2 Objective ……………………………….. Disclaimer ……………………………… Outlook …………………………………. Definitions ……………………….……… Influences ………………………….…… Part I – Your Vehicle ………………….. Part II – You, the Driver ………………. How to Pass a Road Test ………….…. Experiences and Lessons ……………. Freeway & Highway Driving ………….. 3 5 6 15 18 24 53 80 83 84 Table of Contents
Objective To reduce motor vehicle collisions, mishaps and the resultant fatalities, injuries and property damage by enhancing the driver ’ s situational awareness of the risks and dangers associated with operating a motor vehicle. 3
What this is all about – S.A. (SITUATION AWARENESS!!) 4
5 Disclaimer This program is NOT endorsed, sanctioned, approved, or sponsored by any government, automotive or insurance entity. This program contains the comments and opinions of the author, unless otherwise noted, who is solely responsible for its content.
DURING THE NEXT 5-7 YEARS, IF IT HAS NOT HAPPENED ALREADY, YOU WILL BE INVOLVED IN A MOTOR VEHICLE ACCIDENT OR MISHAP. OUTLOOK
ANOTHER VEHICLE WILL HIT YOUR VEHICLE. YOUR VEHICLE WILL HIT ANOTHER VEHICLE OR OBJECT.
VEHICLE DAMAGE WILL BE MINOR – A SCRAPE OR SMALL DENT. OR IT WILL BE SEVERE – REQUIRING REPAIR OR REPLACEMENT OF THE VEHICLE.
INJURIES MAY OCCUR – MOSTLY MINOR. MAYBE MAJOR. EVEN DEATH.
THERE WILL BE POLICE REPORTS AND INSURANCE CLAIMS. JUST FOR STARTERS.
THERE IS NOT MUCH YOU CAN DO TO STOP ANOTHER VEHICLE FROM HITTING YOU.
THERE IS A LOT YOU CAN DO TO REDUCE THE CHANCES OF YOU HITTING ANOTHER VEHICLE OR OBJECT.
DRIVER’S ED TEACHES YOU ENOUGH TO GET A LICENSE.
THIS PROGRAM LOOKS AT SOME KEY POINTS TO HELP YOU BEYOND THE BASICS.
Definitions There are two types of injurious or damaging motor vehicle incidents: ACCIDENT MISHAP 15
ACCIDENT An unavoidable and un-preventable event resulting in personal injury, property damage or loss. (Act of God, beyond human control) 16
MISHAP An avoidable and preventable event resulting in personal injury, property damage or loss. (Human error) 17
Influences You Drive Under 18 The Sky Daylight, Darkness, Rain, Fog, Smog The Earth Terrain, Roadway, Traffic Time Media & Entertainment TV, Movies, Entertainment, NASCAR & NHRA No Control Your Vehicle You Control Mathematics Centrifugal Force, Speed, Friction, Gravity, Weight People Passengers, Authority Figures, etc. The Law Category A Category B
INFLUENCES One of the biggest hits against you is to be arrested for DUI – Driving Under the Influence (of drugs or alcohol). A little closer look at the driving experience shows a few more “ influences ” that can affect how we drive. These are divided into 2 categories. Category A 1. The SKY. This means the Sunlight, Rain, Snow, Fog, Smog, Dust, Darkness, Heat, Cold, Ice and Wind. These conditions affect your vision and vehicle handling. 2. The EARTH. This refers to the terrain, such as hills, elevation, the roadway itself (its location, how many lanes, type paving – asphalt or concrete; the layout – wide boulevard, residential street, highway, etc. 3. TIME. Cannot be stopped, accelerated, slowed down or turned back. 19
4. THE LAW. The rules that society places on you to standardize the way a motor vehicle is operated, such as speed limits and seat belt laws. 5. PEOPLE. Passengers including, friends, young children; authority figures, such as parents and law enforcement officers. 6. SCIENCE. The physical affects of centrifugal force, acceleration, deceleration on the motor vehicle and its occupants. 7. MEDIA & ENTERTAINMENT. This means TV, movies, video games and sporting events. How you see motor vehicles used in entertainment, advertising and sporting events. Those vehicles look like yours and you think you can drive like that, too. 20
Category B YOUR VEHICLE. The vehicle that you are driving, with all of its capabilities and limitations. Your vehicle is an influence on drivers in your immediate vicinity. YOU. The driver of the vehicle using your physical ability to steer the vehicle and make it travel at the speed you wish. You use your brain and mental ability to determine the destination, the route and to evaluate all of the factors that influence the handling of your vehicle The difference between Category A and Category B is CONTROL. In Cat. A, you have no control over any of the items listed. The only things that you have control over and responsibility for are YOUR VEHICLE and YOURSELF. 21
