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Cassava in Latin America: an ancient crop Mochica Culture - Perú Amano Museum – Lima, 1300 A.C. Maize and cassava plants.

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Presentation on theme: "Cassava in Latin America: an ancient crop Mochica Culture - Perú Amano Museum – Lima, 1300 A.C. Maize and cassava plants."— Presentation transcript:

1 Cassava in Latin America: an ancient crop Mochica Culture - Perú Amano Museum – Lima, 1300 A.C. Maize and cassava plants

2 Roraima – Brasil Cultura Kamaiwa-merú Film: Koch Grunberg 1911 Cassava in Latin America: 100 years ago

3 MT of starch/year Different types of modified starch Markets: Meat, bread, textile, paper Cassava in LAC: 2008 Mechanization of planting and harvesting

4 Colombia Adaptation of Thailand experiences Dry cassava technology for use in animal feed markets Cassava in other LAC countries CIAT-led process s

5 Experiences of cassava processing, utilization and marketing in South America: Lessons learned by CIAT/Clayuca in 30 years”. Presented in: International Expert Consultation on cassava processing and marketing NRI, University of Greenwich, December 10 th -13 th, 2009 Medway, England

6 Cock,J.H and Lynam, J.K Research for Development. In: Howeler, R.H. (ed). Proceedings of the 8 th Symposium of the International Society for Tropical Root Crops. Oct. 30- Nov 5, Bangkok, Thailand pp Ospina,B., Poats,S and Henry,G. “Integrated cassava research and development projects in Colombia, Ecuador and Brazil: an overview of CIAT’s experiences. In : Dufour et all., (eds)., Cassava flour and starch: Progress in Research and Development. Cali, Colombia. Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical, CIAT publication ; no. 271) Henry,G., Ospina,B. and Best,R., Development by linking small farmers to growth markets: Cassava in Latin America. Sustainable agriculture and envirponment: globalisation and the impact of trade liberalisation. Edited by Andrew K. Dragum and Clem Tisdell. Edward Elgar Publishing.Inc Gottret,V. and Ospina, B., Scaling up and out: Achieving widespread impact. In: Fujisaka, S., (ed) Centro Internacional de Agiculktura Tropical, CIAT. Cali, Colombia.

7 Three periods 1980s: Public sector initiated innovation process 1990s: Limited public sector support for innovation process 2000s: Public-private partnerships leading the innovation process Cassava Innovation process in Colombia

8 Phases for the Analysis of the Innovation Process 1980s: Public sector initiated innovation process

9 The North Coast of Colombia and Cassava 1980s Population poor by national standards (76% vs. 64% with unsatisfied basic needs and 55% vs. 36% in misery) Semi-arid region with few crop alternatives: cassava tolerance to marginal conditions make the crop a popular option Cassava: a very important for food security and cash income (about 40% of small farmers income came from cassava) Employment generator: estimated 7.3 million wage-days per year

10 The Challenge High cassava production as a result of land reform and rural development program (credit, technical assistance, training) Stagnant demand for fresh cassava: depressed prices Massive credit default Failure of initial basic premise: more production = more incomes CIAT help requested to find a solution

11 CIAT in the 1980s l Commodity-based Program with multi- disciplinary research team l Lack of adoption of cassava technologies in Latin America casted doubts about the impact of cassava research l Demand studies identified new market opportunities for cassava (animal feed) l Internal planning exercises led to a change in approach from  research only to R&D  primary production to agri-food chain

12 CIAT in the 1980s The new approach: l The Integrated Cassava Reasearch and Development projects (ICRDP) approach was developed aiming at coordinating changes in farming systems with changes in the marketing system, withing the framework of multi- institutional integration and cooperation l ICRDP is defined as an intervention at institutional, technological, social and organizational levels, to link small-scale farmers to new or improved growth markets

13 ICRDP CIAT extended crop research responsibilities beyond germplasm and agronomic practices Hypothesis: Cassava development requires addressing simultaneously, in an integrated fashion, production, processing and marketing R&D development activities need to start by identifying potential markets for cassava and its products Once identified, then product development, processing, production, and commercialization should begin, to develop the market effectively

14 ICRDP Methodology Planning at the macro level Planning at the micro level Pilot project Commercial expansion (Out Scaling)

15 Production Research Pilot project Applied field testing Pilot evaluation of production for market and technology product development Commercial expansion (Out Scaling) Product Development Research The pilot project concept

16 Best-bet Set of Potential Solutions Large and expanding market for animal feed existed in Colombia Possible use of dry cassava chips in this market Development of the market opportunity identified and evaluated Thailand processing model as the benchmark CIAT already working on processing technologies for Asia Farmers organizational models available and adaptable Good breeding and crop management products available

17 Best-bet Processing Solution l CIAT: accumulated experience on cassava drying in Asia

18 Product Champion CIAT Cassava R&D team became the product champion – defining the research agenda – providing a set of best-bet solutions – inducing the innovation process CIAT Cassava R&D team became the product champion – defining the research agenda – providing a set of best-bet solutions – inducing the innovation process

