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The Forum The Forum was the main marketplace and business center.

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1 The Forum The Forum was the main marketplace and business center.
Shops Banks Temples Festivals Ceremonies Poets Jugglers Teacher Notes: There was a forum in every town. The forum was in the center of town. The Roman Forum was the place where the ancient Romans went to do their banking, trading, and shopping. The Forum was also used for festivals and religious ceremonies. It was a very busy place and the center of public life.

2 The Forum The Forum was a place for public speaking.
The job of a Roman orator was to argue persuasively. At the Forum, you might hear a court case or someone giving a speech. Teacher Notes: The ancient Romans were great orators. They loved to talk (although not nearly as much as the ancient Greeks!). People thronging the Forum would stop and listen, then wander away to do their shopping or perhaps leave a gift at a temple for one of their gods. Any citizen could stand in the Forum and give a speech. Opposing views were often being argued at the same time by two or more different speakers. Subjects were not limited. You might have six orators all talking at once on four different subjects. You could barely hear what was being said over the racket. Ask: Why do you think kids studied public speaking? (Get some answers.) Answer: An important part of being a citizen in ancient Rome was the ability to speak clearly and loudly.

3 Education The goal of education in ancient Rome was to be an effective speaker. The school day started at 5 a.m. and continued until 5 p.m. Kids got a break for lunch and a short nap. Teacher Notes: School started before it was light outside. Kids brought candles to school so they could see to do their schoolwork. Each year, the first day of school started on March 24th.

4 Education Kids learned how to read, write, and count. Scrolls
Handwritten books Roman numerals Roman alphabet Greek Latin Literature Teacher Notes: At age 16, some boys went on to study public speaking at a school of rhetoric to prepare for life as an orator. School was not free. Kids of the poor rarely went to school outside their home. If their parents could read or write, they learned at home. Amazingly, about 30% of the Roman population could read and write.

5 Roman Baths Next stop, the baths!
During the republic, the baths were for patrician men only. They offered Heated swimming pools Reading rooms Barber shops Food Teacher Notes: The baths had an admission cost. There was no law that said the baths were for noblemen only, but the price of admission made it difficult for anyone to use the baths except the rich. Under the republic, the baths were for men only.

6 Roman Baths A trip to the baths was an important part of ancient Roman daily life. Roman noblemen visited the baths once a day. It was a place to conduct business, while soaking in hot water. Teacher Notes: The men might stop by the baths after breakfast and then wander down to the Forum.

7 Roman Siestas In the afternoon, wealthy Romans enjoyed a midday meal and a nap. The upper class ate a cold lunch at home, then took a nap or relaxed with friends. The poor worked constantly. Teacher Notes: The streets of Rome were nearly deserted in the middle of the day, especially in the summer. The town became quite lively again after the midday siesta. Ask: Why do you think the rich took afternoon naps? (Get some answers.) Answer: For one thing, it was the custom. For another, it was hot in the middle of the day. The ancient Romans waited until it cooled off to enjoy the outdoors.

8 Roman Homes Plebeians lived in small apartments. One room Made of wood
Threat of fire No running water No toilets No sanitation Teacher Notes: Plebeians lived in apartment houses above or behind their shops. Even fairly well-to-do tradesmen might choose to live in an apartment-building compound over their store, maybe with renters in the upper stories. Their own apartments might be quite roomy, sanitary, and pleasant—occasionally with running water.  But others were not that nice. In the apartment houses an entire family (grandparents, parents, children) might all be crowded into one room, without running water. They had to haul their water in from public facilities. Fire was a very real threat because people were cooking meals in crowded quarters, and many of the apartments were made of wood. They didn't have toilets. They had to use latrines (public toilets). Transition: Upper-class Romans (patricians) lived very differently.

9 Roman Homes Patricians lived in large houses. Single-family homes
Brick, with red tile roofs Running water Bathrooms Paintings Mosaic tile floors Teacher Notes: The upper class lived in single-family homes. Homes were made of brick with red tile roofs, with rooms arranged around a central courtyard, or atrium. The windows and balconies faced the courtyard, not the street, to keep homes safe from burglars. There were paintings on the walls and beautiful mosaics on the floor. There was very little furniture and no carpeting. Wealthy Romans might have a house with a front door, bedrooms, an office, a kitchen, a dining room, a garden, a temple, an atrium, a toilet, and a private bath. Transition: Although their lifestyles might have been very different, there was one thing that all Romans had in common besides their language. This was their belief in the many gods and goddesses that they worshiped each day.

10 Roman Gods The ancient Romans had gods for everything.
Each major god, like Mars, had his or her own temple. There were temples all over Rome. Every home had a household god.

11 Roman Gods The ancient Romans believed everything had a spirit in charge of it, right down to the latch spirit who lived in their front door and kept it from sticking. The ancient Romans made time each day to honor their many gods. Teacher Notes: The Romans believed that a little spirit lived in every object in their home. Each little spirit had something to watch over. The Romans took time each day to honor their household god, the spirit who lived in their house. The household god was in charge of all the other little spirits who lived in their house. Ask: If an object was accidentally broken, who do you think the ancient Romans blamed—the person who broke the item or the little god who was supposed to watch over it? (Get some answers.) Answer: The Romans believed that the reason something stopped working or was broken was that the little spirit who lived inside had been enticed away. Sometimes they had to get a new item just to put a little spirit back in their life.