The NASCAR & NHRA Influence Racing Competition Product Development & Testing Advertising – The Disclaimer Professional Driver, Closed Course, Do Not Attempt 22
NASCAR and NHRA NASCAR and NHRA racing can have distinct influences on the way you drive. People are naturally competitive – striving to be in front, get there first, go faster than the next guy. Besides the outward exhibit of racing competition, behind the scenes, sponsoring automotive manufacturers have their products tested under the most grueling conditions. Most of the cars and trucks look so much like those on the street; almost like the one you have. And heck, you can drive just a good as those guys. NASCAR and NHRA don ’ t tell you that little advisory at the bottom – Professional Driver, Closed Course, Do Not Attempt! 23
Definition of a Vehicle (Typical) 25 Self Propelled Self Contained Enclosed Wheel Mounted Engine / Motor Driven Manually Operated Gasoline, Diesel, Propane, Electric, Propane Powered Load Carrying Capacity: 500 – 2000 lbs Maximum Speed: 146 ft/second (100 mph) – 150 mph Range: 200 - >400 miles Curb Weight: 1000 - >6000 lbs Bi-directional, steerable General Purpose Vehicle – People & Cargo
The motor vehicle of today has evolved a long way from where it was 25 years, even 10 years ago. More features have been added to improve comfort and, in the event of a crash, survivability. More ‘ supplemental restraint systems ’ (air bags) have been added around the front seat occupants; bumpers have been replaced by crumple panels; steel and metal exteriors have been replaced by advanced plastic materials. With all these improvements and enhancements vehicles are now beyond the service and repair capability of the typical operator. Aside from cleaning the windows, changing the oil or a flat tire, there is not too much more that you can do. Almost all other vehicle servicing and maintenance must be done by trained professionals. Today ’ s vehicle is no longer ‘ tuned up ’ - instead it is calibrated. For all the technical improvements made to motor vehicles in recent years, the driver of today is less informed and aware of the vehicle ’ s capabilities and attributes than a driver of a less sophisticated vehicle from the 1980s and before. 26
What do you know about your vehicle? What ’ s to know? It has 4 wheels, gas in the tank, windows, an engine, you ’v e got the keys and you’re good to go. Really? How fast will it go? What is the vehicle ’ s top speed? There are a few variables to this answer such as weight load on the vehicle (including people), road layout (straight or curved, up or downhill, banking). When you look at the speedometer and see that it goes up over 100 mph and you remember seeing somewhere that the maximum posted speed in your state is 70 mph, then you realize that the vehicle is grossly overpowered. How far will it go without refueling? Advertising says it is rated at 30 miles per gallon (based on laboratory testing) and you can squeeze 20 gallons into the tank. 30 x 20 means you should get 600 miles to a tank of gas. How come you can only go 350 miles before you have to refuel? You like to stomp on it coming off the stop light and 80 mph is your normal highway speed. And all those idiots on the highway that hokey-poke along at the speed of a turtle… They ’ re just in your way and you have to blast around ‘ em. Result: heavy on the gas pedal means lousy gas mileage and probably early brake wear. 27
What Do You Know About your Vehicle? How Fast Will It Go – Top End Speed? How Many Miles Without Refueling? How Many Forward Gears Does It have? How Much Will It Carry – Weight/Passengers? What are its dimensions – length, width? What are its REDLINES? How ‘ Safe ’ Is Your Vehicle? Crash Test Ratings – What do they mean? 28
