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PROF. SUTARNO Hukum Mendel (Mendel’s Laws of Heredity)

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Presentation on theme: "PROF. SUTARNO Hukum Mendel (Mendel’s Laws of Heredity)"— Presentation transcript:

1 PROF. SUTARNO Hukum Mendel (Mendel’s Laws of Heredity)

2 Hasil persilangan Mendel Fertilization: the uniting of male and female gametes Cross (persilangan): combining gametes from parents with different traits

3 What Did Mendel Find? He discovered different laws and rules that explain factors affecting heredity.

4 Rule of Unit Factors Each organism has two alleles for each trait  Alleles - different forms of the same gene  Genes - located on chromosomes, they control how an organism develops

5 Rule of Dominance The trait that is observed in the offspring is the dominant trait (uppercase) The trait that disappears in the offspring is the recessive trait (lowercase)

6 Law of Segregation (hukum segregasi) The two alleles for a trait must separate when gametes are formed A parent randomly passes only one allele for each trait to each offspring

7 Law of Independent Assortment (Hukum berpasangan bebas) The genes for different traits are inherited independently of each other.

8 Phenotype & Genotype Phenotype - the way an organism looks  red hair or brown hair genotype - the gene combination of an organism  AA or Aa or aa

9 Heterozygous & Homozygous Heterozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are different (Aa) Homozygous - if the two alleles for a trait are the same (AA or aa)

10 Dihybrid vs Monohybrid Dihybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in two traits (AAEE with aaee) Monohybrid Cross - crossing parents who differ in only one trait (AA with aa)

11 6 tipe persilangan monofaktorial (misalnya B utk hitam dominan, b putih resesif) PerkawinanRasio Genotipe F1Rasio Fenotipe F1 BB X bb..

12 Test Cross (uji silang) Untuk menentukan genotipe suatu individu yang menunjukkan fenotipe dominan, krn indiv tsb dpt mrpkn homozigot maupun heterozigot. Untuk mengetahui berapa banyak macam gamet yg dihasilkan oleh individu yg genotipenya dipertanyakan individu homozigot resesif digunakan sbg induk uji silang Misalnya kita akan melakukan uji silang antara marmut jantan berbulu putih dengan marmut betina berbulu hitam yg genotipenya tdk diketahui.

13 Sekenario 1. betina hitam tsb homozigot:  P:  Gamet:  F1:  Kesimpulan: Dominan homozigot/ dominan heterozigot? Skenario 2: betina hitam tsb heterozigot:  P:  Gamet:  F1:  Kesimpulan: Dominan homozigot/ dominan heterozigot?

14 Persilangan balik (backcross) Perkawinan F1 dengan salah satu induknya (jndiv yg identik genotipenya dgn genotipe induk) Misalnya persilangan antara marmut betina hitam dengan marmut jantan putih. Seekor anak jantan F1 disilangbalikkan dengan induk betinanya. Hasil persilangan dan persilangan balik?


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