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Background for Leakage Current

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Presentation on theme: "Background for Leakage Current"— Presentation transcript:

1 Background for Leakage Current
Sept. 18, 2006 March 4, 2008

2 Thinning gate oxides increase gate tunneling leakage
Power Challenge Active power density increasing with device scaling and increased frequency Leakage power density increasing due to lower Vt and gate leakage Stressing packaging, cooling, battery life, etc. Complicates IDDq testing as well Thinning gate oxides increase gate tunneling leakage Source from Bergamaschi

3 Problem Statement Power Analysis on CMOS Inverter

4 Problem Statement Dynamic Power Average Short Circuit Current
Sub-threshold Leakage Current

5 Problem Statement Domination of Leakage Current Feature Size
Core Voltage VTH(Threshold) Performance(AP) TR Leakage Stand-by Mode Low Power > 0.25um 5.0/3.3/2.5V > +/- 0.6V < 200MHz Negligible PLL-off(Clock-off) Focus on Operating Power 0.18/0.13/0.09um… 1.8/1.2/1.0V … +/- 0.5, 0.4, 0.3V … 300/400/533MHz, 1GHz Exponential growing(SD/Gate) V/MTMOS, High VTH/High VDD Focus on Operating/Stand-by

6 Active and Leakage Power with CMOS Scaling
As CMOS scales down the following stand-by leakage current rises rapidly. Source to drain leakage (diffusion+tunneling) as Lg scales down Gate leakage current (tunneling) as Tox scales down Body to drain leakage current (tunneling) as channel doping scales up

7 Two cases of Leakage Mechanism
Vg=0V Turn off Vd=Vdd Turn on Vg=Vdd Vd=0V Sub-threshold Leakage Source to drain tunneling Drain to Body tunneling (BTB) Gate oxide tunneling

8 Gate Leakage Current Reduction with High-K Gate Dielectric
10 -6 -5 -4 -3 -2 -1 1 20 25 30 35 40 Current Density (A/cm 2 ) Tox (A) Gate leakage Drain leakage High-K gate dielectric

9 Voltage Scaling for Low Power
P  VDD2 Low VDD I ds  (VDD - Vth)1~2 Low Speed Speed Up I ds  (VDD - Vth)1~2 Low Vth I leakage  e-C x Vth High Leakage Leakage Suppression

10 Low-Leakage Solution – Technology
Dynamic power[W] Leakage power[W] VTH: 0.5V VTH: 0.25V High speed Low speed VDD control VTH control MTCMOS VDD: 1.5V VDD: 1.0V 100n 1m 10m 100m 100p 1p 10p 1n 10n

11 Variable-Threshold CMOS
VTCMOS & MTCMOS Multi-Threshold CMOS Variable-Threshold CMOS Schematic Diagram principle On-off control of internal VDD or VSS Special F/Fs, Two Vth’s Threshold control with bulk-bias Triple well is desirable Low leakage in stand-by mode. Conventional design Env. Merit Demerit Large serial MOSFET ground bounce noise Ultra-low voltage region?(1V) Scalability? (junction leakage) TR reliability under 0.1mm Latch-up immunity, Vth controllability, Substrate noise, Gate oxide reliability Gate leakage current Low- Vth VDD GND Hi- Sleep Low Vt Control circuit Vnb = 0 or V- Vpb = VDD or V+ N-well P-well

12 MTCMOS : Reduce Stand-by Power with High Speed
With High VTH switch (MTCMOS) Without High VTH switch Vdd Vdd Normal or Low VTH MOSFET 1 1 Virtual Ground Vss Vss High VTH switch With High VTH switch, much lower leakage current flows between Vdd and Vss High VTH MOSFET should have much lower ( >10X) leakage current compared to normal VTH MOSFET

13 Multi-Threshold CMOS (MTCMOS)
Mobile Applications Mostly in the idle state Sub-threshold leakage Current Power Gating Low VTH Transistors for High Performance Logic Gates High VTH Transistors for Low Leakage Current Gates Logic Component (Low Vth) Current Cutoff-Switch (High Vth) Active Sleep VDD Operating Mode Low Vth MOS Sleep Control (SC) SC High Vth MOS VGND VSS Time