Motor vehicles today are very fast – speed is one of their selling points. The maximum posted speed limit on a public road in the US is 80 mph – and that is in only 2 states. Ref: www.iihs.org/laws/speedlimits.aspx You could argue that vehicle manufacturers contribute to many speeding tickets being issued because the vehicle is capable of traveling at a speed faster than the law allows. The typical motor vehicle of today with a 6-cylinder engine has more horsepower under the hood than a conventional Continental and Lycoming reciprocating engine in a small airplane. The distance a vehicle can go is determined by several factors – the mechanical condition of the engine, the lay of the land, how smoothly the driver accelerates, the capacity of the fuel tank – just to name a few. Not too much attention is given to transmission gear selection since most vehicles use an automatic transmission. Even with an automatic, serious wear and tear to the engine and transmission can occur by not manually selecting a different gear range while negotiating a hill or traveling on ice or snow. Each one of the numbers on the gear select indicator correspond to the applicable gear. If you put the gear shift on 3, then the transmission will only use the first three gears. In DRIVE, the transmission will employ all gears, including overdrive, if the vehicle is so equipped. 29
The vehicle is designed to carry people and cargo. The number of people a vehicle can carry is determined by the number of seat belts installed. All vehicles are limited in the amount of weight that can be carried. This weight is the sum of the weight of the occupants and the cargo and is predetermined by the manufacturer. Exceeding the weight limits of a vehicle not only causes stress on the suspension and tires, but also severely degrades the performance and handling of the vehicle. You have to know the length and width of your vehicle; not in feet and inches, but rather in being able to determine if the parking space you want to get into is big enough to get into and still be able to open the doors without banging something. What is a ‘ Red Line? ’ On a motor vehicle, the red marking on a dial instrument indicates when a system has reached a dangerous level. If you do not take action to bring the system back to within a normal reading, then it is a very likely that the system will sustain serious damage or be destroyed. Many motor vehicles today have minimum instrumentation and instead, rely on warning indicator lights. One of the few instruments that does not have a red line is the speedometer. A typical passenger vehicle is capable of speeds in excess of 100 mph (147 ft./sec). Yet, as stated previously, the maximum posted speed on a public road in the US is 80 mph (117 ft./sec). There does not seem to be a reason for a privately owned vehicle driven on public roads to have the ability to go that fast. 30
How “ Safe ” is Your Vehicle? 31 The only time any motor vehicle is safe (about 98% of the time) is when it is unoccupied and the engine is turned off.
There is no such thing as a ‘ SAFE ’ vehicle. It is well documented of the carnage and death resulting from motor vehicle crashes. Too often it is forgotten that a vehicle does not have to be in motion to be harmful. It seems that every year, children are left alone in vehicles during the heat of a summer ’ s day. And if the child is not killed due to overheating, then the child is most likely placed in protective custody while the driver is arrested for child endangerment. And more than a few people have been injured and killed while servicing or working on motor vehicles - all while the vehicle engine has been shut off. The Crash Test Rating is a program used by insurance companies and the federal government to help inform you of the chances of being injured in the event of a vehicle crash. A closer look at the fine print will put this program in a more clear light. The government calls it the New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) and can be reviewed in detail at: safercar.gov. The Star rating alludes to the likelihood (percentages) of sustaining serious injury while riding in a particular vehicle. If you look closely, you ’ ll see that the tests are performed under ‘ laboratory ’ (controlled) conditions at speeds between 35 and 40 mph. The tests only give statistical probabilities as to the chances of being injured during a particular type crash. The extent of possible injuries is not defined. 32
= 10% or less chance of serious injury = 11% to 20% chance of serious injury = 21% to 35% chance of serious injury = 36% to 45% chance of serious injury = 46% or greater chance of serious injury New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) Ref: safercar.gov 34
