Presentation on theme: "Active and passive learning & effective use of study materials Web copy Dr. Kosala Marambe Medical Education Unit 20 th June 2013."— Presentation transcript:
Active and passive learning & effective use of study materials Web copy Dr. Kosala Marambe Medical Education Unit 20 th June 2013
Teacher objectives To motivate you, students, to become active learners so that you understand concepts as opposed to isolated facts Help you understand the basis of some of teaching learning activities in the curriculum (those require active participation of the learner)
Student learning objectives Student should be able to define the term learning, in behavioral terms and cognitive terms describe characteristic features of active and passive learning apply the definitions of learning to identify teaching learning methods, which enable deep learning and effective retention of information
Lecture outline Explore the term learning Active and passive learning Active learning strategies Effective learning methods Learning approaches Adult learning theory- principles
Learning A process resulting in some modification, relatively permanent, of the way of thinking, feeling and doing of the learner (more behavioral definition) ( Educational handbook for health personnel. World Health Organization, 1998 )
Learning Learning is construction of knowledge, based on prior knowledge and new information that is interpreted by prior knowledge. (Cognitive Psychology)
Two types of learning Active - Learner takes the responsibility for learning, less dependant on teachers - knows how to learn- life long learner Passive – Very much dependant on the teacher and expects most to be provided, lectures, lecture notes, questions etc. find difficult to keep abreast with new knowledge
Passive Learning Listening to a lecturer, taking down everything that is told Waiting to be told what to do next following routines without questioning/ reasoning out Teacher is in full control, authoritarian
What is meant by active learning? Learner is taking the initiative for ones’ learning, Learner is taking the initiative for ones’ learning, learner is in control of learning learner is in control of learning Teacher is only a guide
Active learning Reading text books e learning Discussions Clinical cases of relevance Engaged in practical Observation Projects Teaching others Portfolio
“Teaching methods which place the student in an Active situation for learning are more likely to be effective than those which do not” George Miller ( Medical educationist)
Strategies for active learning Setting goals Setting up a plan for what you need to achieve Developing a table with deadlines Making decisions Checking progress If things are not working right taking remedial measures
Learning aids Objectives Objectives Lectures Practical classes Patients Ward work Discussions books Internet Writing summaries/ answers Journal articles
Surface approach Students focus their attention on isolated details. They are often trying to memorise these individual details in the same form in which they first appeared
Deep approach Students focus their attention on the underlying meaning or message. They attempt to relate ideas together and construct their own meaning, possibly in relation to their own experience
Strategic Student adopts deep and surface approaches in combination so as to achieve the highest possible marks.
Strategic The approach involves using well organized study methods and careful time management, alertness to cues given by tutors about what they are looking for in deciding grades or marks or what they are going to set in the examinations.
The students are conscious of two separate foci of attention the academic content and the teacher’s reward system. (Marton, Hounsell and Entwistle 1997)
Adult learning theory Malcolm Knowles - American educationist Involve learners in diagnosing their own needs as such acts will help to trigger internal motivation Encourage learners to formulate their own learning objectives this gives them more control of their learning
Adult learning contd. Encourage learners to identify resources and devise strategies for using the resources to achieve their objectives Support learners in carrying out their learning plans Involve learners in evaluating their own learning Involve learners in evaluating their own learning this can develop their skills of critical reflection.
A wisdom sloka from Mahabarata A quarter of our learning comes from our receptors Own intellect and talent provides a quarter A quarter from the peers and friends And the remainder only with time ( UGC 2006 )
Teaching and learning in higher education… “ Your teacher can open the door for you, but you must enter by yourself”
Summary Learning ? definitions Active learning and passive learning Active learning strategies Adult learners -desirable approaches
Take home message Be self directed, adult learners Make the maximum use of the active learning opportunities, during the MBBS course Be more engaged in learning and enjoy
Website for high quality videos From Khan academy h ttps://www.khanacademy.org/abou t/med-competition ttps://www.khanacademy.org/abou t/med-competition ttps://www.khanacademy.org/abou t/med-competition
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