Topics Covered in Chapter 29 Analog and Digital Signals Amplifier Gain Characteristics of Amplifier Circuits Oscillators and Multivibrators
Topics Covered in Chapter 29 (continued) Modulation Diode Rectifiers Troubleshooting the DC Supply Voltage
Types of Signals Analog signals have continuous variations in voltage or current level. Digital signals usually have only two levels.
2 levels levels Digital signal Analog signal Digital and Analog Signals
Amplification An amplifier circuit increases the amplitude of a signal. The gain of an amplifier is the ratio of output signal level to input signal level. The voltage gain of an amplifier is given by: A v = output voltage/input voltage The current gain of an amplifier is given by: A i = output current/input current
Amplification (gain) A v = output voltage/input voltage A i = output current/input current
Cascaded Amplifiers Amplifiers are said to be cascaded when the output of one amplifier is fed to the input of the next amplifier. The overall gain of cascaded amplifiers is equal to the product of the individual amplifier gain values.
Cascade Amplifiers AV1AV1 AV2AV2 V OUT V IN V OUT = A V 1 x A V 2 x V IN
Active Components in Amplifiers Active components include: Transistors Integrated circuits Active components can increase signal levels. Active components require a power supply in addition to an input signal.
Passive Components in Amplifiers Resistors are used to provide IR voltage drops in amplifier circuits. Capacitors are used for signal coupling and bypass circuits. Inductors are used as chokes and transformers. Capacitors and inductors are combined in resonant circuits.
Transistor Amplifier IEIE ICIC IBIB
Oscillator Circuits An oscillator is an amplifier with positive feedback. No input signal is required. An oscillator generates an ac output when energized by a dc supply.
RF Feedback Oscillators Tuned circuits determine the operating frequency. A Hartley oscillator uses a tapped coil as an ac voltage divider for feedback. A Colpitts oscillator uses a capacitive voltage divider for feedback.
Multivibrators A multivibrator produces an output voltage that alternates between a HIGH and LOW level. An astable multivibrator produces a continuous train of pulses. A bistable multivibrator is stable at the HIGH or LOW state, but can be triggered to the opposite state.
Transistor Astable Multivibrator 0 V
Modulation Modulation is the process of modifying one signal according to the variations of another signal at a lower frequency. Amplitude modulation (AM) varies the amplitude of the RF carrier signal. Frequency modulation (FM) varies the frequency of the RF carrier signal.
Amplitude Modulation X 400 Hz 1 MHz The instantaneous amplitude of the 1 MHz carrier is controlled by the 400 Hz input signal.
Frequency Modulation VCO 400 Hz The instantaneous frequency of the voltage controlled oscillator (VCO) is determined by the 400 Hz input signal.
DC Power Supplies A dc power supply converts 60 Hz ac power to a dc level. The dc level from a power supply is needed as a source of power for amplifiers, oscillators, and other types of active circuits. A half-wave power supply uses only one- half of each ac waveform. A full-wave rectifier uses both alternations the input ac waveform.
Half-wave pulsating dc Half-Wave Rectification 0
Filtered Pulsating dc Half-Wave Rectifier with Filter 0