YOUR VEHICLE IS NOT - AMPHIBIOUS – IT WON ’ T FLOAT AERODYNAMIC – IT WON ’ T FLY 35
There are a couple of things that the typical motor vehicle is not – One. It is not AMPHIBIOUS. It won ’ t float. A motor vehicle is subject to being swept away in moving water and will rest on the bottom of any standing water. In either case, water will flood the inside of the vehicle. Two. It is not AERODYNAMIC. It won ’ t fly. There is no control of the vehicle if it becomes airborne. It will pitch, roll and turn according to the physical forces acting upon it. Any drop of more than a foot or so can cause severe damage to the vehicle, not to mention the occupants. 36
Your Vehicle is 37 Dependable Easy to Operate Boring Comfortable Seat Temperature Controlled Tiring, Exhaustive Complex Expensive A Machine Above everything else, your vehicle is … *LETHAL*
The vehicle has been defined – what it is and what it is not. So, from your perspective, what are you dealing with? First, the modern day motor vehicle is very dependable. With routine service and occasional preventive maintenance, today ’ s motor vehicle will perform normally for well over 10 years and 100,000 miles. Many vehicles today carry a warranty for these numbers. Second, the motor vehicle is fairly easy to operate. A wheel to determine direction with a couple of pedals for speeding up and slowing down while sitting in a pretty comfortable seat becomes very BORING quickly. In a temperature controlled interior, driving becomes tiring and exhausting. Third, a motor vehicle is complex. From an engine adjustment to a front end alignment, almost every repair or maintenance action is performed with computer guidance. A motor vehicle is expensive. A typical vehicle costs between $15,000 to over $30,000. This does not include fuel, repairs, insurance and registration. The motor vehicle is a machine. It performs work mostly as guided by you – the driver. If you are not careful about how you use it, it will KILL you or somebody else. 38
BMW says it a bit more gracefully in their advertising. The fact is that the motor vehicle is nothing more than A STUPID, FRIGGING MACHINE!! IT DOESN ’ T KNOW WHERE YOU WANT TO GO; IT DOESN ’ T KNOW HOW TO GET THERE; IT DOESN ’ T KNOW HOW FAST IT IS SUPPOSED TO GO; IT DOESN ’ T KNOW THE RULES OF THE ROAD OR ROAD SIGNS!! IT CAN ’ T THINK OR MAKE DECISIONS!! More than anything else, the motor vehicle is LETHAL! 39
ESTIMATED NUMBERS & CAUSES OF DEATH 8,775 MURDERED WITH FIREARMS (2010) REF: FBI UNIFORM CRIME REPORTING SYSTEM 13,050 WITH A.I.D.S. (2009) REF: CENTER FOR DISEASE CONTROL 23,382 VEHICLE OCCUPANTS ONLY (2009) *PASSENGER CARS & LIGHT TRUCK MISHAP ONLY REF: D.O.T. NATIONAL HIGHWAY TRAFFIC SAFETY ADMINISTRATION 40
41 Simply, if you do not operate your vehicle properly, the resulting crash will likely change, if not destroy, life as you know it. Or if someone else is not paying attention to their driving, you could still face life changing situations when their vehicle collides with yours.
* * * * * DANGER * * * * * FAILURE TO OPERATE, SECURE, SERVICE AND MAINTAIN THIS VEHICLE IN A SAFE MANNER, IN ACCORDANCE WITH LOCAL, STATE & FEDERAL REGULATIONS AND PURSUANT TO THE MANUFACTURER ’ S INSTRUCTIONS CAN RESULT IN – DEATH or PERMANENT DISABILITY or INJURY BY 42 AND ALSO: - PROPERTY DESTRUCTION – YOUR VEHICLE AND ANYTHING IT HITS - INCARCERATION - JAIL - FINANCIAL RUIN – LAW SUITS - FAMILY DISSOLUTION – DIVORCE, CHILD PROTECTION - A CRIMINAL RECORD – FELONY DUI, MANSLAUGHTER, ETC. - LOSS OF LIVELIHOOD – FIRED FROM JOB - RESTRICTION/SUSPENSION/REVOCATION OF DRIVING PRIVILEGES. BLUNT FORCE TRAUMA BURNINGBAKING POISONING DROWNING
What Do The Following Situations Have In Common? - Heavy Blue Exhaust Smoke Broken Brake Light Toddler Looking Out the Back Window Expired Registration Missing Left Side Mirror Driving 25 mph in a 35 mph zone 43 Blue Or Red Light SpecialsBlue Or Red Light Specials
