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1 The Forum was the main marketplace and business center. Shops Banks Temples Festivals Ceremonies Poets Jugglers The Forum.

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Presentation on theme: "1 The Forum was the main marketplace and business center. Shops Banks Temples Festivals Ceremonies Poets Jugglers The Forum."— Presentation transcript:

1 1 The Forum was the main marketplace and business center. Shops Banks Temples Festivals Ceremonies Poets Jugglers The Forum

2 2 The Forum was a place for public speaking. The job of a Roman orator was to argue persuasively. At the Forum, you might hear a court case or someone giving a speech. The Forum

3 3 The goal of education in ancient Rome was to be an effective speaker. The school day started at 5 a.m. and continued until 5 p.m. Kids got a break for lunch and a short nap. Education

4 4 Kids learned how to read, write, and count. Scrolls Handwritten books Roman numerals Roman alphabet Greek Latin Literature Education

5 5 Next stop, the baths! During the republic, the baths were for patrician men only. They offered Roman Baths Heated swimming pools Reading rooms Barber shops Food

6 6 A trip to the baths was an important part of ancient Roman daily life. Roman noblemen visited the baths once a day. It was a place to conduct business, while soaking in hot water. Roman Baths

7 7 In the afternoon, wealthy Romans enjoyed a midday meal and a nap. The upper class ate a cold lunch at home, then took a nap or relaxed with friends. The poor worked constantly. Roman Siestas

8 8 Plebeians lived in small apartments. One room Made of wood Threat of fire No running water No toilets No sanitation Roman Homes

9 9 Patricians lived in large houses. Single-family homes Brick, with red tile roofs Running water Bathrooms Paintings Mosaic tile floors Roman Homes

10 10 Every home had a household god. The ancient Romans had gods for everything. Each major god, like Mars, had his or her own temple. There were temples all over Rome. Roman Gods

11 11 The ancient Romans made time each day to honor their many gods. The ancient Romans believed everything had a spirit in charge of it, right down to the latch spirit who lived in their front door and kept it from sticking. Roman Gods

12 12 They adopted all the Greek gods. The ancient Romans were always adding new gods. If another culture had a god that appealed to them, they gave the god a Roman name and adopted it. Roman Gods

13 13 Roman Gods Greek Zeus Hera Poseidon Hades Apollo Aphrodite Ares Hermes Roman Jupiter Juno Neptune Pluto Apollo Venus Mars Mercury Jobs King Queen Sea Underworld Reason Love War Speed/Travel

14 14 Plays were performed during religious festivals only. Actors were men. Actors used masks and pantomime to make sure everyone could follow along. Roman Theater

15 15 Ball games Riding Wrestling Throwing Catching Swimming Hunting Fishing Roman Sports

16 16 Races were conducted on public roads that wound between the seven hills. Winners won prizes. Losers were wished better luck next time. Chariot Racing

17 17 Trials were held at the Forum. Both sides talked at once. A judge tried to hear what they were shouting, and then made a decision on the case. Some people found this vastly entertaining. Court Cases

18 18 After school, kids played Ball games Board games Kites Dolls Wooden swords The ancient Romans loved games. Kids Games

19 19 Theater Sports Chariot racing Court cases Visits with friends Kids’ games The baths Stories Festivals Entertainment

20 20 Wealthy Romans lit oil lamps to enjoy the evening. The poor went to bed as soon as it got dark. They were exhausted. Evenings at Home

21 21 Roman legionaries were paid professional soldiers. Their job was to conquer people and claim land for Rome. They did a really good job! Roman Legions

22 22 Expansion Conquered people had to Soldiers gained land wealth. Pay taxes Provide troops Give up their land Relocate

23 23 The army was organized into legions. Each legion had Each legion had a nickname. Roman Legions 5000 men Its own leader Its own banner Its own number

24 24 They moved camp every day. Every night, they fortified a new camp space. Looked for open land Set up camp in the middle of the open land Camp was always in a rectangle shape Carried a wood fence and fenced the camp Dug a ditch beyond the fence for added protection Guards stood watch along the perimeter Roman Legions

25 25 Each legion flew its own banner. Each fighting group within a legion had its own banner. As men wandered around camp, greeting friends or drilling, they could easily find their way back to their group by looking for their banners flying high. Roman Legions

26 26 A legionary’s uniform included Rectangular shield Short sword Dagger Belt Metal jacket Dress helmet Kilt and shirt Hobnailed sandals Roman Legions

27 27 Rome’s army won again! Some towns accepted defeat before the battle even started. The common soldiers helped to build roads in the new provinces. Roman Legions