12 Roman Gods The ancient Romans were always adding new gods. If another culture had a god that appealed to them, they gave the god a Roman name and adopted it. Teacher Notes: Ask: How do you think the ancient Romans might have learned all of the stories about the ancient Greek gods? (Get some answers.) Answer: From Greek slaves. The Greeks were great storytellers. It was not just children who listened to the great Greek myths, legends, and fables. Roman parents listened as well. The Romans gave the Greek gods new names—Zeus became Jupiter, Ares became Mars, Hermes became Mercury—but they were the same gods with the same powers and the same personalities. Apollo was one of the few names they did not change. Apollo is Apollo in both Greek and Roman mythology. They adopted all the Greek gods.

13 Roman Gods Greek Zeus Hera Poseidon Hades Apollo Aphrodite Ares Hermes
Jupiter Juno Neptune Pluto Apollo Venus Mars Mercury Jobs King Queen Sea Underworld Reason Love War Speed/Travel

14 Roman Theater Plays were performed during religious festivals only. Actors were men. Actors used masks and pantomime to make sure everyone could follow along. Teacher Notes: One of the things the ancient Romans loved to do was attend live theater. Plays were only performed during religious festivals. Since the ancient Romans celebrated over 200 holidays a year, there were many opportunities for plays to be staged. Someone had to pay for the play, as actors received a small fee. Usually a wealthy noble would pay the bill in honor of the gods and give the play to the people as a gift. When it came time to stage a play, a wooden platform was built in the Forum. Each actor played several roles. They wore simple costumes that could be changed quickly and in public. They wore happy and sad masks. They used pantomime to make sure everyone could follow along with the story, no matter how noisy the crowd became.

15 Roman Sports Ball games Riding Wrestling Throwing Catching Swimming
Hunting Fishing Teacher Notes: The object of one popular ball game was to throw a ball as high as possible and then catch it before it hit the ground. Champions at this game were highly respected. Women did not join in these games. Ask: Why do you think the women did not participate in athletic events? (Get some answers.) Answer: For one thing, they were not invited. Women in ancient Rome had more freedom than did women in ancient Greece. Under the republic, a woman’s place was in the home, managing the house and taking care of the children.

16 Chariot Racing Races were conducted on public roads that wound between the seven hills. Winners won prizes. Losers were wished better luck next time. Teacher Notes: The racers were men from noble families. Ask: Why do you think racers were from noble families? Answer: The poor could not afford chariots. Racers were not very careful when racing. If someone was in their way, they could easily be run down. Racers wanted to win.

17 Court Cases Trials were held at the Forum.
Both sides talked at once. A judge tried to hear what they were shouting, and then made a decision on the case. Some people found this vastly entertaining. Teacher Notes: In ancient Rome, when someone was accused of a crime, he defended himself in public at the Forum. Once cases were presented, often at the same time, a judge would decide the case. Anyone could stop by and listen to what was going on. They were supposed to be quiet, but onlookers had a tendency to speak out.

18 Kids Games After school, kids played Ball games Board games Kites
Dolls Wooden swords Teacher Notes: It was not difficult in many households to talk your dad into playing a game of knucklebones, which was a game similar to jacks, only the ancient Romans used real bones. Girls played with dolls. Boys played with wooden swords. Board and ball games were favorites. Romans loved any games of skill. The ancient Romans loved games.

19 Entertainment Theater Sports Chariot racing Court cases
Visits with friends Kids’ games The baths Stories Festivals

20 Evenings at Home Wealthy Romans lit oil lamps to enjoy the evening.
The poor went to bed as soon as it got dark. They were exhausted. Teacher Notes: If wealthy Romans stayed home at night, they lit oil lamps and had friends over. They lingered over dinner and talked and laughed and enjoyed life. The poor, unless they went out, went to bed as soon as it got dark, since they couldn't afford to keep oil lamps burning. They were exhausted. Those who had jobs worked from pre-dawn to dark. The rich were getting richer while the poor were getting the short end of the stick. Those who were out of work could still get free bread in the morning, but the tenements had become slums, and the streets were dangerous. Even with legionaries patrolling the streets, crime was on the rise.

21 Roman Legions Roman legionaries were paid professional soldiers.
Their job was to conquer people and claim land for Rome. They did a really good job! Teacher Notes: Roman legions made up Rome’s army. The army was successful because it was well organized. It received better training and better equipment than did any other army of the time. Its job was to conquer people. It did a really good job. Thanks to the army, Rome expanded rapidly. Rome called the lands of conquered people “the provinces.”

