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CSE3AGT – Zones Portals and Anti-Portals, Fog and Ray Tracing Paul Taylor 2010.

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Presentation on theme: "CSE3AGT – Zones Portals and Anti-Portals, Fog and Ray Tracing Paul Taylor 2010."— Presentation transcript:

1 CSE3AGT – Zones Portals and Anti-Portals, Fog and Ray Tracing Paul Taylor 2010

2 Zones, Portals and Anti-Portals With Pictures!

3 Zones Air-tight areas of your level that constitute different areas. ng.htm

4 Portals These are the windows between your Zones You can either think of zones as airtight areas, or pretend to fill them with water

5 A more effective Zone / Portal combination

6 Occlusion Planes A newer advance in pre-rendering occlusion – This was one of the key technologies that enabled large open-world games to be created A plane which is inserted into any object which is large enough to be a ‘good’ occluder

7 The Bigger the Better!

8 Remember what occluders do

9 Get Creative! Don’t forget your ceilings and floors! You should keep your visible occluders down to only like 3 or 4

10 Fog is your friend!

11 Bonuses Much shorter Z-Depth Required before culling Heavy Fog can be used in situations of high complexity Even on a ‘Sunny Clear Day’ with huge draw- distances, fog can be used to stop pop-in

12 Negatives More code in your shaders Easily offset by the savings in polygons Some extra possible issues with artefacts Fatter Vertices

13 How? Two Main Methods: Vertex Based Fog - Cheaper Table Based Fog (Pixel Fog) - Expensive Important Attributes Distance (range / plane) Drop Off (Very similar to lighting!) Z or W based

14 Vertex Fog Functions in a similar way to Per Vertex Colours, or Per Vertex Lighting Fog values are interpolated across polygons based on Vertex Values All the usual per-vertex problems apply here too!

15 Plane Based Fog

16 Range Ranged based fog has a start and an end – Vertices before the FogStart are unfogged, Vertices after FogEnd are Completely obscured – A function is used to interpolate from FogStart to FogEnd Simplest: Linear Interpolation More complex: Eg: Exponential, quadratic, etc.

17 Range Based Fog

18 Linear Fog

19 Exponential Fog (2 types) D = distance from viewpoint Density = Variable from 0.0 to 1.0 The second equation has a steeper gradient through the middle section us/library/bb173401%28VS.85%29.aspx

20 Exponential Fog Curves Linear Fog

21 Vertex Based Fog Limitations

22 Polygon based Fog & Non Z Objects Fail!

23 A Tessellation Solution

24 Z-Fog The most basic Pixel Fog is Z-Fog (Depth-Fog) Things that can go wrong: Tilting on the Y axis results in:

25 Why does it happen? Side View of the previous slide

26 How can we solve it? We could Fix the rotation on the Y axis  Or we could calculate the true distance from eye to each pixel. It just so happens that we can get this value for free (Processing wise, we will need an extra float per vertex)

27 W-Fog (The DX9 Way) What is W? How do we make sure W exists? Both these matrices will work perfectly as an XYZ projection matrix. Below will create a W = Z * S. not exactly helpful. Above will Incorrect Projection Matrix for Accurate W Based Fog Correct Projection Matrix for Accurate W based Fog

28 W-Fog the DX10 Way W Fog is easy, we already use world coordinates for vertices in our lighting, so we can just add a float to pass the eye-vertex distance to the pixel shader

29 Newest Fog Technologies Technical Innovations to reduce your visibility! If you want to be ‘at the front’ you need to be looking for papers from Google Scholar! – Take each idea you like, figure out how it’s done, then figure out what you could do better! The following is from the latest build of the UDK

30 Exponential Height Fog New kind of global fog with density that decreases with height Never creates a hard line (unlike standard fog); supports one layer Can specify both "towards the light" and "away from the light" colours Rendering cost similar to two layers of constant density height fog Can now use different colours for the hemisphere facing the light and vice versa

31 Constant Density Height Fog

32 Exponential Height Fog ontentBlog/1ExpResized.jpg

33 Pipelines are for Chumps Raycasting and Raytracing

34 Ray Casting Definition Time There are two definitions of Ray Casting The Old and the New The old was related to 3D games back in the Wolfenstein / Doom 1 Era. Where gameplay was on a 2D platform The New definition is: – Non Recursive Ray Tracing

35 Ray Tracing Glass Ball

36 Rays from the Sun or from the Screen Rays could be programmed to work in either direction We choose from the screen to the Light – Only X x Y Pixels to trace From the Light we would need to emulate Millions of Rays to find the few thousand that reach the screen

37 Our Rays

38 Center of Projection (0,0)

39 Viewport (0,0) Screen Clipping Planes

40 Into World Coordinates (0,0) Screen Clipping Planes

41 Getting Each Initial Ray Origin = (0,0,0) Direction = ScreenX,screenY, zMin – ScreenX, ScreenY are the float locations of each pixel in projected world coordinates – zMin is the plane on which the screen exists

42 Surface Materials Surfaces must have their Material Properties set – Diffuse, Reflective, Emissive, and Colour need to be considered

