Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Crew Systems Design Project ENAE 483 October 18, 2012 Rebecca Foust, Shimon Gewirtz, Matthew Rich, and Timothy Russell.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "Crew Systems Design Project ENAE 483 October 18, 2012 Rebecca Foust, Shimon Gewirtz, Matthew Rich, and Timothy Russell."— Presentation transcript:

1 Crew Systems Design Project ENAE 483 October 18, 2012 Rebecca Foust, Shimon Gewirtz, Matthew Rich, and Timothy Russell

2 Mission Itinerary Days 1-3: Voyage to moon Days 4-7: On the lunar surface – All three crew members will perform six hours of extra-vehicular activity (EVA) daily Days 8-10: Voyage back to Earth Days 11-13: Contingency period – Plan for all three astronauts to be able to survive inside the spacecraft

3 Design Constraints Spacecraft maximum diameter is 3.57 m Half-cone angle of 25° Wall thickness of 10 cm Mass allocation for crew and crew systems is 1500 kg

4 95 th Percentile Male Astronauts Spacecraft and all crew systems designed to support three 95 th percentile male astronauts Taken under consideration during design of: – Neutral body position chairs – Toilet – Hatch and ladder for ingress and egress – Oxygen supply – Food and water storage – Window placements – Instrument panel placement Mass of each astronaut: 98.5 kg

5 Spacesuits Astronauts will use the Apollo EMU because of its ability to operate at the required 5 psi, 80% O 2 As a soft suit, the EMU also has the advantage of being collapsible and thus requiring less cabin storage space when not in use than would a hard suit Mass of fully equipped suit: 96.2 kg Volume of collapsed suit: 0.4 m 3

6 Cabin Atmosphere 80% oxygen, 20% nitrogen, 5 psi, 71 °F (295 K) – Same atmosphere as spacesuits (no denitrogenation or depressurization needed) – Oxygen density: 0.36 kg/m 3 – Nitrogen density: kg/m 3 Cabin atmosphere mass is 3.51 kg 1% atmosphere lost daily to leakage – Total 0.08 kg nitrogen lost – Total 0.37 kg oxygen lost 1.11 kg oxygen consumed per person-day – Total 43.3 kg oxygen lost Two options for EVA airlock cycles: – Evacuate all atmosphere for each cycle (“no recycling”) – Try to collect as much atmosphere as possible in storage tank prior to each hatch opening (“recycling”)

7 No Cabin Atmosphere Recycling 100% atmosphere lost for each airlock cycle – Four airlock cycles – Total 2.52 kg nitrogen lost – Total kg oxygen lost Need to supply extra: – 2.6 kg of nitrogen – kg of oxygen

8 No Cabin Atmosphere Recycling Gaseous storage of extra oxygen, nitrogen (3000 psi) – Oxygen density: 270 kg/m 3 – Nitrogen density: 236 kg/m 3 – 2 kg of tank mass for every kg of gas – Total mass (tanks and gas): 177 kg – Total volume (tanks and gas): m 3 Liquid storage of extra oxygen, nitrogen (49.7 atm, -119 °C) – Liquid oxygen density: 1140 kg/m 3 – Liquid nitrogen density: 807 kg/m 3 – 0.3 kg of tank mass for every kg of liquid – Vaporizer: 77 kg and m 3 – Total mass (tanks, liquid and vaporizer): 156 kg – Total volume (tanks, liquid and vaporizer): m 3

9 Cabin Atmosphere Recycling 10% atmosphere lost for each airlock cycle 90% atmosphere stored in collection tank as gas (3000 psi) and released after each airlock cycle – Four airlock cycles – 0.25 kg nitrogen lost – 1.15 kg oxygen lost Need to supply extra: – 0.33 kg of nitrogen – 44.8 kg of oxygen Vacuum pump: 26.6 kg, m 3 Storage tank: 6.32 kg, m 3

10 Cabin Atmosphere Recycling Gaseous storage of extra oxygen, nitrogen (3000 psi) – Oxygen density: 270 kg/m 3 – Nitrogen density: 236 kg/m 3 – 2 kg of tank mass for every kg of gas – Total mass (tanks and gas): 172 kg – Total volume (tanks and gas): m 3 Liquid storage of extra oxygen, nitrogen (49.7 atm, -119 °C) – Liquid oxygen density: 1140 kg/m 3 – Liquid nitrogen density: 807 kg/m 3 – 0.3 kg of tank mass for every kg of liquid – Vaporizer: 77 kg and m 3 – Total mass (tanks, liquid and vaporizer): 172 kg – Total volume (tanks, liquid and vaporizer): m 3