22 Expansion Soldiers gained land wealth. Conquered people had to
Pay taxes Provide troops Give up their land Relocate Teacher Notes: Roman legions did not destroy conquered cities. People they conquered were invited to join Rome. Most people did. Conquered cities were required to pay Rome taxes and to send Rome troops. Once Rome conquered a region, it built towns, aqueducts to carry fresh water into town, and beautiful public buildings. In areas where people did not choose to join the Roman Empire, the legion fought until they won. Then, people were forced to give up their land, and many of the townspeople were relocated to new areas. Ask: Why do you think Rome broke up villages and moved people far away from their homes? (Get some answers.) Answer: It kept rebellion at a minimum. It was not unusual for people to be sent to new areas where they did not even speak the language. When soldiers retired, they were given a small pension and a small gift of land somewhere in the provinces. This system allowed soldiers to gain land wealth, along with the money needed to develop the land. Rome gained loyal military settlers in conquered areas. Ask: Why do you think this system also helped to keep rebellion at a minimum? (Get some answers.) Answer: It’s hard to organize a rebellion against Rome if you have armed military men loyal to Rome as your neighbors.

23 Roman Legions The army was organized into legions. Each legion had
5000 men Its own leader Its own banner Its own number Teacher Notes: Two nicknames were Victorious and Blue Lightning. Ask: What do you think might be a good nickname for 5000 fighting men? At one time, the Roman army had 300,000 legionaries. That is 60 legions. Each legion made colorful banners that included a logo, a name, and a number. A general would be in charge of many legions. Each legion had a nickname.

24 Roman Legions They moved camp every day. Every night, they fortified a new camp space. Looked for open land Set up camp in the middle of the open land Camp was always in a rectangle shape Carried a wood fence and fenced the camp Dug a ditch beyond the fence for added protection Guards stood watch along the perimeter Teacher Notes: When the military was on the move, it built a new camp each night. Ask: Why do you think the army built a new camp every night? (Get some answers.) Answer: For safety. The enemy did not know where they were. But just in case the enemy did find them, the Roman soldiers fortified their camp. Ask: Why do you think they chose an open space to built their fortified camp? (Get some answers.) Answer: So they could see an enemy approaching.

25 Roman Legions Each legion flew its own banner.
Each fighting group within a legion had its own banner. As men wandered around camp, greeting friends or drilling, they could easily find their way back to their group by looking for their banners flying high. Teacher Notes: Each legion was broken up into smaller fighting groups. Each legion had its own banner. And each smaller group had its own banner. Each smaller group flew two banners: their legion’s banner and their group’s banner. When several legions got together to fight a huge battle, it was an impressive and colorful sight because of the banners flying high.

26 Roman Legions A legionary’s uniform included Rectangular shield
Short sword Dagger Belt Metal jacket Dress helmet Kilt and shirt Hobnailed sandals Teacher Notes: Each legionary served for 25 years. Legionaries trained all the time. They went on marches with heavy equipment to stay in shape for war. They had special equipment that they polished and sharpened. They had special hobnailed sandals. They had a special helmet for parades with a huge feather crest at the top. When they paraded, they carried their banners and flew flags. Trumpets sounded their arrival. When legions marched along the Roman roads, they were an impressive sight. Ask: Why do you think they had special helmets for parades? (Get some answers.) Answer: As they marched impressively in parades, it acted as advertising. (“Look at us. Are we not fabulous? Come join the legion.”) After a parade, many young men signed up to join the Roman legion.

27 Roman Legions Rome’s army won again!
Some towns accepted defeat before the battle even started. The common soldiers helped to build roads in the new provinces. Teacher Notes: The Roman legions often won. After a battle, the common soldiers were often given the job of helping to build the new roads. Archaeologists found a stash of letters written by Roman soldiers in a well in Scotland. Many of those ancient letters refer to building the roads and how much the soldiers hated that job. Ask: Why do you think the soldiers did not like building roads? (Get some answers.) Answer: They were professional soldiers. They were the best army in the known world. The soldiers felt road crews should of building the roads. That would leave them free to do their job, which was to drill and to prepare for war.

28 Roman Roads Each time a new city was conquered, a road was built from that city back to Rome. Roads were built in straight lines. Many had gutters. Some had curbstones. Teacher Notes: All roads led to Rome. Rome was the heart of the republic. The roads were incredibly well built. Rome had great engineers to direct the construction. Roads had gutters for water runoff and curbstones to stop chariot wheels from running off the road. Romans liked their roads to be straight. If they ran into a hill or even a mountain, they built a road through it, rather than around it. They used the roads to quickly move supplies and troops into areas showing rebellion. The sound of the legion’s hobnailed boots on the roads alone would quiet an area down. No one wanted to fight the legion if they could avoid it.

29 Milestones Milestones told how far it was to Rome.
Some milestones were six feet high so you could read them from a chariot. Milestones were road signs. Teacher Notes: The Romans put milestones along the road, like road signs. Milestones carried information such as who built the road, how much it cost, and how far it was to Rome. Milestones did not, for the most part, tell you where you were or what towns might be coming up next. Everything was focused on Rome. Rome was the center of their universe. All roads led to Rome.

30 Punic Wars Teacher Notes: As Rome grew, so did a nearby rival, the city-state of Carthage. Carthage was a huge city-state on the coast of Africa. Carthage controlled a great deal of land, including three islands right off the coast of Italy: Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Ask: Would you want a rival that close to you, if you were Rome? (Get some answers.) Answer: Carthage worried Rome. It was not as big as Rome, but it was becoming powerful. Not everyone thought Rome was great. Some people wanted to rule their own territory without interference from Rome. One of those places was the huge city-state of Carthage. Carthage was a city-state on the coast of North Africa. Carthage controlled three islands: Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica.