28 28 Each time a new city was conquered, a road was built from that city back to Rome. Roads were built in straight lines. Many had gutters. Some had curbstones. Roman Roads

29 29 Milestones told how far it was to Rome. Some milestones were six feet high so you could read them from a chariot. Milestones were road signs. Milestones

30 30 Carthage was a city-state on the coast of North Africa. Carthage controlled three islands: Sicily, Sardinia, and Corsica. Punic Wars

31 31 One day, Rome decided that Carthage needed to join the Roman Republic. Carthage disagreed. They fought for 20 years! Punic Wars

32 32 Carthage said, “If you’ll go away and leave us alone, we’ll give you the island of Sicily.” Rome took the deal. Rome, however, also took Sardinia and Corsica. Carthage was furious, but it was tired of fighting Rome. Punic Wars

33 33 Hannibal swore an oath. Carthage sent a general to Spain to make up for the land Rome had taken. The general made his son Hannibal swear that as soon as he was old enough, he would make Rome pay for all the lives lost in the Punic War. Hannibal

34 34 A military genius! Hannibal joined the military. He won most of his battles by coming up with tricky ideas. One time, he had his men dump barrels of live snakes on the deck of an enemy ship. Hannibal

35 35 Elephants crossed the Alps! Hannibal attacks Rome from the north. Hannibal

36 36 The provinces were afraid to join him. Hannibal and his men stayed on the Italian peninsula for 15 years, causing trouble where they could. Hannibal

37 37 Many years passed… The legions were busy conquering new territories. Rome grew and grew. Rome had problems. Things were not fair anymore. Republic Fails

38 38 In the provinces… Elected officials used their positions to get rich. Tax collectors began demanding huge sums of money. Republic Fails

39 39 In the city of Rome… Crime was everywhere No police force People were afraid Private armies People were unhappy Republic Fails

40 40 Julius Caesar was a powerful leader. People gathered in the Forum to hear what he had to say. “I can solve Rome’s problems!” said Julius Caesar. Julius Caesar

41 41 Caesar’s legions enter Rome. The law stated that no general could enter Rome with an army. Julius Caesar ignored this law. He took over the government. The people called him “Father of the Homeland.” Julius Caesar

42 42 Julius Caesar ruled for five years. The Senate recognized that Caesar was solving some of Rome’s problems, but it did not want Caesar in charge. Caesar did not call himself a king, but he acted like a king. Julius Caesar

43 43 “Et tu, Brute?” In 44 BCE, Julius Caesar was assassinated by twenty senators. They stabbed him to death. They were all people Caesar trusted. One of his killers was his best friend, Brutus. “Et tu, Brute?” is the famous phrase Caesar supposedly said as he died. (“You too, Brutus?”) Julius Caesar

44 44 ROME AS AN EMPIRE Roman Empire

45 45 After the assassination of Julius Caesar, civil war broke out. The war lasted for 13 years. Octavian promised the people peace. He managed to gain absolute rule. The Senate gave him the title Augustus. Augustus, first Roman Emperor Civil War

46 46 Augustus kept his promises. He established peace, which allowed trade to flow more smoothly. He introduced a uniform code of justice. The Senate maintained some power, but it was clear that real power was held by Augustus. Augustus

47 47 Augustus ruled for 45 years. During that time, Rome was at peace. This period is called the Pax Romana, or “Roman Peace.” The people got used to being ruled by a single leader. Rome went on to greatness as an empire, but the Roman Republic was no more. Pax Romana

48 48 The Senate lost power. The great orators of the Senate were still speaking in the Forum. Their role in government was greatly decreased. They acted as advisors to the all-powerful emperor. Government

49 49 Women gained many freedoms. Own land Run businesses Free slaves Make wills Inherit wealth Get a paying job Women Roman women could

50 50 Anyone could use the baths. The baths opened their doors to women and plebeians. Baths had separate hours for men and women. Roman Baths

51 51 The baths grew in size and offered many activities: Heated pools Saunas Steam rooms Exercise rooms Reading rooms Beauty salons Stores and shops Fast food Roman Baths

52 52 Small theatres could seat 7000 people! Paid actors Music Pantomime Masks Lively action Puns Roman Theaters Plays featured

53 53 Enormous public buildings were constructed. The Romans loved the fabulous events offered to the public. These events were called spectacles. Admission was free! Roman Spectacles

54 54 Crowds of 250,000 came to see chariot racing! Circus Maximus

55 55 There were races every day. People cheered for their favorite team. Circus Maximus

56 56 Gladiators! 50,000 seated spectators! This huge public entertainment center offered bloody combat. Colosseum

57 57 Gladiators were superstars. The Roman crowds decided if a loser lived or died. Colosseum Wave a handkerchief, he lived Thumbs down, he died Majority ruled