Red and Blue Light Specials Exhaust Smoke Broken Brake Light Toddler looking out the back window Expired Registration Missing Left Side View Mirror Driving 25 mph in a 35 mph Zone - Exhaust smoke is an indication of either fuel not being properly burned (black smoke), oil is leaking into the combustion chamber (blue smoke) or coolant leaking (white smoke). All of these are forms of pollution. - Typically, there are 3 brake lights on a passenger vehicle. All three must be operational. - If a toddler is looking out the back window, this is a pretty good indicator that the child is not strapped in a car seat. - Expired registration indicates that the vehicle license has not been renewed. - A missing left side view mirror means that the driver has reduced visibility on the left side for changing lanes. -Traveling 25 mph in a 35 mph speed zone causes following vehicles to slow unexpectedly. All of these conditions are ‘ probable cause ’ for a law enforcement officer to initiate a traffic stop and pull you over. 44
C.R.S. aka Child Restraint System “ Any child under the age of six weighing less than 60 pounds must be secured in a federally approved child passenger restraint system and ride in the back seat of a vehicle. ” This is the California law. See your state’s driver handbook for specific details. 45
Speed – in other words 35 mph = 184,800 ft./hr. = 51.3 ft./sec. 55 mph = 290,400 ft./hr. = 80.6 ft./sec. 65 mph = 343,200 ft./hr. = 95.3 ft./sec. 70 mph = 369,600 ft./hr. = 102.6 ft./sec. ft./hr. = feet per hour ft./sec. = feet per second 46 A 3,000 lb. vehicle traveling at 55 mph has 303,371 ft./lbs. of kinetic energy. A 150 lb. human inside this vehicle has 15,169 ft./lbs. of kinetic energy.
Other Speed Stuff 47 It is virtually impossible to determine the speed of a vehicle approaching head-on. The secret to safe highway driving is displacement. Distance (separation) equals time.
Other Speed Observations The secret to safe highway driving is displacement. Distance (separation) equals time. The farther back from the vehicle directly in front not only gives you more time to react to traffic conditions, but also reduces the likelihood of being hit by debris kicked up by the vehicle in front. The objective is to maintain a fairly constant speed with maximum separation while other vehicles are cutting in front. Usually those vehicles ‘ butting ’ in are not there very long. It is virtually impossible for you to determine the speed of a vehicle approaching head-on or near a head-on. The closing speed of two vehicles traveling at 55 mph is 110 mph or 161 ft./sec – over half the length of a football field. If the speed cannot be determined, then neither can the time be determined to travel a given distance. This is a CRITICAL ISSUE when facing a vehicle passing another while approaching you on a 2-lane road 48
Money Savers 49 No Extended Warranties Oil Change at 5K miles or 4-5 months (12K miles/year) Smooth Acceleration – constant RPM Gradual deceleration – Use Engine, Lower Gears Know when battery was installed new Apply wax to windshield Change Serpentine belt on time
Here are some tips for saving a few bucks on your motor vehicle: 1. Stay away from extended warranties on a new vehicle. Your vehicle usually comes with a standard 3 year/36,000 mile warranty as part of the purchase price. The extended warranty means that you pay extra for the warranty as well as the required routine service. 2. Unless you drive for a living, change the engine oil every 5-7 thousand miles. 3. Reduce fuel consumption by accelerating at a smooth and constant rate. 4. Save wear and tear on the brakes by slowing gradually and letting the engine handle deceleration from cruising speed. 5. Know when the battery was installed. Batteries are rated by ‘MONTH S ’ of life. Most will expire during the month of the rated year since installation. 6. Apply a good coat of auto wax to the windshield. This will cause rain water to bead up for ease in removal and help eliminate wiper blade streaking. 7. Change the serpentine belt on time. This is the accessory belt on the engine that drives the alternator, air conditioner, etc. The service life is between 50,000 to 60,000 miles. 50
51 A most useful “ White Powdery Substance ” that … Is an Antacid Cleans Teeth Cleans Clothes Absorbs Odors Neutralizes Battery Acid Is a Fire Extinguishing Agent Bicarbonate of Soda (Baking Soda) Cheap – about $1/lb
