and proliferation of television outlets, and the growing glocalisation of US media products, is that American film and television exports have witnessed a massive increase between 1922 and 2004 (Europe continues to be the largest market for American film and TV content).

141 The global flow of consumerist messages through international television has been seen by some as evidence of a new form of cultural imperialism, especially in the non-Western world (Schiller) – mainly due to the extensive reach of the US-based media, helping the USA to use its ‘soft’ power to promote its national interests

142 US presence on European television has increased substantially, but are often dubbed into local languages/contexts (content is based on American-style popular entertainment forms, but have nationally specific themes and setting) The British lead the European television scene

143 In non-Western nations (e. g
In non-Western nations (e.g. sub-Saharan Africa), the poverty existent makes it difficult for local television channels to make their own programmes, forcing them to depend technically and financially on international organisations or Western media corporations

144 Global Cinema: Hollywood Hegemony
One key reason for US dominations of the global entertainment market is its film industry (Hollywood) One of the most contested issues in global film exports has been the trade of films between the USA and Europe (EU is dominant by American productions, while European films only cover 2% of the American film market)

145 In developing countries, many of whom have no film industry of their own, Hollywood films account for a majority of their film imports Concerns have been raised about the imbalance in global flows of media products – “asymmetries in flows of ideas and good”

146 The standardisation of programmes on the world’s cinema and television screens risks the disappearance of cultural and linguistic identities which many societies consider to be a basic component of their national sovereignty – risks cultural diversity (UNESCO)

147 Concerns about the impact of the US domination of international communication and media on culture and linked with the question of language and cultural identity and the rise of English as the global language. English has become the main language due to the British domination of the global in the 19th and first half of the 20th century, including the domination over the telegraph.

148 Only those authors who can write in English, or whose works are translated into English, are considered ‘international’, and have success in the international market

149 Local Culture in Global Media
International media organisations are increasingly becoming conscious of the varying tastes of their consumers in different parts of the world – increase in trend towards the regionalisation and localisation of media content

150 Wherever one looks one can find similar types of programmes being broadcasted, although the language and the context may be localised The globalisation of certain television formats may give the impression of homogenisation, but television is simultaneously global and national, shaped by the globalisation of media economics and the pull of local and national cultures

151 Many global media corporations also produce regional editions of their newspapers and magazines to provide a regional perspective on issues relevant to their respective readers Routine viewing in one particular cultural and political context may vary considerably between and within nations, also in terms of rural/ urban, male/ female and class distinctions

152 Western programming is still watched by a relatively small percentage of the population in much of the non-Western world – yet the people who do watch it have significant power and influence – thus it is promoting a globalised, ‘Westernised’ elite which believes in the supremacy of the market and liberal democracy, as defined by the West

153 Rather than creating a homogenised culture, globalisation of Western culture may be producing ‘heterogeneous disjunctures’: the global-local cultural interaction is leading to a hybrid culture, which blurs the boundaries between the modern and the traditional, the high and low culture, and their national and global culture – glocalisation.

154 Glocalisation: cultural fusion as a result of adaptation of Western media genres to suit local languages, styles and cultural conventions, using new communication technologies (e.g. Zee TV – mixes English and Hindi content).

155 Global Advertising Advertising is also being regionalised to cater national and regional priorities The flow of music culture is an example of cultural movement

156 Contraflow in Global Media Reading: Thussu, Chapter 6
The globalisation of Western media has been a major influence in shaping media cultures internationally While there are forces for convergence and homogenisation, the spread of the US model of professional/commercial television has also brought beneficial changes to some national and regional media industries (e.g. revival of culture and creative industries)

157 Westernisation has parallels with ‘Easternisation’ and ‘South-South flows’ (e.g. Japanese animation, Indian films, etc.) Factors: The availability of digital technology and satellite networks has enabled the development of regional broadcasting

158 A privatised and deregulated broadcasting and telecommunication environment has enabled an increasing flow of content from the global South to the North The availability of myriad television channels has complicated the national media discourse (viewers can have simultaneous access to a variety of local, regional, national and international channels, thus being able to engage in different levels of mediated discourse)

159 In countries where the medias systems were tightly regulated by the state apparatus, globalisation has brought a fresh and more international perspective (e.g. enhanced media professionalism and more freedom of the press) Global television has also created the phenomenon of global ‘media events’ (e.g. Olympic Game, natural or human disasters)

160 The use of television for political purposes is on the increase, as visual media can have tremendous power to influence political and social attitudes (e.g. ‘spin’) The Western style of professional television journalism has influenced programme-making in many countries (e.g. current-affairs structure)

161 Advantages of the globalisation of Western television:
created jobs in the media industry it has a liberatory potential that can contribute to strengthening liberal democratic culture, through its ‘modernity’ its promotes gender equality and freedom.

162 Alternative Globalization
The growing Western cultural presence has also produced discontent in some countries (e.g. Islamic World; due to 9/11 – anti-American and anti-Islamic sentiments) – clash of civilisations/fundamentalisms ‘Westoxication’: the adoption and flaunting of superficial consumerist attributes of fads and commodities, originating in the USA.

