Presentation on theme: "Diabstraksikan dan dihimpun : Nur WPM, Ardy W.S. dan Soemarno, pslp-ppsub 2012 PARADIGMA PENGEMBANGAN LAHAN."— Presentation transcript:
Diabstraksikan dan dihimpun : Nur WPM, Ardy W.S. dan Soemarno, pslp-ppsub 2012 PARADIGMA PENGEMBANGAN LAHAN
GARDEN APARTMENT A garden apartment complex consists of low-rise apartment buildings built with landscaped grounds surrounding them. The apartment buildings are often arranged around courtyards that are open at one end. A garden apartment has some characteristics of a townhouse: each apartment has its own building entrance, or just a few apartments share a small foyer or stairwell at each building entrance. Unlike a townhouse, each apartment occupies only one level.
Modern garden apartment buildings are never more than three stories high, since they typically don't have elevators/lifts. However, the first "garden apartment" buildings in the United States, developed in the early 20th century, were five stories high. Some garden apartment buildings place a one-car garage under each apartment. The grounds are more landscaped than for other modestly scaled apartments. GARDEN APARTMENT A garden apartment is a living unit located at ground level on property that is usually landscaped. Although the term garden apartment is often used loosely to describe any first floor apartment such as one in a high rise or basement, a true garden apartment has no household above it. Garden apartments are not vertically stacked, but rather horizontally spread out in an open area that may have a courtyard. Garden apartments are found all over the world. Attractive garden apartments have well cared-for grounds with flowers and trees. The owners of the apartment property are responsible for the upkeep of the outdoor areas. If an area for dogs is included, then tenants are responsible for cleaning up after their pets. Some garden apartments may include a small yard, but most have a patio. A garden apartment patio can be a nice place to have a barbecue or outdoor meal or just enjoy some fresh air if the grounds are well maintained. Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.pennconnects.upenn.edu/ growing_greener/growing_greener.ph p…… 1/11/2012 Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.wisegeek.com/what-is-a-garden- apartment.htm …… 1/11/2012
Villa Batu Malang Diunduh dari sumber: http://achiles-punyablog.blogspot.com/2010/09/villa-batu-malang.html …… 1/11/2012 Informasi lengkap mengenai villa Batu Malang bisa anda lihat disini. Dengan hawa yang sejuk ditambah dengan suasana yang tenang dan nyaman menjadikan kota Batu Malang sebagai salah satu penyedia villa untuk beristirahat dari rutinitas sehari hari. Dengan fasilitas yang lengkap layaknya Hotel Surabaya semakin banyak turis mancanegara dan domestik yang menjadikan Batu Malang menjadi salah satu alternatif untuk menghabiskan waktu liburan. Aneka villa di Batu Malang sesuai dengan kebutuhan dan harga yang terjangkau. Vila Batu Malang berada di kawasan asri dengan pemandangan alam yang luar biasa. Anda juga bisa melihat keindahan kota Malang dan sekitarnya dari atas Villa. Harga sewa villa di kawasan ini bervariatif, mulai dari Rp 150.000 per kamar Playground Alternatif Wahana Wisata Dan Edukasi Murah
Konversi lahan sawah menjadi perumahan, terjadi di kawasan pinggiran kota Foto. Smno-20120 Faktor Penyebab Konversi Lahan Sawah Menurut Pasandaran (2006), paling tidak ada tiga faktor, baik sendiri-sendiri maupun bersama-sama yang menentukan konversi lahan sawah, yaitu: 1.Kelangkaan sumberdaya lahan dan air 2.Dinamika pembangunan 3.Peningkatan jumlah penduduk.
Pembangunan kawasan pusat pasar di pinggiran kota dilakukan dengan mengkonversi lahan sawah irigasi yang produktif. “Land development “ mengorbankan jasa-jasa lingkungan dari ekosistem sawah Foto. smno-2011 Menurut Irawan (2005), konversi lahan pertanian pada dasarnya terjadi akibat adanya persaingan pemanfaatan lahan pertanian dengan non- pertanian. Sedangkan persaingan pemanfaatan lahan muncul akibat adanya tiga fenomena ekonomi dan sosial yaitu : a)keterbatasan sumberdaya lahan, b)pertumbuhan penduduk, dan c)pertumbuhan ekonomi.