DRIVER METAMORPHOSIS When you get behind the wheel of a motor vehicle, two things happen at the same time. You become part of the vehicle. This means that you will typically weigh over 1000 lbs. and have 100 horsepower (hp) under your right foot. The vehicle becomes you. The vehicle responds to the control inputs made by you as influenced by your attitude, feelings and emotions of happiness, sadness, sleepiness, anger, alertness, focus, being hung over, stoned, etc. 52
Causes of Motor Vehicle Crashes When a motor vehicle crash occurs that results in injury, the local law enforcement agency conducts an investigation. If numerous crashes occur in which a mechanical problem is thought to be the cause or primary contributing factor, then a vehicle recall is initiated either by the government or the manufacturer. Very few recalls are conducted in proportion to the different makes and models of vehicles on the road. The vast majority of motor vehicle crashes are caused by: DRIVER (HUMAN) ERROR! This happens when the driver is impaired either physically, mentally, emotionally. The driver can loose control of the vehicle by trying to make it do something beyond its designed capability or by using poor judgment in a condition or situation that would normally be a routine maneuver. 54
Over 90% of all motor vehicle collisions are caused by IMPAIRMENT – DRUGS, PHYSICAL LOSS OF CONTROL – EXCESSIVE SPEED DISTRACTION ERROR IN JUDGMENT HUMAN ERROR! 55
WHAT DO YOU NEED TO OPERATE A MOTOR VEHICLE? THE TANGIBLES DRIVER ’ S LICENSE VEHICLE REGISTRATION PROOF OF INSURANCE ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- THE ONBOARD COMPUTER - HAND-EYE-FOOT COORDINATION & REFLEXES (P) JUDGEMENT (M) DISCIPLINE (SELF CONTROL – PHYSICAL, ATTITUDE, EMOTIONS, FOCUS) (M) KNOWLEDGE (OF ROAD LAWS, VEHICLE USE) (M) EXPERIENCE (M) AWARENESS OF ALL OF THE ABOVE (M) PPSP: PREPARED - PATIENT – SMOOTH – PREDICTABLE (M) – Mental (P) – Physical 56 YOU
What is needed to operate a motor vehicle? The Tangibles - A valid driver ’ s license. This means one that has not expired and has your current address. - Vehicle Registration. Data matches the vehicle and is current. - Proof of Financial Responsibility. The most common evidence is an insurance card issued by an approved insurance company showing your name and the make, model and VIN of vehicle. Usually, anyone not shown on the insurance card is not authorized to operate that particular vehicle. See driver ’ s handbook for specific requirements by your state. 57
The Intangibles The Onboard Computer – The DRIVER - YOU MUST have - Hand-Eye-Foot coordination and reflexes – Having physical attributes and acuity to operate a piece of machinery. - Judgment – Ability to distinguish dangerous conditions from routine or normal circumstances and take appropriate actions. - Discipline – Control of your self mentally, emotionally and physically to make appropriate decisions and take actions necessary to operate a vehicle properly. Knowledge of: - Rules of the Road – Following the legal guidelines established for public safety. - Vehicle Performance – Know what your vehicle is capable of doing and what its limitations are. Experience – Using knowledge gained from operating vehicle to be a more efficient and proficient driver. 58
Effort Required to Operate a Motor Vehicle (GUESS-TIMATE) Physical – 5% For Automatic Transmission 10% For Manual (Stick) Transmission 60
Effort required to operate a Motor Vehicle There are two attributes that are necessary to operate a motor vehicle. They are: Physical. This starts with the hand-eye-foot coordination used to see what is going on in and around the vehicle and make proper responses with the steering wheel, gas and brake pedal. Along with sight and touch, audio acuity is essential. This is for a vehicle equipped with an automatic transmission. A manual transmission with a clutch and gear shift adds a couple of more ingredients to the process, It is estimated that the physical effort required to operate a motor vehicle takes about 5% exertion for an automatic transmission and perhaps 10% for a manual. 61
62 Above all of your abilities needed to operate a motor vehicle, the most crucial is MENTAL! Driving requires 100% mental focus to the task.
63 What Do You Do If… A tire blows? The engine fails? You get pulled over? You are involved in a collision? HAVE A PLAN!!
