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Improving Your Nutrition

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Presentation on theme: "Improving Your Nutrition"— Presentation transcript:

1 Improving Your Nutrition

2 Nutrition Concepts Nutrient Nutrition A good diet can:
A chemical in food crucial to the body's growth and functioning; includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water Nutrition The study of how people consume and use food nutrients A good diet can: Help sustain desirable body mass and weight Alleviate feelings of stress and depression Act as preventative medicine against disease and infection © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

3 Why College Years Are a Nutritional Challenge
Most students have less-than optimal eating habits. College life presents obstacles to good nutrition. Time and money pressures Lack of home-cooking facilities Poor personal habits and attitudes about food Emotional stress © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

4 Comparing Eating Habits
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5 What Are the Main Nutrients in Food?
Essential Nutrients What we need to obtain from food for normal functioning Proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals, and water Measures: calories, Calories, and Kilocalories Energy released by the body is measured in calories (lowercase). A larger measure used by nutritionists is kilocalories or Calories (uppercase). 1 Calorie or kilocalorie = 1,000 calories in common usage, lowercase "calories" refers to kilocalories © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

6 Six Groups of Essential Nutrients
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7 Proteins Proteins: Biological molecules composed of amino acids
The "building block" of bodily structure and function Functional proteins perform crucial bodily tasks. Nutritionists recommend getting about 10 percent of daily calories from protein. Protein needs for most people are met in a typical diet; higher amounts are needed only if fighting off serious infection. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

8 Complementary Proteins
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9 Determining Daily Protein Requirements
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10 Carbohydrates A class of nutrients containing sugars and starches and supplying most of the energy for daily living Carbohydrates may be simple or complex. Simple: Deliver energy in quickly useable forms Common in whole, unprocessed foods Complex: Deliver "timed-release" energy Found in grains, cereals, fruits, vegetables, and root plants © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

11 Simple Sugar vs. Complex Carbohydrate
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12 Fiber Indigestible carbohydrates that speed the passage of partially digested food through the digestive tract Helps control appetite and body weight by creating a feeling of fullness without adding calories Insoluble fiber speeds the passage of foods and reduces some bacterial enzymes. Soluble fiber attaches to water molecules and helps lower blood cholesterol and the risk of cardiovascular disease. The glycemic index measures how foods raise blood sugar levels. Dietary fiber can help you avoid eating more high-sugar foods. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

13 Whole Grains vs. Refined Grains
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14 Fats "Fats" is the common term for lipids, a class of molecules that includes fats and oils. At room temperature, most fats are solid and oils are liquid. Chains of fats and oils are called fatty acids, which occur in the body in the form of triglycerides. Essential fatty acids are those that we cannot construct in our cells; therefore, they must be consumed in our diet. Different kinds of fats: Saturated, unsaturated, mono- and polyunsaturated, and trans fats (partially hydrogenated) © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

15 Triglycerides and Fatty Acids
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16 Fats continued Generally, lipids high in saturated fats are unhealthy, and those high in mono- and polyunsaturated fats are healthier. Trans fats can be even worse than saturated fats for health. Omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids: Two essential fatty acids Polyunsaturated oils are high in omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

17 Saturated vs. Unsaturated Fats
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18 Fats continued Fats and Health: Guidelines
Check food labels for fat and saturated fat levels. Beware of "low fat" food claims; these foods are not necessarily healthy. Reduce consumption of saturated and trans fats. Choose foods higher in mono- and polyunsaturated fats. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

19 Vitamins Vitamins are organic compounds we need in small amounts to promote growth and overall health. Some vitamins can be toxic in high doses. Water-soluble vitamins dissolve only in water. Fat-soluble vitamins dissolve only in fat. Because they're not stored in the body, water-soluble vitamins must be replenished regularly. A balanced diet supplies most vitamin needs; some people would benefit from supplements, such as those with special needs or those who don't eat sufficient fruits and vegetables. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

