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Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Chapter 12 The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior.

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Presentation on theme: "Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Chapter 12 The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior."— Presentation transcript:

1 Consumer Behavior, Ninth Edition Schiffman & Kanuk Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Chapter 12 The Influence of Culture on Consumer Behavior

2 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Chapter Outline What is Culture? How Culture Is Learned The Measurement of Culture American Core Values

3 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Culture The sum total of learned beliefs, values, and customs that serve to regulate the consumer behavior of members of a particular society.

4 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall A Theoretical Model of Cultures’ Influence on Behavior Figure 12-1

5 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Culture Is Learned Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of culture Enculturation –The learning of one’s own culture Acculturation –The learning of a new or foreign culture Issues

6 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Discussion Question How do U.S. marketers target consumers who have moved to the U.S. and are new to the U.S. culture? How do U.S. marketers target consumers who live outside the U.S. and are adopting parts of the U.S. culture?

7 This ad would appeal to those from other countries who are now interested in buying a house in the U.S.

8 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall The EU has a Web site for new citizens. weblink

9 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall The Movement of Cultural Meaning Figure 12.2

10 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Culture Is Learned Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of culture Issues Without a common language shared meaning could not exist Marketers must choose appropriate symbols in advertising Marketers can use “known” symbols for associations

11 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall This Web site explores animals as symbols for advertising. weblink

12 This ad uses the symbol of a magnet to emphasize its benefits.

13 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Culture Is Learned Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of culture Issues A ritual is a type of symbolic activity consisting of a series of steps Rituals extend over the human life cycle Marketers realize that rituals often involve products (artifacts)

14 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Discussion Question What are some rituals (religious, educational, social) that you have experienced? What artifacts or products were part of that ritual? How did marketers influence the choice of these artifacts?

15 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Culture Is Learned Enculturation and acculturation Language and symbols Ritual Sharing of Culture Issues To be a cultural characteristic, a belief, value, or practice must be shared by a significant portion of the society Culture is transferred through family, schools, houses of worship, and media weblink

16 This ad uses characters well known in the U.S. culture.

17 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Table 12.2 Selected Rituals and Associated Artifacts SELECTED RITUALSTYPICAL ARTIFACTS WeddingWhite gown (something old, something new, something borrowed, something blue) Birth of childU.S. Savings Bond, silver baby spoon BirthdayCard, present, cake with candles 50th Wedding anniversaryCatered party, card and gift, display of photos of the couple’s life together GraduationPen, U.S. Savings Bond, card, wristwatch Valentine’s DayCandy, card, flowers New Year’s EveChampagne, party, fancy dress ThanksgivingPrepare a turkey meal for family and friends

18 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Table 12.3 Facial Beauty Ritual of a Young TV Advertising Sales Representative 1. I pull my hair back with a headband. 2. I take all of my makeup off with L’Oreal eye makeup remover. 3. Next, I use a Q-tip with some moisturizer around my eyes to make sure all eye makeup is removed. 4. I wash my face with Noxzema facial wash. 5.I apply Clinique Dramatically Different Lotion to my face, neck, and throat. 6.If I have a blemish, I apply Clearasil Treatment to the area to dry it out. 6. Twice weekly (or as necessary) I use Aapri Facial Scrub to remove dry and dead skin. 7. Once a week I apply Clinique Clarifying Lotion 2 with a cotton ball to my face and throat to remove deep-down dirt and oils. 8. Once every three months I get a professional salon facial to deep-clean my pores.

19 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall The Measurement of Culture Content Analysis Consumer Fieldwork Value Measurement Instruments

20 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Content Analysis A method for systematically analyzing the content of verbal and/or pictorial communication. The method is frequently used to determine prevailing social values of a society.

21 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Field Observation A cultural measurement technique that takes place within a natural environment that focuses on observing behavior (sometimes without the subjects’ awareness).

22 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Characteristics of Field Observation Takes place within a natural environment Performed sometimes without the subject’s awareness Focuses on observation of behavior

23 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Participant- Observers Researchers who participate in the environment that they are studying without notifying those who are being observed.

24 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Value Measurement Survey Instruments Rokeach Value Survey (RVS) –A self-administered inventory consisting of eighteen “terminal” values (i.e., personal goals) and eighteen “instrumental” values (i.e., ways of reaching personal goals) List of Values (LOV) – A value measurement instrument that asks consumers to identify their two most important values from a nine-value list that is based on the terminal values of the Rokeach Value Survey Values and Lifestyles (VALS) –A value measurement based on two categories: self-definition and resources

25 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Table 12.5 Excerpt from the Rokeach Value Survey TERMINAL VALUESINSTRMENTAL VALUES A comfortable lifeAmbitious An exciting lifeBroad-minded A world at peaceCapable EqualityCheerful FreedomClean HappinessCourageous National securityForgiving PleasureHelpful SalvationHonest Social recognitionImaginative True friendshipIndependent WisdomIntellectual

26 This ad references a terminal value.

27 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall American Core Values Achievement and success Activity Efficiency and practicality Progress Material comfort Individualism Freedom External conformity Humanitarianism Youthfulness Fitness and health

28 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Discussion Question Have you observed changes in any of the core values over the past 4 years? Why did those changes occur? How have they affected marketers?

29 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Criteria for Value Selection The value must be pervasive. The value must be enduring. The value must be consumer-related.

30 Copyright 2007 by Prentice Hall Toward a Shopping Culture Is shopping what we do to create value in our lives? The younger generation is shopping more This has an effect on credit card debt


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