31 Punic Wars One day, Rome decided that Carthage needed to join the Roman Republic. Carthage disagreed. They fought for 20 years! Teacher Notes: The wars between Rome and Carthage were called the Punic Wars.

32 Punic Wars Carthage said, “If you’ll go away and leave us alone, we’ll give you the island of Sicily.” Rome took the deal. Rome, however, also took Sardinia and Corsica. Teacher Notes: Carthage was furious that Rome had taken the other two islands by force. But Carthage was also tired of fighting Rome. They said: “Phooey with it. Take them all. We’ll fight Spain instead and make up the land we lost there.” But bad feelings remained between Rome and Carthage. Carthage was furious, but it was tired of fighting Rome.

33 Hannibal Hannibal swore an oath.
Carthage sent a general to Spain to make up for the land Rome had taken. The general made his son Hannibal swear that as soon as he was old enough, he would make Rome pay for all the lives lost in the Punic War. Teacher Notes: His son, Hannibal, was only nine years old when his father had him promise to get even with Rome. The general had lost many good friends in the war. He did not believe that he would live long enough to get even himself. So he made his son promise to do the job for him. Hannibal promised. Hannibal was well trained by his father and his father’s men. Hannibal’s reputation grew. A few years after Hannibal’s father died, the soldiers in Spain chose him to be their new general. He was only 26 years old at the time.

34 Hannibal A military genius!
Hannibal joined the military. He won most of his battles by coming up with tricky ideas. One time, he had his men dump barrels of live snakes on the deck of an enemy ship.

35 Hannibal Elephants crossed the Alps!
Teacher Notes: Hannibal never forgot the promise he had made to his father. To win a war against Rome, he knew he needed a bold and clever plan. Hannibal’s plan was to march soldiers and elephants carrying supplies from Spain through Gaul (present-day France), over the Alps, into Italy. Rome would never expect him to attack from the north. Ask: Why was Hannibal so sure that Rome would not expect an attack from the north? (Get some answers.) Answers: Distance, and the Alps acted as a natural barrier. Hannibal attacks Rome from the north.

36 Hannibal The provinces were afraid to join him.
Hannibal and his men stayed on the Italian peninsula for 15 years, causing trouble where they could. Teacher Notes: Hannibal expected people in the provinces to join him. They hated Roman rule, but they were also afraid. They gave his men food and shelter but would not join his army. Hannibal knew he could not defeat Rome by himself. Hannibal changed his plans. Instead of attacking Rome, Hannibal and his men stayed on the Italian peninsula for 15 years, causing trouble where they could. Historians rate Hannibal as one of the most magnificent military minds in history and one of the world’s greatest generals.

37 Republic Fails Many years passed…
The legions were busy conquering new territories. Rome grew and grew. Rome had problems. Things were not fair anymore.

38 Republic Fails In the provinces…
Elected officials used their positions to get rich. Tax collectors began demanding huge sums of money.

39 Republic Fails In the city of Rome… Crime was everywhere
No police force People were afraid Private armies People were unhappy Teacher Notes:  Crime was out of control. Rome did not have a police force. Wealthy Romans hired guards and even private armies who fought on the streets of Rome. Innocent citizens were caught in the middle of fights all the time. The people were unhappy. They were ready to support a new leader and a new system.

40 Julius Caesar Julius Caesar was a powerful leader. People gathered in the Forum to hear what he had to say. “I can solve Rome’s problems!” said Julius Caesar. Teacher Notes: Julius Caesar was a great general and an important leader in ancient Rome. He had held just about every important title in the Roman Republic, including consul, tribune of the people, high commander of the army, and high priest. He suggested new laws, most of which were approved by the Senate. He reorganized the army. He improved the way the provinces were governed. The Romans even named a month after him, the month of July (from Julius). When Julius Caesar had something to say, the people wanted to hear his ideas. His ideas had been good ones. The people trusted him.

41 Julius Caesar Caesar’s legions enter Rome.
The law stated that no general could enter Rome with an army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. He took over the government. The people called him “Father of the Homeland.” Teacher Notes: But the Senate refused to listen to Julius Caesar’s ideas for change. They thought he was getting too powerful. They were afraid that next he would take power away from the Senate and declare himself ruler of Rome. One of the laws of the Twelve Tables, the laws the Romans made when they threw out King Tarquin the Proud (the Mean, the Nasty), stated that no general could enter Rome with an army. Ask: Why do you think Rome created this law? (Get some answers.) Answer: They did not want Rome taken over by force. Julius Caesar ignored this law. In 49 BCE, he entered Rome with his army and took over the government. No one called him king. Instead, the people called him “father of the homeland.” Julius Caesar made himself “Dictator of Rome.”

42 Julius Caesar Julius Caesar ruled for five years.
The Senate recognized that Caesar was solving some of Rome’s problems, but it did not want Caesar in charge. Caesar did not call himself a king, but he acted like a king.