14 CCS Sizing The effect of CCS (current-controlled switch) size
As the size decreases, logic performance also decreases. As the size increases, leakage current and chip area also increase. Proper sizing is very important. CCS size should be decided within 2% performance degradation. VDD Low Vt Vop = VDD - V Switch V must be sized within 2% performance degradation. Control High Vt GND

15 Leakage Current : Limiting Factor in VDSM Technology

16 ITRS roadmap Scaling down allows the same performance with reduced voltage, leading to low power. From 0.18 micron down, building a transistor with a good active current(Ion) and a low leakage current (Ioff) is difficult. high-speed TR’s ; low channel doping low-leakage TR’s ; high channel doping Now three groups of TR’s; High Performance (HP) ; high active current ; Thin Tox Low Operating Power (LOP) ; low active current ; High Tox Low Standby Power (LSTP) ; low static current ; High Tox

17 Device characteristics for HP, LOP, and LSTP Technologies

18 Reference : Low-Power CMOS Circuits technology, logic design and CAD tools
By Christian Piguet CRC Taylor and Francis 2005

19 Bulk CMOS vs. SOI Buried oxide layer below active silicon layer -> electrical isolation of TR’s Lower parasitic cap. PD(Partially Depleted) Floating body effect increases speed Low threshold in dynamic mode or FD(Fully Depl) Ideal subthresold swing of 60 mV/decade

20 Reducing Subthreshold current in Bulk CMOS
VTCMOS (Variable Threshold) Tune substrate bias to adjust Vth Requires efficient DC-DC converter For a given technology, there an optimum in VR , as decreasing subthreshold leakage is accompanied by an increase in drain junction leakage When both High Vt and Low Vt TR’s are available, MTCMOS (Multi-Threshold) ; Introduce high Vt power switch to limit leakage in stby mode Use low Vt for critical path This can be coupled with multiple VDD’s Other tricks Set up the logical internal states where the total leakage is minimal.

21 Five types of off-currents
Tunneling through gate oxide Fowler-Nordheim tunneling -> direct tunneling Subthreshold current Gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL) Thermal emission Trap-assisted tunneling BTBT Reverse-biased pn junction current -> band-to-band tunneling (BTBT) current Bulk punch-through

22 Gate-induced drain leakage (GIDL)
Thermal emission Trap-assisted tunneling BTBT Fig 3.12


24 Leakage current due to QM Tunneling
substrate and drain ; band-to-band tunneling ; increases with E-field and dopant concentration due to scaling source and drain ; Surface punchthru due to DIBL Punch-through at bulk gate oxide ; SiO2 has been used as it has so low trap and fixed charge density at the interface Gate current is an exponential function of Tox and Vox Hole tunneling is 10% of that of electron due to higher barrier height and heavier effective mass

25 Gate Leakage Current Reduction with High-K Gate Dielectric
As Tox scales gate leakage current increases exponentially due to exponential increase of tunneling probability with reduction of physical tunneling distance. Physically thicker gate dielectric allows lower leakage current but lower oxide capacitance reducing on-current Using high k (dielectric constant) material, both thicker physical thickness and higher oxide capacitance can be achieved. Applying high-k gate dielectric, several orders of magnitude lower gate leakage current can be achieved with similar oxide capacitance

26 Approach 1 to reduce gate leakage ; High K materials
To suppress gate tunneling current, use materials with High K -> increases thickness (t) Higher barrier height (h) Using high K Increases short-channel effects due to thicker gate dielectric (This sets an upper limit on K, lower limit coming from I tunnel) Mobility degradation due to poor interface quality

27 Approach 2 to reduce gate leakage ; stop scaling the thickness of gate oxide
Thicker gate oxide yields less control of gate on channel conduction, i.e., higher short-channel effects and DIBL effects.

28 Approach 3 to reduce gate leakage
Multiple gates allows better control of channel by gate, and lets scaling continue without excessive short-channel effects Double gate FinFET Triple gate Quadruple or gate all-around


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