Recipe For Disaster PANIC 64 Inattention, Distraction An Unexpected Event (Tire Blowout, FOD) Disorientation (Wrong Turn, Fog, Darkness)
65 ANYTHING THAT DISRUPTS YOUR ROUTINE – WHETHER SUDDENLY OR GRADUALLY - CAN RESULT IN A GRIPPING FEAR OTHERWISE KNOWN AS PANIC. THE BEST WAY TO AVOID IT IS TO HAVE A PLAN. WHAT YOU WILL DO UNDER CERTAIN SITUATIONS. YOU CANNOT FORESEE EVERY CONDITION THAT YOU MAY ENCOUNTER. BUT HAVING AN IDEA OF WHAT YOU SHOULD DO CAN GIVE YOU THE CONFIDENCE AND FOCUS IN AVERTING OR HANDLING MOST OUT-OF-THE-ORDINARY CIRCUMSTANCES
67 DRUGS ALCOHOL IS A DRUG. ADULT BEVERAGES CONTAIN THIS DRUG. WITH ALL DRUGS AND MEDS. IT IS UP TO YOU TO KNOW HOW YOU ARE AFFECTED AND IF YOUR ABILITIES ARE DEGRADED. IF YOU ARE NOT SURE, DON’T DRIVE. USING ILLEGAL DRUGS MEANS IT IS ILLEGAL TO DRIVE.
DISTRACTIONS ANYTHING THAT TAKES YOUR ATTENTION AWAY FROM WHAT YOU ARE SUPPOSE TO BE DOING. CELL PHONES, PDA ’ S, GPS, ETC. GROOMING, SHAVING, APPLYING MAKE-UP, ETC. READING PASSENGERS SCENERY, EVENTS EATING, DRINKING 68
JUDGEMENTS & DECISIONS Is that space big enough for you to park? Are you far enough in front of that truck to change lanes? Can you make it through that rail crossing before the train? Did you have too much to drink to drive home? 69
The axiom of driving faster than everybody else: There will always be somebody going slower in FRONT of you! 70
‘Competitive’ Driving 71 The “ hole shot ” – coming off the line – you get to the next stop light or sign before anybody else. The “ racer ” - You can go faster than anybody else …. to the next stop. You gotta be in front of the line because …. because …. your car is bigger? RESULT: SEE YOU AT THE NEXT LIGHT.
The Driving Relationship 72 You must let those around you know about your intentions (turns, lane changes, slowing). To do these things properly – and legally, you must COMMUNICATE with turn light and or hand signals You must get along with those around you.
Pre-start Advantages 73 Vehicle Serviced Engine Tuned Brakes Good Wheels Aligned Tires Properly Inflated Lights Accessories Set & Adj. Mirrors Aligned Your VehicleYou Well Rested/Alert Proper Clothing/Shoes Prepared (Where To/Route) Focused Enough Time Proper Eyewear/Cleaned Food/Drink Pax & Cargo Secure Strapped In
74 You are a creature of Habit You will probably travel the same roads from where you live to school, work, visits with family, friends and places of interest. While on these roads, you will be relaxed because you know the roads and you are comfortable with the knowledge. You will also tend to be complacent and likely to take chances.
THE 1 ST RULES OF DRIVING IF YOU ARE GOING SOMEPLACE YOU’VE NEVER BEEN TO BEFORE (And For The Directionally Challenged) ** BEFORE STARTING ** Rule 1 Where are You Going? (DESTINATION) Rule 2 Which Way Are You Going To Get There? (ROUTE) Map Computer (Google, MSN) Write It Down Allow Enough Time To Get Un-lost No GPS (unless passenger operated) 75 Call Ahead Address & Cross Sts. Landmarks
The 1 st Rules of Driving Two rules of driving to be followed BEFORE any trip begins Destination. Where are you going? If you haven ’ t been there before, what cross streets or landmarks will you see to let you know that you’re there or close by. Call ahead to verify the address. Route. Which way are you going to go to get there? There are many tools available to help you plot a route to your destination. An Road Atlas or Thomas Bros. Map Book; computer programs such as Google Earth and Virtual Earth. Write down or print out the route you choose. Allow enough time to get “ un-lost. ” For long distance excursions, travel guides such as those issued by the Auto Club (membership required) are excellent. Plan for the unexpected by having an alternate route mapped out. DO NOT use GPS unless you have someone in the passenger seat to operate and read it for you 76
A human mindset that combines intelligence, discipline, training, attitude, physical ability and experience. It is being aware of the proper procedures and actions to be taken or avoided under all conditions - including emergency - and then making correct decisions or an appropriate response that prevent loss of life, injury and or material damage. 77 SAFETY is
