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WATER & DISEASES Murray Biedler July 09, 2012. Current Medical Reality DiseaseMorbidity (episodes/year) Mortality (deaths/year) Diarrhoeal diseases 1,000,000,0003,300,000.

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Presentation on theme: "WATER & DISEASES Murray Biedler July 09, 2012. Current Medical Reality DiseaseMorbidity (episodes/year) Mortality (deaths/year) Diarrhoeal diseases 1,000,000,0003,300,000."— Presentation transcript:

1 WATER & DISEASES Murray Biedler July 09, 2012

2 Current Medical Reality DiseaseMorbidity (episodes/year) Mortality (deaths/year) Diarrhoeal diseases 1,000,000,0003,300,000 Intestinal worms1,500,000,000100,000 Shistosomiasis200,000,000200,000 Malaria400,000,0001,500,000 Total burden/year3,100,000,0005,000,000

3 F-DIAGRAM: TRANSMISSION ROUTES

4 WATER-RELATED DISEASES ENVIRONMENTAL CLASSIFICATIONS n Faecal-Oral n Water-Washed n Water-Based n Water-Related Vectors

5 Faecal-Oral Diseases n Pathogens transmitted by human excreta and then ingested n Infections of intestinal tract (diarrhoea) - illness & death n Personal & domestic hygiene important hygiene important

6 PRIMARY WATER & FOOD BORNE TRANSMISSION SECONDARY FAECAL-ORAL TRANSMISSION Environmental vibrion reservoir Transmision routes Cholera

7 Faecal-Oral Diseases

8 Water-Washed Diseases n Quantity of water more important than quality of water n Linked to personal and domestic hygiene domestic hygiene

9 Water-Washed Diseases Skin and Eye Infections n Skin sepsis n Scabies n Fungal Skin Infections n Trachoma/Blindness Others n Louse-borne Typhus

10 Water-Based Diseases Vector based in water Ingested n Dracunculiasis or Guinea Worm Skin Penetrating n Schistosomiasis or Bilharziasis

11 Insect Vector Diseases n Spread by insects that : –breed in water –bite near water.

12 Insect Vector Diseases Breed in Water n malaria (anopheles) n dengue (aedes) n yellow fever (aedes) n onchocerciasis or river blindness (simulium black fly) Bite Near Water n trypanosomiasis or sleeping sickness (glosina tsetse fly)

13 TRANSMISSION MECHANISMS PREVENTIVE STRATEGIES Water Borne (Cholera) Improve quality of drinking water Prevent casual use of unimproved sources Water Washed (Cholera, Scabies) Increase water quantity used Improve accessibility and reliability of domestic water supply Improve hygiene practices Water Based (Guinea Worm) Decrease need for contact with infected water Control snail population (water treatment) Reduce contamination of surface waters by excreta Water Related (Malaria) Improve surface water management Destroy breeding sites of insects Decrease need to visit breeding sites Use (impregnated) mosquito netting Do Indoor Residual Spraying

14 Reduce Reservoir Interrupt Transmission Prevent Disease in population Treat Disease in person Reservoir transmission Host Control of Diseases Related to WHS


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