2 2 Agenda 1. LEAF Overview 2. Lithium Battery Development at Nissan 3. Lithium Battery System Design and Safety2
3 3 Agenda 1. LEAF Overview 2. Lithium Battery Development at Nissan 3. Lithium Battery System Design and Safety3
4 Nissan LEAF Launched Dec. 2010 in JP, US, EU Specifications Dimensions 4,450mm X 1,770mm X 1,545mmSeating Capacity5 passengersPowertrain layoutFront motor, front driveElectric MotorHigh response AC synchronizing motor (80kw, 280Nm)BatteryLaminate-type thin lithium-ion battery (approximately 24kWh)BrakesRegenerative braking, mechanical disk brakesTop speedOver 140km/hCruising range160km US LA4 mode）Charging timesNormal charge:JPN approximately 8 hours(200V)US/EUR approximately 7 hours(240V/230V)Quick charge:Approximately 30minutes SOC0% to 80%)
5 LEAF Powertrain Inverter Specifications Motor Specifications Dimensions304 × × 144.5mmWeight16.8kgMax. AC Current(Coolant temp. : 65℃)425 A RMS (4 sec)340 A RMSDC VoltageVCarrier Frequency5kHzMotor SpecificationsMaximum torque280 NmMaximum power80 kWTop Motor speed10,390 rpmMotor weight58 kg
7 Original blended (LMO based) LEAF Battery SpecificationsCellModulePackCellStructureLaminated typeCapacity33AhCathodeOriginal blended (LMO based)AnodeGraphiteModuleConsist of Cell numbers4 cellsCell connection2 parallel-2seriesPackConsist of Module numbers48 Modules (in series)Total Energy24 kWhMax. Power>90kWPower/Energy ratio≒4
8 8 Agenda 1. LEAF Overview 2. Lithium Battery Development at Nissan 3. Lithium Battery System Design and Safety8
9 Nissan Li Battery History In 1992, R&D began on lithium batteries for automobile applications.199120002010‘91 The world’s first LB(for cellular phone)’92 Research start‘07 AESC foundedCo typeMn typeLithiumBatteryCylindrical cellLaminated cellWe started Lithium battery research in 1992, beginning with a cobalt type battery in a cylindrical cell package.In the late 90’s, we started developing a Mn-type cell and in the early 2000’s developed a laminated cell. This led to the current cell configuration.EVLEAFVehiclePrairie EVAltra EVHyper MiniHEV / FCVTino HEV03 FCV05 FCVFUGA Hybrid
10 Cell Design Highly balanced total performance Long life Low cost Cell designed by AESCAESC( Automotive Energy Supply Corporation)High energy performance(light weight and compact)Highly balanced total performanceLong lifeLow costReliabilityThe original blended compound cathode (LMO based)compatibility of low-cost and durability.Laminated-type cell structuresimplifying the terminal design for power-useimproving the thermal radiation performance.
11 11 Laminated Li-Ion Battery High Reliability Satisfies automotive-level performance with high reliability.Compact &Flexible PackagingTwice the PowerTwice the Energy> 2.5kW/kg*140Wh/kg*½ the SizeConventionalLaminatedConventionalLaminatedCylindricalLaminated* after durability test* after durability testHigh ReliabilityChargeDischargeStable Spinal Mn-type crystal structureLaminate structure provides higher cooling efficiencyStable performance through cell control11
12 Manganese Oxide Lithium Other Metal Oxide Lithium Thermal – Stable MaterialHow are thermal issues during extreme conditions addressed in the design of the cells and battery packs?Currently using Mn type Li-ion batteryBy using stable crystal structure (spinel Mn-type as electrode material) the battery can hold stability even under high heatManganese Oxide LithiumOther Metal Oxide LithiumMetal OxideMn OxideLi-IonLi-IonChargeChargeDischargeDischargeSpinel StructureLayered StructureStable12
14 14 Agenda 1. LEAF Overview 2. Lithium Battery Development at Nissan 3. Lithium Battery System Design and Safety14
15 Battery Safety Design Concept Vehicle, battery pack and modules are designed to act as ‘barriers’ to potentially harmful eventsApply global regulations and standardsSafety Shield ConceptStandardsRegulationsPotential hazardouseventsCellModulePackVehicleFMVSSECE R100MechanicalUN §38.3AppliedElectricalIEC/ISOProtection designResistance designThermalSAEJIS C8714QC/T743
16 Mechanical cell support Thermal management Waterproof Insulation Module/Pack DesignHigh energy performance(light weight and compact)Highly balanced total performanceLong lifeLow costSafety/ReliabilityMechanical cell supportThermal managementWaterproofInsulationLay-out versatility etc.
17 LEAF Battery Structure Battery case is made from steel to create a sealed structurePack uses a robust interior of metal fixtures to secure components; this helps maintain the pack structure in case of accident or fire.
18 Immersiontest time: 1 hourNo leak into the Pack
19 Battery Management System The LEAF battery management system performs continuous self diagnostics by monitoring:Individual cell voltageState of chargeBattery temperatureBattery pack hardware conditionsBMS optimizes conditions to provide power on demandBMS responds to unexpected conditions by going to failsafe mode or complete shut down depending on the circumstances; examples:OverchargingOver-tempCell failureCrash
20 High Voltage Circuit Diagram High voltage circuit is initially open and activated only when control system is correctMain RLY is cut off when detecting vehicle crashMotorInverterCharge RLYBat Main RLYQuick chargerQ/Charge RLYVehicle control module (VCM)BMSCheck each (96 cells) voltageand total voltageRequest RLY CUTCut off Main RLYA/B sensorRequestRLY CUTNormal Open RLYInputACABattery packOn board chargerSD/SWJ/B
21 21 EV Safety ICE EV Impact safety concepts Passenger Protection Body deformation controlOptimization of restraint systemsPrevention of secondary accidentProtection of fuel systemPrevention of secondary accidentProtection of high voltage systemTriple Protection StructureTriple Electric Safety System21
22 22 EV Safety Triple electric safety system 1 3 2 Cabin is structurally separated from high-voltage electric system with EV dedicated body and optimized layout1Prevent high-voltage electric leakage with fuses in battery3Cut off high voltage with impact detection system2Battery pack22
23 23 EV Crash Safety Triple protection structure 2 1 1 3 2nd Protection StructureProtect battery pack with body skeleton1st Protection StructureSuppress body deforming with impact energy absorbing vehicle body11Battery module3rd Protection StructureProtect battery modules withhigh-strength battery frame3Battery pack23
24 EV Crash SafetyEV is tested according to the regulatory and non-regulatory requirements for all markets where it is soldExample: 40 mph offset frontal impactNo damage to battery pack24
25 EV SafetySafety is evaluated by testing under a variety of situations and environmentsCold area TestWater-covered road TestUneven road TestHigh pressure washers Test25