SAFETY IS YOU! And ME! ALL OF US!! GOT S.A.?? 78
79 SUMMARY IF YOU ARE NOT IN CONTROL OF YOURSELF MENTALLY AND PHYSICALLY, THEN IT IS IMPOSSIBLE TO CONTROL YOUR VEHICLE.
How to pass your road test. 80 BE PREPARED - PRACTICE FOLLOW A ROAD TEST IN PROGRESS On day of test, make sure that – - Vehicle is clean, especially windshield, ready for pax - All lights work (brake, backup, tail, headlights, turn) - Registration and Insurance are current - Tires in good condition - Interior temp is comfortable - No talking, except ‘ yes, sir ’ or ‘ yes, ma ’ am. ’
How to pass a Driver ’ s Road Test Practice. Know the handling characteristics of your vehicle. Follow a road test in progress; know where it goes, speed limits; any special circumstances, like school zones, hospitals, construction zones, that need special attention. On the day of the road test, make sure - That vehicle is clean, especially windshield, and ready for passengers. DO NOT use vehicle that has smell of second-hand tobacco smoke. - Vehicle registration and insurance are current - All lights (brake, back up, headlight, turn, turn) are operational - Tires are in good condition with proper tread - Turn radio and cell phone OFF. - Interior temperature is comfortable with air conditioner or heater as appropriate. - Ask questions before test; otherwise no talking other than “ Yes, sir ” or No, “ ma ’ am. ” 81
The mirrors should not need adjusting, Glance at the side views and touch the rear view to show the examiner that you have checked them and are satisfied. GPS is not allowed. Make sure it is turned off. The image from a back up camera can be used, but you still must use the rear and side view mirrors plus turn and look back. The examiner should not tell you to do anything illegal. If you know the rules, have sufficient practice to feel comfortable in handling the vehicle and have driven the test course a couple of times, there should be no surprises. The more competence and confidence you demonstrate to the examiner, the greater your chances of passing. 82
Experiences and Lessons Strategies & Tactics Getting Started: Make sure that no one is around or under your vehicle. Little kids like to play around vehicles. Backing Up: Take your time. If you are not sure, get out and look. Parking: Make sure the space is big enough to open your doors when using a car width parking space; long enough (greater than 1-1/2 times the length of your vehicle) when parallel parking. Street Driving: Keep left hand turns to a minimum, even if it means having to go a little farther around the block. Don ’ t get too close to the guy in front. Allow an extra moment before you pull into an intersection when the light turns green. Listen for sirens, watch for flashing red lights. Have a plan of action ready if you encounter responding emergency vehicles. Freeway / Highway: Give yourself plenty of time. Merge smoothly with thru-traffic. Give a wave when someone gives you room. Use the turn indicator when changing lanes. Give a couple of seconds notice of your intentions. Keep plenty of distance between you and the vehicle in front. 83
Freeway or Highway Driving There are essentially two types of freeway/highway driving. One is urban, such as within a populated area. More people mean more vehicles. All types of vehicles. The key to freeway driving is spacing. This means keeping a very wide gap between my vehicle and the one in front. The higher the speed, the greater the gap. This gap allows a couple of things. One, it allows the following driver more time to react to conditions and situations in front. Another thing is that it reduces the chances of being struck by debris kicked up by or falling off of vehicles in front. It also allows a wider forward field of view. The down side is that this practice allows other vehicles to move into the open space. It takes some strong mental effort to keep the gap at a comfortable distance. This is a common source of frustration and anger, especially when those cutting in front don ’ t use turn indicators or slow down for no apparent reason. The temptation is to ride the bumper of the vehicle in front to convince it that it should move over and allow you to pass. 84
85 I hope that this presentation has given you more insight and increased your awareness of many circumstances involved in driving. Please visit the driversafety4teens facebook page to post your comments and any driving experiences you wish to share. THANK YOU! - Jim Emanuel
About the Author Jim Emanuel Mr. Emanuel is a former driver's license examiner in Georgia. In Los Angeles, CA, he drove limousines and airport ride share shuttle vans. He also drove as a courier. Mr. Emanuel has over one million miles of driving experience. Mr. Emanuel is a 15-year Air Force Vietnam-era veteran. He currently resides with his wife in Vacaville, CA. 86