43 Julius Caesar “Et tu, Brute?”
In 44 BCE, Julius Caesar was assassinated by twenty senators. They stabbed him to death. They were all people Caesar trusted. One of his killers was his best friend, Brutus. “Et tu, Brute?” is the famous phrase Caesar supposedly said as he died. (“You too, Brutus?”)

44 Roman Empire ROME AS AN EMPIRE

45 Civil War After the assassination of Julius Caesar, civil war broke out. The war lasted for 13 years. Octavian promised the people peace. He managed to gain absolute rule. The Senate gave him the title Augustus. Teacher Notes: Octavian knew the people would never accept another king. He was given the title Augustus and called himself the first Roman emperor. He reminded the people that he was the descendant of Aeneas (a royal prince) and of Romulus and Remus (twin sons of the war god Mars), and thus established his “right to rule.” He promised to reestablish trade and encourage literature and music. Augustus, first Roman Emperor

46 Augustus Augustus kept his promises. He established peace, which allowed trade to flow more smoothly. He introduced a uniform code of justice. The Senate maintained some power, but it was clear that real power was held by Augustus.

47 Pax Romana Augustus ruled for 45 years. During that time, Rome was at peace. This period is called the Pax Romana, or “Roman Peace.” The people got used to being ruled by a single leader. Rome went on to greatness as an empire, but the Roman Republic was no more.

48 Government The Senate lost power.
The great orators of the Senate were still speaking in the Forum. Their role in government was greatly decreased. They acted as advisors to the all-powerful emperor. Teacher Notes: As an empire, Rome was now ruled by an all-powerful emperor. The Senate acted as advisors. They could suggest laws, but they could not pass them unless the emperor agreed. The Senate was not the head of government anymore. The emperor was in charge.

49 Women Women gained many freedoms. Roman women could Own land
Run businesses Free slaves Make wills Inherit wealth Get a paying job

50 Roman Baths Anyone could use the baths.
The baths opened their doors to women and plebeians. Baths had separate hours for men and women. Teacher Notes: During the empire, in even the smallest towns, anyone could use the baths if they could afford the admission price, including women. Smaller baths had separate hours for men and women. The big baths had multiple facilities. The baths had always been popular, but under the empire, the baths offered more services than ever before.

51 Roman Baths The baths grew in size and offered many activities:
Heated pools Saunas Steam rooms Exercise rooms Reading rooms Beauty salons Stores and shops Fast food Teacher Notes: The baths were arranged like a modern shopping center wrapped around a swimming pool. At one time, there were as many as 900 public baths in ancient Rome. Small ones held about 300 people, and the big ones held 1500 people or more! Some Roman hospitals even had their own bathhouses. The baths were packed. The people loved them.

52 Roman Theaters Small theatres could seat 7000 people! Plays featured
Paid actors Music Pantomime Masks Lively action Puns Teacher Notes: Under the empire, Rome built huge theatres. Plays were no longer performed only in the Forum. Instead, huge productions were performed in theatres. Even small theaters could seat 7,000 people. Some of the larger theaters could seat 20,000 people. Roman plays were usually comedies—boy meets girl, parents forbid marriage, clever slave comes up with something to save the day. Plays included lots of lively action, and of course, puns. The Romans loved puns.

53 Roman Spectacles Enormous public buildings were constructed.
The Romans loved the fabulous events offered to the public. These events were called spectacles. Admission was free! Teacher Notes: The government constructed huge public buildings and open-air arenas. These huge facilities were built with concrete, an ancient Roman invention. Events held in the arenas were free to the public. Ask: Why do you think events were free? Answer: The emperors wanted to give the people something to do. Slaves did all the work. The use of slaves had caused massive unemployment among the poor. Rome had a population of around one million people. At all times, about 200,000 people were out of work. Transition: Rome had a program to feed the poor. Tokens were freely distributed to the poor that could be exchanged for food. Spectacles were created to give the poor something exciting to do. The combination gave Rome’s out-of-work citizens both free food and free entertainment.

54 Circus Maximus Crowds of 250,000 came to see chariot racing!
Teacher Notes: The Circus Maximus was used mostly for chariot racing. It could seat 250,000 people! (That's a quarter of a million people!) There were other circuses around the empire. But the Circus Maximus was the best known. It was the height of a successful racing career to race in the Circus Maximus.

55 Circus Maximus There were races every day. People cheered for their favorite team. Teacher Notes: Every afternoon, chariot racing attracted crowds of 200,000 to 250,000 people. Admission was free. The people cheered for their favorite teams. There were usually four teams. Their colors were red, blue, green, and white. If you were cheering for the red team, you might wear something red and wave something red. People would band together in huge sections, cheering for their favorites.

56 Colosseum Gladiators! 50,000 seated spectators!
This huge public entertainment center offered bloody combat. Teacher Notes: The Colosseum was another popular place. Again, admission was free. The Colosseum could seat around 50,000 spectators! This is where the ancient Romans gathered to watch bloody combat between gladiators, battles between men and wild animals, and people thrown to the lions. On occasion, they flooded the Colosseum with water and held naval battles where many competitors died. Not all Romans loved the bloody sports in the Colosseum, but many did.