11

12

13 Cabin Atmosphere Decided on liquid storage and no recycling – Lower mass is more critical than lower volume Total mass (tanks, liquid and vaporizer): 156 kg Total volume (tanks, liquid and vaporizer): m 3

14 Particulate Scrubbing Placed near entrance of air-treating ducting Activated Charcoal (based on the ISS trace contaminant control system) – Carbon riddled with pores to adsorb particulates while letting air flow through – Mass: kg – Volume: m 3 Fiberglass Filters – Allows air to flow through while trapping dust – Need four filters to trap over 90% of dust – Mass (four filters): 1 kg – Volume (four filters): m 3 – Chosen because much lower volume for similar mass

15 Spacesuit Carbon Dioxide Scrubbing Total CO 2 produced per astronaut: LiOH canister scrubbing: – Total mass required per astronaut: 2.09 kg – However, the mass of a single canister is 6.4 kg, which is the minimum mass of LiOH that each astronaut can carry in his spacesuit – Total mass for 3 LiOH canisters: 19.2 kg METOX canisters have mass of 14.5 kg each, for a total mass of 43.5 kg for three canisters EMUs will employ LiOH canisters for CO 2 scrubbing during EVA

16 CO 2 Generation in Cabin Each crew member generates 1 kg CO 2 per day On each non-EVA day, crew is in cabin at all times and thus produces: On each EVA day, crew is in cabin for 18 of 24 hours and thus produces: Total CO 2 produced:

17 Cabin CO 2 Scrubbing Options Disposable LiOH canisters – 2.09 kg for each kg of CO 2 removed Disposable Ca(OH) 2 canisters – 3.05 kg for each kg of CO 2 removed 4-Bed Molecular Sieves (4BMS) – 30 kg for each kg of CO 2 removed per day

18

19 Cabin CO 2 Scrubbing Trade Study Results LiOH canisters require the least mass of the cabin CO 2 scrubbing apparatuses 4BMS is only marginally more massive than LiOH canisters and has the additional benefit of handling humidity control The spacecraft will employ 4BMS for cabin CO 2 scrubbing and cabin humidity control LiOH (kg)Ca(OH)2 (kg)4BMS (kg)

20 Four Bed Molecular Sieve First two beds adsorb water vapor from the air – Humidity control – Adsorbed water vented into space Second two beds adsorb carbon dioxide – Carbon dioxide scrubbing – Adsorbed carbon dioxide vented into space Need to heat to ~400° C to regenerate Total mass: 90 kg Total volume: 0.33 m 3 Power draw: 510 W

21 Cabin Temperature Control The astronauts and the electrical equipment in the spacecraft generate heat, which must be rejected to maintain a comfortable cabin temperature The spacecraft employs a porous-plate sublimator as its atmospheric temperature control device Porous-plate sublimator operating principle: 1.Water in the sublimator extracts heat from the warm air 2.Water seeps through the pores of nickel plates, the opposite ends of which are exposed to the vacuum of space 3.The water forms a layer of ice on the surface of the plate and sublimes 4.The air is chilled via this process of heat extraction and is then recirculated into the cabin

22 Vacuum Pressurized Cabin LOXLN2 Vaporizer Porous Plate Sublimator Fiberglass Dust Filters 4BMS CO2 H2O Air Cabin Atmosphere Conditioning Summary

23 Unpressurized Storage A.Vaporizer B.N 2 Tank C.O 2 Tank D.Propellant Tank E.Vapor Compression Distillation Unit F.Multifiltration Unit G.Four Bed Molecular Sieve H.Porous Plate Sublimator I.Particulate Filtration Unit G H E AC B D I F

24 Water Required UseAmount of Water Required Water In Food1.15 kg/person-day Food Prep Water.76 kg/person-day Drinking Water1.62 kg/person-day EVA Water2.1 kg/person-day (4 EVA days) Total Potable Water (for 3 people, 13 days) kg

25 Water Required (cont.) UseAmount of Water Required Hygiene Water2.84 kg/person-day Total Hygiene Water (for 3 people, 13 days) kg UseTotal Water Required (kg) Hygiene Water Potable Water Total273.63

26 Water Recycling SystemMass (kg)Volume (m 3 ) Multifiltration Distillation Both Vapor Compression Distillation was chosen because it is low- mass and low-wattage, while remaining within the volume constraints. Numbers shown are scaled back to accommodate the maximum water load on the system.