19 Institutional Intervention (Multi-instituional integration framework) Research Technical AssistanceMarketing Social organization Credit ICA l CIAT l CORFAS l ICA l Caja Agraria l INCORA l CIAT CORFAS l CECORA l ANPPY SENA l DANCOOP l CECORA l CORFAS l Caja Agraria l CORFAS Small-scale Farmers Organizations Integrated Rural Development CIDA World Food Program

20 Technological intervention: natural drying of cassava chips Target market: animal feed industry Technological prototype; simple, small-scale and with low investment requirements

21 Organizational Intervention Organizational prototype: small-scale farmer groups of farmers to manage the emerging rural agroindustries

22 Social Actors and their Roles in the Innovation Process Farmer groups co-developers target group

23 Social Actors in the Innovation Process and Roles Public sector and donors: – Planning and priority setting – Funding – Leading and controling

24 Social Actors in the Innovation Process and Roles Private sector: – acted as end- user – provided quality control – set up the price Private sector: – acted as end- user – provided quality control – set up the price

25 Trends in Cassava Prices in the North Coast of Colombia, Start of the ICRDP Period

26 Trends in Cassava Area and Yield in the North Coast of Colombia, Start of ICRDP adaptation phase Start of ICRDP adaptation phase

27 Sucess Factors of the Innovation Process in the 1980s Pilot site that permitted an intensive involvement of farmers as co-developers, adaptors and adopters Appropriate selection of the pilot site: felt need and interest Phased release of the innovation: start-up and adaptation phases Free access to the technological innovation Pilot site that permitted an intensive involvement of farmers as co-developers, adaptors and adopters Appropriate selection of the pilot site: felt need and interest Phased release of the innovation: start-up and adaptation phases Free access to the technological innovation 1980s: Public sector initiated innovation process (ICRDP Period)

28 Out scaling of dry-cassava agroindustries: expansion phase ( )

29 Conceptual Framework for the Analysis 2. Influence on the adoption of modern varieties 3. Contribution to poverty alleviation 1. Cassava Drying Organizations Emergence where

30 Cooperative Emergence Analysis Excess cassava supply Emergence Potential cropping land Farmers who treated their seeds Farmers who used pesticides Average experience Cassava consumption Transactional costs Distance to municipality center Inter-institutional interaction Average formal education Poverty Average farm size Land tenure 0.01*** * 0.16*** *** 0.08*** *** ** 0.06** 0.49*** R 2 = 0.81

31 ICRDP Innovation Influence on the Adoption of Germplasm Technologies Farmers planting modern varieties % of cassava area planted under modern varieties Cassava area with modern varieties Land Owned (ha) Formal education (years) Experience (years) Credit availability Technical assistance availability Agricultural wage Distance to the drying plant Institutional presence Number of community organizations in 1985 Presence of a drying plant 77 % *** *** 0.620*** 82 % ***

32 “Before, we didn’t eat three meals per day… if we had breakfast; we didn’t have lunch. And now… I said that there was a change. When we got this land in 1971, we used to plant a quarter or half of an hectare… and now we even plant 5 hectares with cassava. Therefore, things have improved. If you walk around the village, you can see that almost all the houses are built of brick and cement. The village has an aqueduct and part of it has a sewage system, and all of this was acquired with the little we obtained. We don’t live in adobe houses anymore, where you could see the beds from outside. The hammocks used to be made with jute, and now we have at least a more comfortable bed. Now we have money to send the children to school and to dress them, to buy the shoes and socks, and in sum, we have enough to eat three meals too”. Don Carlos, cassava farmer and member of COINPROSAN, Segovia, Sampués, Sucre, 1999

33 Phases for the Analysis of the Innovation Process 1980s: Public sector initiated innovation process (ICRDP Period) 1990s: Limited support from public sector (Latent Period)

34 The Political, Economic and Social Environment in the 1990s Donor and public sector support reduced to a minimum Free market policies that opened the economy to external competition Developed countries subsidies that generated export surpluses Massive imports of grains to attend the growing demand of the feed industry in Colombia (1 million TM per year) The dry cassava agroindustry became non- competitive

35 Trends in Cassava Prices in the North Coast of Colombia, Start of the ICRDP Period Start of the Latent Period

36 Dry-cassava Plants Emergence, North Coast of Colombia,

37 Trends in Cassava Prices and Dry Cassava Production in the North Coast of Colombia ( ) Start of Latent phase

38 The CLAYUCA Period 1980s: Public sector initiated innovation process (ICRDP Period) 1990s: Limited support from public sector (Latent Period) 2000s: Public- Private Partnership Led Innovation Process