57 Colosseum Gladiators were superstars.
The Roman crowds decided if a loser lived or died. Wave a handkerchief, he lived Thumbs down, he died Majority ruled Teacher Notes: The gladiators were the biggest draws. There were female gladiators, but they were not large in number. Gladiators were superstars. Some gladiators went to gladiator school to learn how to be a really good fighter. Most gladiators were criminals and slaves.

58 Campus Outdoor park near the Tiber River
The campus was a public park. It was used for field sports, wrestling, and exercising. Teacher Notes: The campus was a large section of plain near the Tiber River. It was land put aside near the river for running, jumping, and field sports, and was used during the period of the republic and the empire. Even such famous people as Augustus, Rome’s first emperor, exercised on the campus. Young men from all over Rome gathered at the campus for archery, wrestling, boxing, and running.

59 Spartacus Famous slave and gladiator
Spartacus escaped from the slave quarters. He led a small band of gladiators out of Rome. 90,000 slaves ran away to join him. Teacher Notes: Spartacus is famous because he led a rebellion. Other gladiators escaped with him. Other slaves from all over Rome ran away and joined them. In no time, Spartacus had a group of 90,000 runaway slaves. That was equal to 18 legions. The entire Roman army only had 60 legions. That was a huge number of people. Rome had a huge number of slaves. That was one reason so many poor Roman citizens were out of work. Slave labor was free.

60 Spartacus This threatened the Roman way of life.
The Romans were dependent upon slaves. They could not let Spartacus succeed. They hunted him for two years. When they finally caught him, they killed Spartacus and everyone with him. Teacher Notes: Ask: Why did this threaten the Roman way of life? (Get some answers.) Answer: They did not want any other slaves following Spartacus’ example. Wealthy Romans needed their slaves to do all the work.

61 Pompeii How do we know so much about ancient Roman daily life? From Pompeii. Pompeii was a Roman city that was buried by a volcanic eruption years later, archaeologists uncovered Pompeii. Teacher Notes: This lively city was covered with ash and buried for two thousand years. When archaeologists dug out the city, they found petrified bread still in the ovens that had been baking that day. They learned much from the ruins of this ancient city because it had been so well preserved.

62 Mosaic Tile One of the things archaeologists found were ancient Roman mosaics made of small pieces of colored tile. Several mosaics said Cave Canem, which means “Beware of Dog.” Teacher Notes: One of the things they found in several homes in Pompeii was a sign made with mosaic tile that said “Cave Canem.” This is Latin for “Beware of Dog.” Historians guess that the ancient Romans probably used dogs to guard their homes. The Romans were famous for their wonderful tiled mosaics. Roman mosaic work was elaborate and colorful.

63 Nero The empire lasted for 500 years.
In the 500 years Rome was an empire, there were over 140 emperors. Some emperors were good. Some emperors were bad. One of the bad emperors was Nero. Teacher Notes: Some emperors were excellent. Some were not. Rome suffered a series of bad, corrupt, and just plain crazy emperors. One of the worst was the emperor Nero. Nero was not the first insane emperor in power, but he was certainly one of the most famous. Nero did not go insane all at once. As time went on, his behavior became odder and odder, and then more and more murderous.

64 Nero Christianity began.
While Nero was emperor, a new religion sprang up in Rome. It was called Christianity. Christians believed in one god. They refused to worship the Roman gods.

65 Nero Nero persecuted Christians.
Nero told his army to hunt down Christians. Once they confessed to being Christians, they were thrown to the lions in the Colosseum as part of the entertainment.

66 Nero Nero threw many Christians to the lions. He murdered his mother.
He murdered his wife. He ordered members of the Senate to kill themselves (which they did not do). He killed himself. Teacher Notes: The leaders of the Senate knew that Nero was insane. They wanted to do something about it, but they were afraid. It was not until Nero ordered some of the members of the Senate to kill themselves that they finally took action. The Senate ordered Nero's immediate execution. He killed himself instead. Transition: Nero was not the only Roman emperor to persecute Christians. Nero was insane.

67 Christians Persecuted
Over the next 200 years, other emperors persecuted Christians. Christians refused to worship Roman gods. This was illegal. Christians were perceived as criminals. Teacher Notes: Over the next 200 years, persecuting Christians was an on-again/off-again kind of thing. It was not a constant hunt. But it was dangerous to be a Christian. At any time, any emperor might decide to hunt down Christians. If you were caught and found guilty, you could pay with your life.

68 Rise of Christianity In spite of persecution, Christians grew rapidly in numbers. Christians looked for converts. They told people about the benefits of being Christian. Teacher Notes: Christians came from every walk of life in ancient Rome, but mostly from the poor.

69 Rise of Christianity What was the appeal of Christianity to the poor?
Life after death Equal opportunity Teacher Notes: Ask: Why do you think the idea of life after death would be attractive to the ancient Romans? (Get some answers.) Answer: In the Roman religion, only gods went directly to” heaven.” Emperors were considered gods. Everyone else went to the underworld to be judged. Ask: Equal opportunity. What do they mean by that? (Get some answers.) Answer: You had to be born into nobility. However, Christians considered everyone to be equal.