163 Non-Western countries have tried to restrict the reception of Western satellite TV by introducing licensing regimes (often banned on the grounds that the content is inappropriate to that particular culture)

164 Partly as a reaction to perceived Westernisation of their culture and partly as a reaction to the alleged distortion in representations of non-Western cultures in the global media, many countries have experienced a cultural revival, often influenced by religious groups and encouraged by political establishments, acting as a barrier to the flow of Western media products

165 Global Counterflow of Media Products
Evidence shows that new trans-border television networks are appearing from the periphery to the centres of global media and communication industries.

166 The deregulation of broadcasting, which has been a catalyst for the extension of private television networks, has also made it possible for private satellite broadcasters to aim beyond the borders of the country where the network is based (in contrast to state/public broadcasters).

167 Reason for the proliferation of transnational channels: the physical movement of people from one geographical location to another, carrying with them aspects of their culture – ‘ethnoscape’ The Southern presence in the metropolitan centres of the world has been brought about by ‘deterritorialisation’: the loss of the ‘natural’ relation of culture to geographical and social territories.

168 The nature of ‘culture mixing’ can lead to a hybridisation of cultures
Diasporic communities use different types of media to keep in touch with their culture, nowadays through satellite television channels

169 The demand for such channels also reflects the lack of provision for minority communities by mainstream media and national broadcasters Examples international players of contraflow from ‘Global South’: Latin American telenovelas, Al Jazeera, Phoenix (China) and the Indian Film Industry (Bollywood)

170 These examples do not show that the Western media domination has diminished – the emergence of regional players contributing to a ‘decentred’ cultural imperialism is not likely to have significant impact on the Western hegemony of global media cultures

171 Nevertheless, there does exist a blurring of boundaries, mixing of genres, languages and a contraflow of cultural products from the peripheries to the centres – transculturation, hybridity and indigenisation. The desire to experience the new is balanced by that to protect cultural sovereignty

International communication has been shaped by technological innovation – fibre optics, satellites and the Internet have enabled the trade of information instantly across the globe

173 The origins of the Internet lie in the US Department of Defence’s APRANET, created in 1969 during the Cold War threats. The explosion in the use of Internet took off with the establishment of the World Wide Web in 1989 The Internet has been the fastest growing tool of communication

174 The unprecedented growth in the volume of international communication and the conduct of business through the Internet has made it imperative for transnational corporations to demand the harmonisation of standards of equipment and frequencies so that telecommunication and broadcasting equipment can be used across national borders.

175 It is in the interests of the countries and corporations that dominate global trade to ensure that electronic commerce operates in a free-market environment.

176 From A 'Free Flow Of Information' To 'Free Flow Of Commerce
Technological developments, combined with the liberalisation in trade and telecommunications, have acted as catalysts for e-commerce – made possible because of the opening up of global markets in telecommunications services and information technology products (due to the WTO agreements)

177 One of the biggest potential growth areas for e-commerce is Asia, due to its rapid growth in Internet users and its booming economy Googlisation of global communication: the rapid rise of search media which arranges the world’s information and makes it universally accessible and useful – focuses on the issue of access and to the relations between commercial interests and media.

178 Media on-line Major newspapers have started a web edition and all major broadcasters have a presence on the Internet (first seen as a supplement to the main media source) In this media environment, the boundaries between advertising and programming are constantly blurring The international media survive/depend more and more on advertising

179 By being able to monitor and record patterns of Internet use, governments can control citizens’ political activities, while businesses can have access to private information (back accounts, insurance details, etc.) which can be traded for marketing purposes – this type of information has security and privacy implications, since it can also be misused by governments and corporations.

180 The Internet as a political tool
The commercialisation of the Internet is perceived by some as betraying the initial promise of its potential to create a ‘global public sphere’ and an alternative forum.

181 The Internet was once seen as a mass medium whose fundamental principles were based in access to free information and a decentralised information network – opened up possibilities of digital dialogues across the world Unlike traditional communication (top-down, one-to-many model), online communication was seen as a many-to-many dialogue and thus more democratic.

182 However, the Internet has also provided a platform for extremist organisations (hate propaganda).
Internationally, the most significant political role that the Internet has played is in promoting links between community groups, non-governmental organisations and political activists from different parts of the world.

183 The Internet has influenced the mass media in a substantial way: not only has it provided a new platform for media organisations to reach consumers, but it has also changed the timeframe of news production, distribution and speed (24-hour broadcasting and accessibility).

184 The Internet has also become a great source for journalists, which allows them to include different perspectives and background information in their news reporting. Power is moving away from journalists as gatekeepers over what the public knows – citizens are assuming a more active role as assemblers, editors and even creators of their own news (e.g. blogs)

185 In many countries the growing use of the Internet and its potential power to provide alternative viewpoints and exchange of information beyond national borders have generated anxiety In the digital era, filtering software and protocols may in fact make censorship easier (they can simple route all Internet traffic through electronic gateways).

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