Integrated Land Development Project - ILD to improve land use and water management efficiency in the basin Integrated land development is a key of sustainable resource management and should be tested in a pilot project. Sebagai ekosistem alam, DAS merupakan unit hidrologi (tata air) yang berperan sebagai integrator dan indikator terbaik untuk pengelolaan DAS. http://nandito106.wordpress.com/2010/02/13/daerah-aliran-sungai-das-sebagai-unit-rehabilitasi-hutan-dan-lahan-rhl/
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Increased rates of deforestation, unsustainable agricultural land use, and severe soil degradation are creating widespread poverty and environmental degradation in developing countries. Each day; the world loses about 125 square miles of its forests. That’s 34.5 million acres or 14 million hectares every year Most of this takes place in the developing countries of the humid tropics. Reforestation efforts are limited to only about 10% of the total area and most efforts are not promising. Penyebab Global Warming: Deforestasi, terutama hutan tropis untuk kayu, pulp, dan lahan pertanian. Penggunaan hutan untuk bahan bakar (baik kayu dan arang) merupakan salah satu penyebab deforestasi. Di seluruh dunia pemakaian produk kayu dan kertas semakin meningkat, kebutuhan akan lahan ternak semakin meningkat untuk pemasok daging dan susu, dan penggunaan lahan hutan tropis untuk komoditas seperti perkebunan kelapa sawit menjadi penyebab utama terhadap deforestasi dunia. Penebangan hutan akan mengakibatkan pelepasan karbon dalam jumlah besar ke atmosfir. Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.tipsmu- tipsku.com/2012/02/penyebab-dan-dampak-global-warming.html
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Every year, the equivalent of 40 billion tons of carbon dioxide enters the global atmosphere, the result of the ever-increasing use of fossil fuels. This increase in atmospheric carbon, in combination with the loss of forests has combined to make global climate change worse.
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development The adoption of sustainable agriculture is often proposed as a solution to these problems. Sustainable agriculture is concerned with agricultural practices that are economically viable, meet human needs for food, are environmentally friendly, and improve quality of life. Agroforestry is one such land use practice that maintains sustainability at its core. Diunduh dari sumber: http://tulisan- novan.blogspot.com/2011/09/maksimalisasi-tutupan-hijau-lahan.html… 1/11/2012 Maksimalisasi Tutupan Hijau Lahan dengan Agroforestry Agroforestry : penggunaan lahan, dimana tanaman keras berkayu (pepohonan, perdu, palem, bambu, dsb) ditanam secara bersamaan dalam unit lahan yang sama dengan tanaman pertanian dan/atau ternak, dengan tujuan tertentu, dalam bentuk pengaturan ruang atau urutan waktu, dan didalamnya terdapat interaksi ekologi dan ekonomi di antara berbagai komponen yang bersangkutan.
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Deforestation is a major unsustainable land use practice. Yet little is being done to address its economic, environmental and ecological impact. Clear-cut logging, uncontrolled brush and forest fires, and traditional slash and burn agricultural techniques have damaged the environment as well as the agricultural resource base. Additionally, every year, reforestation efforts that intend to help communities are actually assisting in planting the wrong types of tree species, resulting in long term damage. This concerns all of us, especially the families who rely on trees for the basic necessities of life: fuel, water, food, building materials, and the air we breathe. Diunduh dari sumber: http://rianyudistira13.blogspot.com/2010/10/penggundulan-hutan.html… 1/11/2012 Penggundulan Hutan Manusia selalu menebang pohon tanpa mempertimbangkan keseimbangan alam. Penebangan secara sembarangan meliputi kegiatan penebangan, pengangkutan dan penjualan kayu yang tidak sah dan tidak mendapat izin dari otoritas setempat. Hal ini berakibat buruk untuk hutan dan juga lingkungan hidup: tanah longsor, banjir, dan juga kekurangan oksigen.