27

28 Water Recycling Summary Hygiene and Atmosphere and Urine water will be recycled through a multi-filtration system for use as hygiene water, then through a distillation system for use as potable water. The total mass required to support the trip with water recycling decreases to 86 kg, a reduction of 69% from the initial water mass of 274 kg, including the masses of the recycling systems. This will save an estimated 252 kg of water.

29 Food Expect each crew member to consume kg of dry food each day Comprised of rehydratable food and consumable dry food Total mass of dry food: 26.3 kg Total volume of dry food: 0.1 m 3

30 Waste Management System The spacecraft will employ a toilet whose dimensions are derived from those of a squatting male: – 0.5 m wide by m deep by m tall Urinary and fecal waste will reside in a plastic bag in the base of the toilet until the next cabin depressurization cycle for EVA, at which time the astronauts will empty the bag outside of the spacecraft A plastic seal will be used to secure the closed lid of the toilet when exposed to microgravity Used toilet bags may be removed from the toilet and sealed and placed in stowage as necessary Toilet mass: 15 kg Toilet volume: 0.16 m 3

31 Clothes The astronauts will wear disposable clothes rather than reusable clothes to eliminate the need for additional water mass to wash clothes Budget 8 sets of clothing per astronaut over the duration of the mission – 1 set for each day on the moon, when physical exertion is highest (4 sets) – 1 set for every three days spent inside the spacecraft, including contingency period (3 sets) – 1 extra set of clothes if needed Each set of clothes will have nominal mass 3 kg and nominal volume m 3 Total mass of clothing: 72 kg Total volume of clothes: 0.02 m 3

32 Neutral Body Posture Chair The chair is designed so that the astronaut will be on their back in neutral body posture during launch After launch, the chair can be inclined to a seated position so that it takes up less space during the day, then reclined at night for sleeping. The chair is molded to the astronaut’s body and includes restraints for sleeping in microgravity. Varying sizes can be accommodated by swapping out the chairs. (95 th percentile male chairs shown in slides for maximum volume case)

33 Radiation Protection We will put a thin layer of gold over the windows for visual protection from Sun – Same protection as space suit visors Aluminum hull provides radiation protection – Assuming the entire hull is 10 cm thick aluminum, areal density of 27 g/cm 2 – Corresponds to a solar maximum radiation exposure of Sv (see next slide for regression) – Mild symptoms of radiation poisoning

34

35 Floor Plans Chairs in neutral body posture on the astronaut’s back Reclined Chair footprint: – 1.82 x.615 m Reclined Chair (Launch) Stowed Chairs Chairs in sitting position Stowed chair footprint:.914x.615 m Inclining the chairs recovers.557 m 2

36 Interior Views Unpressurized Storage Stowed Spacesuits CTS Bags NBP ChairsControl Surface Toilet

37 Cabin Through Hatch Hatch Height: 1.7 m Average Hatch Width: 0.7 m

38 Line of Sight: Side View

39 Line of Sight: Top View

40 Mass Table ItemMass (kg)ItemMass (kg) Crew295.5Toilet + Bags15 Spacesuits288.6Clothes72 Initial Cabin Air3.5Neutral Body Posture Chairs 210 O 2 Supply + Tank71.7Ducting20 N 2 Supply + Tank3.4Intake and Supply Duct Fans 2 Cryogenic Vaporizer77Cargo Transfer Bags30 Fiberglass Filters1Water + Distiller86 4BMS90Dry Food26.3 Porous Plate Sublimator 14.5Total Design margin %

41 Power Requirements ItemPower Draw (W) Intake and Supply Duct Fans200 Cryogenic Vaporizer6 4BMS510 Water Distiller73.5 Water Filter1.5 Total791

42 References John Duncan, “Portable Life Support System”, January NASA Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center, “Advanced Life Support Requirements Document”, February Donald Rapp, “Mars Life Support Systems”, February International Academy of Astronautics, “Artificial Gravity Research to Enable Human Space Exploration”, ortr.pdf MMR Technologies “Introduction to Vacuum Pump Usage” tech.com/PDFs/VacPumpReq_TSB007.pdf Paul E. DesRosiers, “Human Waste Studies in an Occupied Civil Defense Shelter”, July A. J. Hanford, “Advanced Life Support Baseline Values and Assumptions Document”, August J.A. Steele, "Water Management System Evaluation for Space Flights of One Year Duration", NASA-CR , October 1953


Download ppt "Crew Systems Design Project ENAE 483 October 18, 2012 Rebecca Foust, Shimon Gewirtz, Matthew Rich, and Timothy Russell."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google