39 The Political & Economic Environment in the 2000s Developed countries increased further their subsidies Devaluation of the Colombian peso made imports more expensive Regional and bi-lateral trade agreements strengthened the need for competitiveness in the agricultural sector Supporting local production of raw materials became a feasible strategy to reduce costs Public sector regained importance with a facilitator and co-funding role

40 Trends in Cassava Prices in the North Coast of Colombia, Start of the Latent Period Start of the ICRDP Period Start of CLAYUCA Period

41 Trends in Prices and Dry Cassava Production ( ) Start of the Latent Period Start of the CLAYUCA Period

42 CIAT’s in the 2000s l Shift from commodity-based Programs to a project portfolio that scattered the multi- disciplinary cassava team l Strong competition for donor support l Conformation of CLAYUCA proposed as an strategy to facilitate access to technology according to user demands and priorities l CIAT does not control but participates actively in definition and implementation of the agenda l Public and private sectors acting as co-innovators in early stages of the innovation process

43 The CLAYUCA Model l A regional, multi- country effort l Four founding country members(1999) l Fifteen countries in ten years (2008) l Technology clearing house for cassava sector in LAC

44 The CLAYUCA Institutional Model l Partnership between public and private sectors l Self-financed operation l Autonomy l Shared responsabilities for planning and implementation l Common agenda based on proritized problems l Competitiveness Key Principles

45 l Animal feed market continues to expand creating an unsatisfied demand for raw materials l Cereal imports continues to increase (2 million MT per year) l New market opportunities developed for higher value products (fresh market and starches) New Market Situation

46 Postharvest Technologies

47 Second Best-bet Technological Prototype: Processing l Artificial drying Higher level of complexity 3 ton/hour roots Higher scale: 8,000 ton/year of dry chips All year round supply Improved nutritional quality

48 l 4 drying plants = 600,000 US$ l 128,000 sq.mt drying floor = 3,2 million US$ l Scale and Investment Second Best-bet Technological Prototype: Processing

49 MT cassava flour has direct jobs US$6 million

50 Cassava chips drying plant

51

52 Cassava flour refining unit

53 Cassava roots processing

54 Manual chipping machineManual milling-refining machine

55

56 Chain of evidence Impact pathway Chain of evidence Impact pathway Population Biofortified crops Processing technologies Food products Distribution programmes

57 Use of Cassava in Animal Feeding % cassava flour Cassava flour Commercial 9.1Wheat brand 10.0Rice flour 8.1Soybean cake 20.0Full fat soybean 41.10Maize Ingredient

58 Uses of cassava in animal feeding : Silage Roots33,5 %48,5 % Leaves66,5 %50,0 % Úrea1,5 % Consumption 1.8 – 3.0 % live weight Mineral saltAdd libidum Formulation for cattle

59 Nutritional Blocks Raw materialQuantity (%) Molasses Cassava root flour Cassava leaves flour15.00 Úrea5.00 Mineral salt - Vitamins5.00 Total Nutritional composition Crude protein (%) ME (Mcal/kg) Crude Fiber (%) Ca (%)* P (%)*

60 Micro-plants for the Production of Ethanol in Rural Communities

61 Micro-plants – lt/day Agrobiofuels: rural communities with 50 – 100 has Rural Communities

62 Bioethanol production (96%)

63 THE FOUR PILLARS Social Policy Post-harvest technology Production technology

64 Motivation Conformation of a Promoter Group Strategic Vision and Project Portfolio Partnerships Negotiation and Design Identification and Analysis of Constraints Existing and Potential Markets Available Technology and Innovation Possibilities Agri-chain Analysis Analysis of Competitive Potential Definition of Common Objectives and an Innovation Plan Design of the Process

65

66 Traditional cassava markets have diversified and overall demand for cassava has increased Price variability has reduced, yields have increased, farmers motoivated to adopt improved technologies Small-scale, cassava-based, rural agroindustries, with low opportunity costs have been promoted. Especially amongst landless producers Farmers’s incomes and employment opportunites have improved Integrated Cassava Research and Development Projects (ICRDP)-Impacts

67 Effective vehicle for CIAT to interact with various national research, rural extension and development institutions in LAC Production, processing and marketing technologies validated and adapted to specific regional conditions, under ICRDP framework New technologies generated through synergy of R&D promoted by ICRDP R&D institutions, policy makers, donors, governments have seen results that show the important role that cassava can play in achieving development goals

68 Reflections on Enabling and Scaling Innovation A proper and timely combination of a set of market, social and technological innovations Importance of the political, economic and social environment and thus the contextualization of innovation enabling strategies The need of a ‘champion’ with a strong felt need, genuine interest, trustworthiness, and lobbying capacity to mobilize resources

69 Lessons learnt For contributing to poverty alleviation, we need two important components: Integrated approach (research & development) Strategic alliances (partnerships) 1.Public & private 2.With local community organizations

70 A Final Reflection on Out-scaling Out-scaling in other agri-food chains AFRICAASIA Out- scaling in cassava Institutional Innovation Model


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