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Gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization ANIMATED CARTOGRAPHY FOR GEOVISUALIZATION : PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS, PROTOTYPE Jason Dykes Dept. of.

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Presentation on theme: "Gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization ANIMATED CARTOGRAPHY FOR GEOVISUALIZATION : PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS, PROTOTYPE Jason Dykes Dept. of."— Presentation transcript:

1 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization ANIMATED CARTOGRAPHY FOR GEOVISUALIZATION : PROBLEMS, PROPOSALS, PROTOTYPE Jason Dykes Dept. of Information Science City University, London Sanjay Rana Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis University College London gisruk’02

2 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization aims - what are we doing? problems : highlighting issues with animations for visualization  why do they arise?  what are requirements? proposals : presenting some solutions  parallels with more conventional established cartography  incorporating ideas from other fields  explaining why both might be useful prototype : implementing with an example :  demonstrating  requesting feedback  addressing the requirement for evaluation (?)

3 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization problems animation, visualization & cartography Plenty of cartographic animation examples :  cartoon, flip-book, film, video, digital Cognitive theory suggests good for :  interpreting subtle change (animated fly-by : left)  noticing distinct change (alternagraphics : right – use pgup/pgdown)

4 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization problems animation, visualization & cartography Do they work? (questionable according to some authors)  Communication : Slocum et al. (1990) ; Kraak & Koussoulakou (1992)  Visualization : Dorling (1992) Representations tend to use raw data series :  high frequency variation – outliers (we detect outliers well)  movement (hardware - MacEachren, 1995) (there are physiological reasons for this)  Example : AIDS Data Animation Project (animation to right) Digital formats not suited for visualization (interactivity)  Slocum (2000)  Ogao & Blok (2001)

5 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization problems animation & learning Morrison, Tversky & Betrancourt (2000) “Animation : Does it facilitate learning?” (Several problems and limitations identified) Advances in technology of producing attractive graphics drive development of tools & devices rather than research on their utility. Temporal interpolation will help interpretation by providing "details of the microsteps between larger steps" Enquiry needed into the information processing of animations "The drawback of animation may not be the cognitive correspondences between the conceptual material and the visual situation but rather perceptual and cognitive limitations in processing a changing visual situation"

6 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization 1. SMOOTHING : reduce spatial noise Large data sets - visualization for large-scale variation :  Outliers easy to detect  General patterns harder to discern from raw data Spatial smoothing : (addresses these issues spatially)  density estimation (Openshaw et al., 1992)  spatial generalization (Paddenburg & Wachowicz, 2001)  spatial filter (e.g. Herzog)  bivariate quadratic polynomial function (increases spatial autocorrelation) proposals

7 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization 2. SMOOTHING : reduce temporal noise Large data sets - visualization for large-scale variation :  Outliers easy to detect  General patterns harder to discern from raw data Temporal smoothing : (addresses these issues temporally)  blending / morphing (e.g. 3D Studio Max) proposals

8 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization 3. SIMPLIFICATION : reveal information content Dransch (2000)- four functions to enhance cognition processes  Increase the important information  Avoid the overload of a single sense  Support double encoding of information  Support creation of mental models Morphometric feature networks : (address these issues)  Describe information in surface (Fowler & Little, 1979)  Preferable to colour maps & contour maps (Helman & Hesselink, 1991; Bajaj & Schikore, 1996)  Polynomial -> local curvature Advantages :  local & global  reduce data density  objective … therefore good for change proposals

9 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization proposals 4. ENHANCEMENT : lag aids working memory Reduce high frequency events Augments working memory  Human visual processing severely limited in terms of capabilities for interpreting parallel information that characterises dynamic processes (Ware, 2000) Removes ‘movement’ graphic demonstrates : use pgup and pgdown to see transition between two situations described by the data. Duration visual variable can be used to emphasise situations / key frames and differentiate between data and enhancement.

10 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization 5. DESIGN : interactivity and controls structure should provide flexibility for visualization animation :  loop  playback control  linear temporal interpolation  duration control (exaggeration / emphasis) interaction :  feature query (class & magnitude)  magnitude map  feature toggle (point / line)  feature selection (intelligent zoom / focus) proposals

11 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization snv : Surface Network Visualizer Example ‘intellectual design’ Investigate validity/benefits of ideas Examine suitability of cartographic metaphor prototype

12 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization snv : Surface Network Visualizer Example ‘intellectual design’ Investigate validity/benefits of ideas Examine suitability of cartographic metaphor prototype

13 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization snv : evaluation Key component of iterative development of cartographic techniques Peer review  web cartography forum (Blok & Köbben)  specific queries? Testing  try each of the four improvements?  use in application? Feedback :  prototype

14 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization snv : developments Iterative design improvements Higher levels of interaction More sophisticated morphing Feature significance / magnitude selection Multi-scale visualization Formal evaluation mechanism prototype

15 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization conclusion problems : anecdotal / empirical / experiential proposals : cartographic perspective prototype : implementation / evaluation framework for animation for geovisualization  functionality  data sets  feedback & evaluation visualization methods should draw on appropriate theoretical literature and exhibit graphic logic visualization tools should implement methods and incorporate evaluation

16 gisruk ‘02animation for geovisualization framework / sequence stage 1Spatial Continuity spatial & thematic interpolation Temporal Continuity temporal interpolation morph/blend Address Memory Load reduce information content derive morphometric features Aid and Prolong Working Memory graphic lag periodicity interactivity stage 2 stage 3 stages 4&5 Smoothing generalization / simplification Smoothing generalization / simplification Simplification selection enhancement Enhancement & Design visual hierarchies figure / ground symbolism cartographic parallel Parallels between traditional cartographic practice, that generates graphics for particular uses and users, and the efforts required to generate animations that are suitable for visualization.


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