43 For Each Pixel (the main Raytrace loop) For each pixel { Construct ray from camera through pixel Find first primitive hit by ray Determine colour at intersection point Draw colour to pixel Buffer }

44 Intersections The simplest way is to loop through all your primitives (All Polygons) – If the Polygon Normal DOT RayDirection(Cos Theta) < 0 // Face is opposite to Ray Ignore – Now we can Intersect the Ray with the Polygon – Or Intersect the Ray with the Polygons Plane

45 Ray / Polygon Intersection p0, p1 and p2 are verts of the triangle point(u,v) = (1-u-v)*p0 + u*p1 + v*p2 U > 0 V > 0 U + V <= 1.0

46 Line Representation point(t) = p + t * d t is any point on the line p is a known point on the line D is the direction vector Combined: p + t * d = (1-u-v) * p0 + u * p1 + v * p2 A Point on the line (p + t * d) which Is part of the triangle [(1-u-v) * p0 + u * p1 + v * p2]


48 Intersections Suck! etry/planeline/ etry/planeline/ c.html c.html /algorithm_0104B.htm#Line- Plane%20Intersection /algorithm_0104B.htm#Line- Plane%20Intersection or/Vplanelineint.html or/Vplanelineint.html

49 Intersecting a Plane A point on the Plane = p1 Plane Normal = n. Ray = p(t) = e + td P(t) = Point on Ray E = Origin D = Direction Vector t = [(P1 – e). n]/ d.n

50 World / Object Coordiantes We need to translate the Ray into Object Coordinates / Vice Versa to get this to work Ray = p(t) = e + td Ray = Inv (Object->World)e + t Inv (Object- >World)d

51 After Finding the Intersecting Plane You need a simple way to check for a hit or miss If your Object has a bounding box this can be achieved through a line check

52 Miss Conditions


54 Hit Conditions

55 For Other Shaped Flat Polygons An Even Number of Intersections with the Outside of the Polygon means a Miss An Odd Number of Intersections means a Hit

56 Task List for Ray Casting 1)Create a vector for each Pixel on the screen a)From the Origin of the Camera Matrix (0,0,0) b)That intersects with a Pixel in the screen 2)Use this Vector to create a trace through the World a)From the Zmin to the Zmax Clipping Volume b)UnProjected into World Coordinates 3)Intersect the trace with every object in the world

57 4)When the ray hits an Object we need to check how the pixel should be lit a)Check if the Ray has a direct view to each of the lights in the scene b)calculate the input from each light. c)Color the pixel based on the lighting and surface properties

58 One extra task for Ray Casting After Intersection Calculate the reflective Vector – Dot Product of Ray and Surface Normal Then cast a new Ray – This continues in a recursive fashion untill: A ray heads off into the universe A ray hits a light We reach our maximum recursion level

59 How we would like to be able to calculate light

60 Conservation of Energy A Physics-Based Approach to Lighting – Surfaces will absorb some light, and reflect some light – Any surfaces may also be light emitting – Creating a large simultaneous equation can solve the light distribution (I mean LARGE) – The light leaving a point is the sum of the light emitted + the sum of all reflected light

61 Don’t Scream (loudly)

62 The Rendering Equation Light Leaving Point X in direction  Light Emitted by Point X in direction  Integral over the Input Hemisphere Bidirectional reflective function (BDRF) in the direction  from direction  ’ Light toward Point X from direction  ’ Attenuation of inward light related to incidence angle

63 The Monte Carlo Method Repeated Random Sampling Deterministic Algorithms may be unfeasibly complex (light)

64 Metropolis Light Transport A directed approach to simplifying the BDRF Still considered a Monte Carlo Method It directs the randomness considering more samples from directions with a higher impact on the point being assessed

65 BDRF Tracing

66 Metropolis Light Transport

67 Radiosity Simplifying the Rendering Equation by making all surfaces perfectly diffuse reflectors This simplifies the BDRF function

68 Ray Tracing and the GPU

69 Adios Larrabee! l-abandons-discrete-graphics/ l-abandons-discrete-graphics/

70 DIY CUDA (An Introduction to it!) Stolen From NVIDIA_CUDA_Tutorial_No_NDA_Apr08.pdf

















87 *GTX 260 : 192 CUDA Cores







94 Perhaps a better example This shows the scalability of CUDA arrays










104 CUDA References to get you going tutorial/ tutorial/ 8/ 8/

105 The main CUDA point: Compute Shaders follow the same logic You’ll need to be epic with compute shaders to be highly desirable in industry It’ll give you massive credibility in Cluster Software development – A lot of clusters are moving toward GPU horsepower High Performance Computing = – Technical Proficiency – Lots of cash – Games Related Knowledge gives you an extreme edge over other parallel programmers

106 DIY Farming by Bungie tions/presentations/Life_on_the_Bungie_Far m.pptx tions/presentations/Life_on_the_Bungie_Far m.pptx

107 References ting_Fog_Direct3D.html ting_Fog_Direct3D.html ning.htm ning.htm

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