58 58 Outdoor park near the Tiber River The campus was a public park. It was used for field sports, wrestling, and exercising. Campus

59 59 Famous slave and gladiator Spartacus escaped from the slave quarters. He led a small band of gladiators out of Rome. 90,000 slaves ran away to join him. Spartacus

60 60 This threatened the Roman way of life. The Romans were dependent upon slaves. They could not let Spartacus succeed. They hunted him for two years. When they finally caught him, they killed Spartacus and everyone with him. Spartacus

61 61 How do we know so much about ancient Roman daily life? From Pompeii. Pompeii was a Roman city that was buried by a volcanic eruption. 2000 years later, archaeologists uncovered Pompeii. Pompeii

62 62 One of the things archaeologists found were ancient Roman mosaics made of small pieces of colored tile. Several mosaics said Cave Canem, which means “Beware of Dog.” Mosaic Tile

63 63 The empire lasted for 500 years. In the 500 years Rome was an empire, there were over 140 emperors. Some emperors were good. Some emperors were bad. One of the bad emperors was Nero. Nero

64 64 Christianity began. While Nero was emperor, a new religion sprang up in Rome. It was called Christianity. Christians believed in one god. They refused to worship the Roman gods. Nero

65 65 Nero persecuted Christians. Nero told his army to hunt down Christians. Once they confessed to being Christians, they were thrown to the lions in the Colosseum as part of the entertainment. Nero

66 66 Nero threw many Christians to the lions. He murdered his mother. He murdered his wife. He ordered members of the Senate to kill themselves (which they did not do). He killed himself. Nero Nero was insane.

67 67 Over the next 200 years, other emperors persecuted Christians. Christians refused to worship Roman gods. This was illegal. Christians were perceived as criminals. Christians Persecuted

68 68 In spite of persecution, Christians grew rapidly in numbers. Christians looked for converts. They told people about the benefits of being Christian. Rise of Christianity

69 69 What was the appeal of Christianity to the poor? Life after death Equal opportunity Rise of Christianity

70 70 Rome was still in charge of the Mediterranean, but Rome had problems! Rome had suffered under the leadership of many crazy and inept emperors. The army decided to choose an emperor. They chose Diocletian. 200 Years Later

71 71 Emperor Diocletian split the Roman Empire into two pieces! “Our empire is too big for one person to rule. I declare the empire is now in two pieces!” said Emperor Diocletian. Two Roman Empires

72 72 Emperor Diocletian Limited military service Levied new taxes Restored the treasury Made coins that had value Reforms

73 73 Coins were used to promote the empire. Coins were not just used to buy things. They also: Roman Coins Depicted the emperor Depicted new buildings Praised wise decisions

74 74 Emperor Diocletian believed Christianity was a threat to the empire. He ordered Christians Persecuted A return to the temples The worship of the old Roman gods The destruction of Christian places of worship The death of all Christians

75 75 Christianity became legal! Finally in 313 CE, Emperor Constantine ruled that Christians would no longer be persecuted for their beliefs. Constantine

76 76 The city of Constantinople was founded. Constantinople

77 77 The Eastern Empire flourished! Eastern Empire

78 78 Things were falling apart: Barbarians were attacking outposts Provinces were overtaxed Roman roads needed repair Supplies were not reaching the provinces Trade goods were not reaching Rome Prices increased, trade decreased Poor people were starving The rich were not interested in Rome’s problems Back in Rome

79 79 By 400 CE, things in Rome were even worse! Rome suffered from More Problems Daily barbarian attacks in the provinces Corruption in the military Bad leadership in the government

80 80 More Problems, Continued High unemployment Excessive taxation Starvation and disease Low food supplies from poorly managed farms

81 81 Five barbarian tribes were attacking: Huns Franks Vandals Saxons Visigoths In 476 CE, the Visigoths sacked Rome. Rome Falls

82 82 GIFTS FROM THE ROMANS Achievements

83 83 In the Mediterranean, Rome was in charge for a very long time: Rome was a monarchy for 200 years Rome was a republic for 500 years Rome was an empire for 500 years All roads led to Rome for 1200 years. Rome Rule

84 84 Two important legacies survived the fall: The Latin Language The Christian faith Legacies

85 85 Concrete Roman Roads Aqueducts Latin Language Christian Faith Rings, Games Roman Gifts Here are some gifts we enjoy today from the ancient Romans.

86 86 1.Name two important things that happened during the Roman Republic. 2.What is an empire? 3.Why did the Romans offer free spectacles to all the people of Rome? 4.Name two reasons Rome fell. 5.Name two important legacies of the Roman Empire. Quiz

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