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Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

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Presentation on theme: "Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College."— Presentation transcript:

1 Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

2 Athletes are continually striving to improve their performance. Sometimes the athletes turn to sources outside their diet to try and enhance natural body processes that may give them an edge on the playing field. Increase in performance may mean more money, more playing time, or maybe entrance or scholarship into school. Think about it ….. When you are a spectator at an event is it not exciting to witness those athletic performances that are beyond belief?

3 In 1994 Congress defined the term dietary supplement in the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act. A dietary supplement is a product (other than tobacco) that 1. Is intended to supplement the diet 2. Contains one or more of the following dietary ingredients : Vitamins Minerals Herbs or other botanicals Amino acids Enzymes 3. Is intended to be taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid 4. Labeled on the front panel as being a dietary supplement. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

4 Dietary supplements fall under the jurisdiction of the Food and Drug Administration. They, however are treated differently from other food and drugs. They are not directly tested by the FDA. In order for a dietary supplement to be considered a dietary supplement and not a drug, the manufacturer can only make the following types of claims Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

5  Health claim- A claim that describes how the supplement reduces the likelihood of developing a disease or health condition. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. “Diets low in sodium may reduce the risk of high blood pressure, a disease associated with many factors.” “Development of cancer depends on many factors. A diet low in total fat may reduce the risk of some cancers.”

6  Nutrient content claim- A claim that describes the amount of a nutrient. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. "contains "high in oat bran“ “100 calories”

7  Structure/Function claim- A claim that suggests how the supplement may affect organs or organ systems. Structure/Function claim- A claim that suggests how the supplement may affect organs or organ systems. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College. Example: “Calcium builds strong bones."

8 Dietary supplements are not evaluated by the FDA. They cannot claim to treat, cure or prevent the disease or condition. The manufacturers must label their products stating that they have not been tested by the FDA. "This statement has not been evaluated by the FDA. This product is not intended to diagnose, treat, cure, or prevent any disease" Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

9 In 2007 the FDA passed new regulations called the Good Manufacturing Practices. The manufacturers are expected to abide by these measures which ensure that their products meet certain sanitary standards. The supplements are also expected to be labeled truthfully regarding the identity, purity, strength, and composition. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

10 Unlike products that are labeled as drugs the FDA must prove that the supplements are DANGEROUS before they can be pulled from the market. Drug companies need to first prove that the products are SAFE before they can be put on the market. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

11  Dietary supplements may have side effects.  They may also interact with certain medications.  Despite this these supplements have become very popular in recent years. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

12  Between June 2006 and June 2007, U.S. consumers spent $744 million on them, a 34 percent increase over the previous year (Consumer Reports, 2007). Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

13  We will be using fruit flies to see what effect different dietary supplements will have on the fruit fly. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

14 WHY FRUIT FLIES?  Can reproduce quickly  Hundreds of fruit flies can live in a small container. (Big Sample = Good Data!)  Small size will increase the metabolic effect.  Fruit flies and humans share many genes, cellular processes, brain cell development, and behaviors. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

15 Life cycle by day Day 0: Female lays eggs Day 1: Eggs hatch Day 2: First stage (one day in length) Day 3: Second stage (one day in length) Day 5: Third and final stage (two days in length) Day 7: Larvae begin roaming stage. Pupal formation occurs 120 hours after egg laying Day 11-12: Adults emerge from the pupa case. Females become sexually mature 8-10 hours after emerging. Life Sciences-HHMI Outreach. Copyright 2009 President and Fellows of Harvard College.

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