Presentation on theme: "Part 2 : Researchers 4.Online learning : It is all about dialogue, involvement, support and control – according to the research Marion Coomey & John Stephenson."— Presentation transcript:
Part 2 : Researchers 4.Online learning : It is all about dialogue, involvement, support and control – according to the research Marion Coomey & John Stephenson Ryerson Polytechnic University,Canada and Middlesex University,UK Reference: Stephenson, J. (2001). Teaching & learning online: Pedagogies for new technologies. John Stephenson (Ed.). London :Kogan Page. Reporter: 張謙楣 Report Date:2003/12/22
About this report This report is based on a systematic review of small-scale research reports, case studies and review of practice.It includes 100 research reports between 1998 to 2000. The authors were seeking advice on good practice and any indication of new approaches to teaching and learning being engendered by online learning.
Review of outcomes─4 common features: Dialogue,Involvement, Support, Control (DISC) Dialogue –Forms of dialogue in online courses: e-mail, bulletin boards, ’real time’ chat, asynchronous chat, group discussion and debate. – 教學者或課程設計者不能假定：學習者在被告知要參 與活動後，會投入線上小組討論、線上辯論或回答問 題 (Bonk, Angeli and Hara, 1998; Funaro,1999; Mason, 1998) 。 –Frameworks for dialogue: A responsive moderator with a list of clearly defined questions guides the dialogue and keeps the chat on topic (Beaudin, 1999; Bonk, 1999).
4 common features: (cont.) Involvement –Involvement includes responses in structured task, active engagement with material, student collaborations, student direction, flow and motivation. –Flow: A state of total absorption by the students online learning activities.It is associated with challenge, clear feedback, learner control and concentration (Chan & Repman,1999). –The need for structuring learner involvement into the system is illustrated by Wilson and Whitelock (1998).
4 common features: (cont.) Support –Support includes periodic face-to-face contact, online tutorial supervision, peer support, advice from experts, feedback on performance, support service and software tool. –The effective procedures for instructor/tutor/peer feedback are the most important features of a successful online course. –When the course structure allows students to develop strong working groups,they then perceive the course to be ‘congenial’ and see themselves as a community.
4 common features: (cont.) Control –Control refers to the extent to which learners have control of key learning activities and the extent to which the learner is encouraged to exercise that control. –Control can cover responses to exercises, pace and timing, choice of content, management of learning activities, learning goals and outcomes, overall direction and assessment of performance.
Variation Upon the Message Learning is teacher controlled or learner led. Learning activity is tightly specified or open-ended.
Paradigm grid for online learning Control & task specification → 4 paradigms These four paradigms can be illustrated as a grid. next
The north-west quadrant (NW) Dialogue: –Teacher defines/controls online dialogue and interaction. –The focus of dialogue is usually task-oriented problem solving. Involvement: –Little or no scope for learner to influence content. Support: –From the teacher via e-mail, phone calls or face-to-face meeting. Control: –Learner control is confined to responses to tasks. –The teacher controls reading materials, contents and deadlines. Teacher role: Instructor ( Teacher determined,task specific )
Advice for the north-west quadrant Provide easy access to technical support (Alexander, 1999; Bonk & Cummings, 1998). Structured hypertext that clearly directs students to desired goals results in more efficient use of time and clearer interpretation of task (Dee-Lucas, 1999). Refer to online discussion during ‘real’ class time (Funaro, 1999). Make online participation a requirement (Funaro, 1999). Back to grid
The north-east quadrant (NE) Dialogue: Scope is confined to the task,but the system and protocols support student-managed dialogue with other peers and experts. Involvement: Task-focused self-managed groups. Support: –Tutors provide advices on the nature of the tasks and goals. –Students provides feedback to each other. Control: Conduct of task is up to the learner. Teacher role: Coach ( Learner determined,task specific )
Advice for the north-east quadrant Keep groups small (Alexander, 1999). Assign students roles clearly and explicitly (Barros et al, 1998). Groups with appointed leaders (Oliver & Omari, in press). Provide training in how to use social behaviors online (Hackman & Walker, 1995; Marjanovic, 1999). (SW,SE) Develop strategies that enhance two-way interaction (Bonk,Angeli & Hara,1998). Make it a requirement students respond to others’ contributions (Gregor & Cuskelly, 1994). Motivation increases when students realize that their work will be displayed (Bonk and Dennen, 1999). Course structure allows students to always know what they are doing and what needs to do next (Sumner & Taylor, 1998). Back to grid
The south-west quadrant (SW) Dialogue: A combination of dialogue styles found in the NW sector during the instructor- led segment of the course and in the SE sector during the learner-managed segment of the course. Involvement: The student learns rules/concepts/theories from online texts and possibly traditional lectures.There are also locations for students to write and place their ‘discoveries’. Support: (online or face-to-face) –Traditional feedback in the first phase of the course (NW) –Instructor acts as facilitator, offering suggestions but not answers during the ‘discovery’ phase of the course. (SE) Control: Learners manage their own unstructured discovery activities within given parameters. Teacher role: Guide ( Teacher determined open-ended strategic learning activities )
Advice for the south-west quadrant Back to grid Structure the learning environment to promote co- operation within groups (Ewing, 1999). Provide model ways to work online in groups (Funaro, 1999). Create labels to allow students to structure dialogue (Sloffer et al, 1999). Keep dialogue on topic through carefully designed questions,guidelines (Beaudin, 1999). Categorize messages,summarize threads of discussion (Advaryu et al, 1999). Provide steps in the problem-solving process (Oliver & Omari, in press).
The south-east quadrant (SE) Dialogue: Self or collaboratively (peer-group) directed. Involvement: Total involvement in the learning activity. Support: –Contacts with supervisor initiated and monitored by the learner, facilitated by the system. –Feedback is sought from a variety of sources and experts. Control: Learners determine the goals and outcomes and monitors progress. Teacher role: Facilitator ( Learner-managed,open-ended activities )
Advice for the south-east quadrant Back to grid The role of the tutor,and level of tutor participation, should be clearly defined (Lewis & Vizcarro, 1998). Embed prompts (Henderson et al, 1998) Provide synchronous events (Mason, 1998) Develop criteria for students to assess each others’ work (McConnell, 1995) ‘Free for all’ open discussion don’t usually work (Mason, 1998). Provide guidelines and designed questions (Beaudin, 1999) Structure to make team collaborate (Marjanovic, 1999)
Implication of the study Horses for course The grid could de a useful means of helping researchers to communicate their findings for the benefit of developments elsewhere. Transition strategies –NW → SE –Ex: Students who used to clear instructions and narrowly defined tasks will need considerable help with online learning in any sectors other than NW sector.
Migration to learner-managed learning The four paradigms is comparable to that found in non ICT-based learning context. Ex: NW ─ traditional didactic teaching or formal training SE ─ open-ended learner-managed mode Online learning facilitates a migration from traditional didactic modes to more learner- managed learning modes. Learner control will emerge as the dominant characteristic of ‘every time, every place for everybody’ learning (Doherty, 1998).