20 Guide to Vitamins © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

21 Guide to Vitamins continued
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22 Guide to Vitamins continued
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23 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

24 Minerals Minerals are micronutrients that enable key bodily functions and help us absorb vitamins. Major minerals (macrominerals) are needed in larger amounts. Trace minerals (microminerals) are needed in smaller amounts. Three minerals—sodium, calcium, and iron—play crucial roles, so excesses or deficiencies can cause serious health concerns. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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28 Water Water helps maintain your proper salt and pH balance, and helps transport substances within your body. Without sufficient water, most people get quickly dehydrated. Several days without water can result in shock and death. Individual water needs vary by age, body size, diet, exercise level, overall health, environmental temperature, and humidity. "Energy drinks" should not be long-term substitutes for consuming water. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

29 How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet?
Follow Guidelines for Good Nutrition Resources include the government's nutritional advice to the public published as the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Read and understand food labels. Determine your individual calorie needs. Understand portion sizes and adjust to fit your needs. Use food guides and other dietary tools. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

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31 Nutrition Keys © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc. 31

32 Daily Reference Values
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33 Portion Control © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

34 How Can I Achieve a Balanced Diet? continued
Acquire Skills to Improve Your Nutrition Reading food labels Keeping a food diary Using diet analysis software Adopt the Whole Foods Habit Nutrient-dense foods High-volume foods Low-calorie foods High-fiber foods Antioxidant-rich foods © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

35 Comparing Sandwiches © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

36 Comparing Calorie Density in Common Foods
© 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

37 Do I Need Special Nutrition for Exercise?
Most Exercisers Can follow general nutritional guidelines Best source of energy is carbohydrates Include some proteins to assist in strength training and endurance Elite Athletes Need higher intake of protein, fats, carbohydrates, fluids, and some supplements © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

38 Metabolic Fuels Used during Exercise
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39 Do I Have Special Nutritional Needs?
Women have extra nutrient needs at certain ages. Children need key nutrients for proper growth. Adults over age 50 have changing needs for vitamins and minerals. Vegetarians must monitor their nutrient intake and pay special attention to eating a variety of daily foods. People with diabetes must reduce carbohydrates. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

40 © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

41 Food Safety Watch expiration dates.
Use proper storage and handling techniques: Keep hands and surfaces clean. Separate raw and cooked foods. Scrub and rinse produce thoroughly. Heat cooked foods sufficiently to kill germs. Refrigerate perishable foods. Be careful with common sources of food-borne illness including raw eggs, meat, poultry, and fish; unwashed or outdated beans or sprouts; and unpasteurized milk and juices. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

42 Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition
Assess Your Current Diet Record what you eat via a manual food diary or dietary software. Identify your patterns of eating. Are they boredom- or stress-induced? Review Your Behavior Change Skills Look at your motivation. Identify barriers to a better diet. Commit to learning about better nutrition. Choose a target behavior. Identify where you stand relative to change. Look to the example of a role model. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

43 Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition continued
Get Set to Apply Nutritional Skills Examine food guides to compare your daily servings of various food groups with the amounts that nutritionists recommend. Read food labels more often, and watch for those nutrients you've identified as problematic in your own diet. Recognize proper portion sizes and note when the helping you are served is too big. Use or other kinds of diet software to get an individual analysis of the daily calories and nutrients you consume. © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

44 Create a Behavior Change Plan for Nutrition continued
Create a Nutrition Plan Begin planning your own program using Lab 7.3. As you work through the lab, write down your own notes and observations. Keep track of calories for your new plan. After two weeks, discuss the plan and your results with your fitness/health instructor, and revise if necessary. For several weeks, continue tracking your daily diet, either manually or using © 2013 Pearson Education, Inc.

45 Build Your Menu 3 meals/2 snacks per day
Must include 3 meals and two snacks. Budget for one week $100 Include essential nutrients No supplements Consider taste, cost, prep time Don’t forget water Include a specific grocery list, estimate cost.

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