70 200 Years Later Rome was still in charge of the Mediterranean, but Rome had problems! Rome had suffered under the leadership of many crazy and inept emperors. The army decided to choose an emperor. They chose Diocletian. Teacher Notes: Transition: The new emperor had new ideas. One of the best was to get some help running the empire.

71 Two Roman Empires Emperor Diocletian split the Roman Empire into two pieces! “Our empire is too big for one person to rule. I declare the empire is now in two pieces!” said Emperor Diocletian. Teacher Notes: The emperor chose his good friend, Maximian, to rule the Western Roman Empire, which included the city of Rome. Diocletian chose to rule the Eastern Roman Empire. He assigned two men the role of “caesar.” Caesars acted like junior emperors. It was a four-headed approach to government. He also put strong leaders loyal to himself in charge of the provinces. Transition: Once he had leaders installed in various sections of the empire, he set about fixing some of the problems that had been facing the empire for many years.

72 Reforms Emperor Diocletian Limited military service Levied new taxes
Restored the treasury Made coins that had value Teacher Notes: It seemed that every time Rome had problems, its rulers tried to fix the problems by taxing the provinces and the poor. This might have filled Rome’s treasury, but it did not bode well for the future. The people were continually financially exhausted from high taxes and high prices.

73 Roman Coins Coins were used to promote the empire.
Coins were not just used to buy things. They also: Depicted the emperor Depicted new buildings Praised wise decisions Teacher Notes: Ask: Why would coins commemorate a new temple? (Get some answers.) Answer: Everyone had to worship the Roman gods. It was the law. To announce a new temple had been built did two things: it reminded people that they had to worship Roman gods, and it reminded people that the empire did good things, like build new buildings.

74 Christians Persecuted
Emperor Diocletian believed Christianity was a threat to the empire. He ordered A return to the temples The worship of the old Roman gods The destruction of Christian places of worship The death of all Christians Teacher Notes: He tried to enforce the Roman religion, which meant he ordered people to return to the temples and worship the gods in the old ways. He believed Christianity was a threat to the Roman way of life. In 303 CE, he ordered the destruction of all Christian places of worship and the death of all Christians, unless they followed the Roman ways. These new edicts seemed to increase, not decrease, the number of followers, but Christians were hunted until Constantine became emperor.   In 305 CE, twenty years after he took power, Diocletian abdicated (handed over) his position as emperor and retired to his beloved palace on the Croatian coast. He believed he had put the Roman Empire back on course.

75 Constantine Christianity became legal!
Finally in 313 CE, Emperor Constantine ruled that Christians would no longer be persecuted for their beliefs. Teacher Notes: Constantine was the first Christian emperor. He made a great many changes. In 313 CE, with the Edict of Milan, he made Christianity legal. People could worship without fear of persecution. He took the treasures from the temples in Rome and used this wealth to pay for the construction of new Christian churches. He outlawed gladiatorial contests. He reorganized the army by disbanding the Praetorian Guard, the guard who had held strong influence over the empire for so long. His tax reforms just about broke everybody. Those who lived in the city of Rome had to pay their taxes in gold or silver. This tax was levied every four years. Those who didn’t pay were beaten or tortured. People sold their children into slavery to pay these taxes. Constantine was a hard, vain, ruthless man with a horrible temper. He even had his own son executed without any proof of guilt.

76 The city of Constantinople was founded.
Teacher Notes: Constantine is probably most famous for building the city that carried his name: Constantinople. (This name was later changed to Istanbul.) He decided that Rome was too riddled with crime and poverty to worry about any more. He moved to the Eastern Empire. He used tax monies from Rome to build his new capital. He announced that the senate in Constantinople was of a lower rank than the Senate in Rome, but he clearly intended that his new capital would someday replace Rome. He died of natural causes in 337 CE.

77 The Eastern Empire flourished!
Teacher Notes: As the western part of the Roman Empire continued to be attacked and taken over by invading barbarian tribes, the eastern part of the Roman Empire flourished. For one thing, Constantinople was more easily defended from barbarian intruders than was Rome. Map: Point out Constantinople on the map.

78 Back in Rome Things were falling apart:
Barbarians were attacking outposts Provinces were overtaxed Roman roads needed repair Supplies were not reaching the provinces Trade goods were not reaching Rome Prices increased, trade decreased Poor people were starving The rich were not interested in Rome’s problems Teacher Notes: The Romans had spent too much time and money on war and not nearly enough maintaining the roads and outposts. The wonderful Roman roads needed repairs. The provinces were overtaxed. The outposts were under frequent attack from barbarian tribes. Ask: Who were the barbarians? (Get some answers.) Answer: A barbarian was the name the Romans gave to any person who was not a Roman. There were many barbarian tribes in Europe. Barbarians, for the most part, did not read or write. But they were great fighters. They saw Rome’s wealth. They wanted it for themselves. Transition: The rich nobles in Rome were focused on living a life of luxury.

