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Comparison of community-based pearl farming in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and Zanzibar, Tanzania.

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Presentation on theme: "Comparison of community-based pearl farming in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and Zanzibar, Tanzania."— Presentation transcript:

1 Comparison of community-based pearl farming in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM), Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) and Zanzibar, Tanzania Maria C. Haws, University of Hawaii Hilo Simon C. Ellis, Marine and Environmental Research Institute of Pohnpei Narriman Jiddawe, Institure of Marine Science, University of Dar Es Salaam Elin Torrel, University of Rhode Island Aviti Mmochi, Institute of Marine Science, University of Dar Es Salaam

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4 Population 38.7 million107,000 68,126 Life expectancy at birth 55 Years69 66 Under five mortality/1000 (2011) GNI per capita (2011) $US 1,360 3,240 2,500 Living on less than $2/day 88%45% NA Children in secondary school 5-6%80-86% 91% Married women aged %NA NA Human Developmet Ranking (of 182) 151 NA NA Vehicles per 1000 individuals 5 NA NA TANZANIA FSM RMI Country Statistics Population Reference Bureau, World Bank

5 OBJECTIVES OF COMMUNITY-BASED PEARL FARMING ZANZIBAR (7 years) SUPPORT INTEGRATED COASTAL MANAGEMENT EFFORTS LINKED TO NO-TAKE ZONES FOR COCKLES EMPOWER WOMEN SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT PACIFIC ISLANDS (+25 years) SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT SUPPORT OUTER ISLANDS’ COMMUNITY INTEGRITY AND CULTURE ALTERNATIVE LIVELIHOOD

6 Other Livelihoods Zanzibar Fishing Seaweed farming Reef gleaning Agriculture Gravel making Charcoal making FSM/RMI Fishing (mainly subsistence) Copra (subsized) Some handicrafts Government jobs

7 Species & Products Zanzibar Pteria penguin Pinctada margaritifera Half pearls/mabe Mabe jewelry Shell crafts FSM/RMI Pinctada margaritifera Round pearls Pearl jewelry Limited shell crafts

8 Shared Challenges Lack of capital Grant funded Obtaining stock Cultural inhibitions Limited extension Limited techology, infrastructure, logistics

9 Challenges and Advantages in Zanzibar Challenges Poverty Food insecurity Gender issues Scarcity of supplies and tools Women generally lack maritime experience Advantages Previous mariculture experience (seaweed) Resident scientists/extension agents Previous capacity building and organizational support Limited income expectations No need for highly trained grafting technicians Not isolated, transportation available

10 Challenges and Advantages in FSM/RMI Challenges Isolation Populations divided between islands Little previous capacity building or organizational structure Political conflicts High income expectations Traditional tenure systems Need for trained grafting technicians Advantages Greater availability of stock More access to tools and technology Good maritime skills Handicraft experience

11 Approaches in Zanzibar Focused on existing women’s groups Jewelry first, pearl farming later Outreach and training was to large groups Private farms Some cooperative marketing In context of ICM and MPA’s Regular contact and support Funding regular, long-term and generally adequate

12 Approaches in FSM/RMI Farms are generally community owned Less regular technical assistance due to isolation Difficult to contract grafting technicians due to low numbers of stock Funding often patchy How to obtain stock? Spat collection/nursery

13 Current status-FMS and RMI Three community farms (Nukuoro, Namdrik and Rongelap) Small harvests ( ,000) Jewelry manufacture Public sales locally and regionally Spat collection improving Hatchery production improving Profitability not yet achieved

14 FSM/RMI

15 Current Status-Zanzibar Established shell and mabe craft businesses Limited by stock availability Developing a community center Increased income: – School fees – Houses built – Savings – Reinvestment

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18 Next steps Improve spat collection and nursery care Improve hatchery production (RMI) Grafting training Improved business management Scale up farms Expand to other areas Strengthen extension capacity RMI pearls

19 Stock issues FSM – Two hatcheries – Spat collection at Nukuoro RMI – Hatchery at College of the Marshall Islands – Spat collection at Namdrik Zanzibar – Collection of adult specimens – Trials with spat collection – Possible hatchery production

20 Factors of success Availability of wild spat Extension support, local and international Funding Individual ownership Immediate revenues Capital Gender?

21 Thanks to: United States Agency for International Development European Union The David and Lucille Packard Foundation University of Hawaii Sea Grant College Program USDA-Outreach to Socially Disadvantaged Farmers and Ranchers Program Misereor


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