79 More Problems By 400 CE, things in Rome were even worse!
Rome suffered from Daily barbarian attacks in the provinces Corruption in the military Bad leadership in the government Teacher Notes: By 400 CE, the famous Roman roads were in total disrepair. Supplies did not get through because there was no way to move them along quickly. Moving supplies slowly invited attack from hungry peasants, bandits, and barbarians. Supplies from Rome often did not reach the provinces. The provinces could not easily send supplies back to Rome. Things were a mess. Ask: Why would there be corruption in the military? Answer: The Romans sent soldiers to the outposts but they did not follow with supplies or directions. These men were on their own. They were armed. They were in charge without any need to justify their actions. Some men tried to do a good and fair job for the citizens in their care. Others took bribes. Still others became tyrants and started keeping tax money and land for themselves. Ask: Bad leadership? Answer: Rome had a run of really bad emperors. Some, like Nero, were insane. And some, like Diocletian, were effective leaders, but convinced their way of doing things was right. Emperor Constantine saw that things were out of hand. He left town and took much of Rome’s treasury with him to his new city of Constantinople, capital of the Eastern Roman Empire.

80 More Problems, Continued
High unemployment Excessive taxation Starvation and disease Low food supplies from poorly managed farms Ask: Unemployment? What might cause unemployment in ancient Rome? Answer: Rome used slaves to do the work. It was cheaper. This put many Roman people out of work. Ask: Excessive taxation? What does excessive mean? (Get some answers.) Answer: Too much. People were being asked to pay taxes in excess of their entire year’s earnings. Those who did not pay were tortured or killed. This was true in the provinces as well as in the city of Rome itself. Since it was impossible to pay more than you earned, heads of families sold family members into slavery, which increased the number of slaves. People also stole money. Ask: Starvation and disease? Why were the people starving? Answer: They had no jobs or medical care. The people in the countryside were in slightly better shape, but much of the food they grew was taken away by the tax collectors. Ask: Why was it difficult to manage farms? Answer: The population was shrinking due to starvation and disease. This made it difficult to manage farms and government effectively. Ask: Barbarian attacks increased. The empire starting shrinking. The Huns, Visigoths, Franks, Vandals, Saxons, and other barbarian tribes overran the empire. By 400 CE, Rome had enormous problems and the Roman government was not fixing them. One problem led to another, which led to another. Rome became weak. Barbarians were beginning to overrun the empire.

81 Rome Falls Five barbarian tribes were attacking: Huns Franks Vandals
Saxons Visigoths Teacher Notes: There were five main barbarian tribes in Europe. Each wanted to conquer the famous Roman Empire. These tribes were the Huns, the Franks, the Vandals, the Saxons, and the Visigoths. Any of these barbarian tribes might have been the group that finally brought Rome down. They were all attacking various pieces of the Western Roman Empire at the same time. Forts and strongholds along the roads were destroyed. There were few cities in the outer regions of the empire, but those that existed were attacked and destroyed. But it was the Visigoths who finally brought down Rome. In 476 CE, the Visigoths attacked and sacked Rome. That was the end of the Western Empire. The Eastern Empire, with its capital at Constantinople, continued for another thousand years. The Eastern Empire did not fall until 1453 CE, towards the end of the Middle Ages, when it was captured by the Turks. Ask: Do you think Rome brought about its own destruction? (Get some answers.) Answer: If you said yes, historians would agree with you. The Romans knew they had problems. They were not effective in solving them. In 476 CE, the Visigoths sacked Rome.


83 Rome Rule In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge for a very long time: Rome was a monarchy for 200 years Rome was a republic for 500 years Rome was an empire for 500 years All roads led to Rome for 1200 years. Teacher Notes: Rome had quite a run. Rome was ruled by kings for about 200 years. Rome was a republic for 500 years, and was then ruled by emperors for 500 more years. In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge for a very long time. First a monarchy, then a republic, then an empire—all roads led to Rome for over 1200 years. After the fall of the Western Roman Empire, many things disappeared for a while. The common people did not understand Roman law. They did not understand Roman government. The advancing barbarians did not understand these things either. Like the roads, Roman law and government fell into disuse.

84 Legacies Two important legacies survived the fall: The Latin Language
The Christian faith Teacher Notes: Two important Roman legacies continued—the Latin language, which was read and spoken in the church; and the Catholic faith, which by the time Rome fell, was the faith of most of the common people in Europe. Ask: Why would the Latin language be important to people today? (Get some answers.) Answer: Our language, English, has its roots in Latin, as do French, Spanish, and Italian. Ask: Why is the legacy of the Christian faith important to all people in the world today, all of them, whether they are Catholic or not? Answer: The people in the church kept learning alive in Europe. After the fall of Rome, although the Eastern Roman Empire continued and flourished, Europe fell into a dark age that lasted hundreds of years.

85 Roman Gifts Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the ancient Romans. Concrete Roman Roads Aqueducts Latin Language Christian Faith Rings, Games Teacher Note: The Romans gave us a great many traditions, including the engagement ring, the wedding ring, friendship rings, and ball and board games.

86 Quiz Name two important things that happened during the Roman Republic. What is an empire? Why did the Romans offer free spectacles to all the people of Rome? Name two reasons Rome fell. Name two important legacies of the Roman Empire. Teacher Notes: Answers Written laws (12 tables), and distribution of power (Senate, Consuls) A very large area of land controlled by one civilization. To keep the poor occupied Excessive taxation without representation, corruption among public officials and in the military The Latin language, the Catholic faith

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