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development Deforestation is a major unsustainable land use practice. Yet little is being done to address its economic, environmental and ecological impact. Clear-cut logging, uncontrolled brush and forest fires, and traditional slash and burn agricultural techniques have damaged the environment as well as the agricultural resource base. Additionally, every year, reforestation efforts that intend to help communities are actually assisting in planting the wrong types of tree species, resulting in long term damage. This concerns all of us, especially the families who rely on trees for the basic necessities of life: fuel, water, food, building materials, and the air we breathe. Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.antarafoto.com/peristiwa/v1248236262/kayu-bakar… 1/11/2012 MOJOKERTO, 22/7- KAYU BAKAR. Dua orang pencari kayu bakar, sedang mendorong sepeda yang berisi kayu bakar dari sisa penebangan di Resort Pemangku Hutan (RPH) Dawarblandong, Mojokerto, Jatim. Kayu bakar tersebut dijual ketingkat pengepul di Kabupaten Mojokerto dengan harga Rp. 30.000 per sekali angkut. FOTO ANTARA/Syaiful Arif/ed/hp/09
CUTTING TREES NOT BAD Cutting trees is NOT a bad thing. Trees are an important resource for everyone on earth. The problem is when people cut trees but do not replant them. Trees are cut for many reasons. Industries based on construction and making items such as furniture (beds, tables) are- always in need of valuable hardwood trees. Diunduh dari: http://texastreeplanting.tamu.edu/PlantTreeProperly.htmlhttp://texastreeplanting.tamu.edu/PlantTreeProperly.html
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development CUTTING TREES NOT BAD Wood (sometimes in the form of charcoal) is the major source of cooking fuel for over half of the world (FAO 1999). Because populations and industries in every country are growing, there is always a growing pressure on forest resources. Slash-and-burn agriculture, characterized by periodic burning of the land both to get rid of weeds and to use the ash as fertilizer, is also contributing to the rapid loss of the world’s forests. Diunduh dari sumber: http://www.wahoociviccenter.com/ ….. 1/11/2012 http://www.wahoociviccenter.com/
Lessons In Sustainable Land Development CUTTING TREES NOT BAD Brush and forest fires not only inhibit the regeneration of tree seedlings (though some grasses, trees and shrubs have evolved the ability to regenerate after fires), they also destroy what little organic matter remains in the soil. Fires are often caused by smoking and cigarettes, unskilled beeking techniques, and uncontrolled burning of fields for cultivation and grazing. Planting Location A properly planted and maintained tree will grow faster and live longer. Optimum planting time is early spring after the ground is thawed and before the tree begins to actively develop foliage. This is the time to plant bare root trees. Sumber: http://www.ci.coon- rapids.mn.us/publicwor ks/forestry/planting.htm
OVERGRAZING IS BAD Overgrazing is another major cause of land degradation. Communities all over the world rely on animals for food, fiber, and labor. Herding animals through grazing lands, if done correctly, is a viable way to produce livestock, but it is seldom done correctly. There are always too many animals in too little space, trampling the ground and eating all of the vegetation, including tree seedlings. Lahan Kritis merupakan lahan yang keadaan fisiknya demikian rupa sehingga lahan tersebut tidak dapat berfungsi secara baik sesuai dengan peruntukannya sebagai media produksi maupun sebagai media tata air. http://edijabonpadalarang.wordpress.com/2010/10/12/menyelamatkan-lahan-kritis/
SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE In the global program of Trees for the Future, we provide seeds of multi- purpose, fast-growing (MPFG) trees. In order to extend the program into many climatic zones, and to make it more beneficial to the participants, we are constantly looking for promising species, but we approach this with a great of care when making recommendations. Sengon kami yang ditanam 3 tahun yang lalu,akhirnya kami jual, untuk biaya mengembangkan kebun ini. Harga borongan, Rp.50.000/tanaman, ada 800 tanaman. Ada yang diameter 25 cm dan ada yang diameter 15 cm. http://embundaun.wordpress.com/category/tanaman-industri/pohon-sengon/
SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE Eucalyptus trees grow rapidly into true trees at a wide range of elevations, soils, and climatic conditions. They sustainably produce fuelwood and timber suitable for many local construction needs, and they produce oil used in some medications and other products, But eucalyptus trees do not lend themselves to sustainable land management systems (Lisanework and Michelson, 1993). Eucalyptus Trees Plantations are not meant to support a complex ecosystem. A successful plantation species has to grow fast, have adequate wood properties and be resistant to disease when grown as a monoculture. The eucalyptus can also become needy of room and produce extra vegetation and dominate areas where they are not welcome. Eucalyptus trees and hybrids of eucalyptus usually have a high productivity. Diunduh dari: http://www4.ncsu.edu/~ankanipe/World%20Forestry/
SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE Farmers quickly discovered that eucalyptus trees are causing problems with their roots by taking all available water and nutrients from neighboring trees and crops, and also their leaves, which blanket the ground, inhibiting new growth. Eucalyptus trees inhibit the growth of other vegetation, exposing soils to erosion, and causing lakes and ground water to disappear with their aggressive roots.. More than 4 billion Eucalyptus trees of over 150 species grow in the different climates of Brazil.. http://git-forestry-blog.blogspot.com/2007/10/eucalyptus- paulistana-brazilian-giant.html
SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE Pine trees which are planted throughout much of the world for their valuable timber present a similar problem. Beneath pine trees, you will rarely find a productive understory; you tend to find a blanket of acidic needles that inhibit the growth of everything. The needles are also a great fuel for forest fires. Pine trees do have their benefits, but like eucalyptus trees, they do not lend themselves to sustainable land management systems. These trees can leave soils in much worse condition than when they were planted. Allelopathic Effects of Pinus halepensis Needles on Turfgrasses and Biosensor Plants Panayiotis A. Nektarios, Garyfalia Economou and Christos Avgoulas HortScience February 2005 vol. 40 no. 1 246-250. Fresh, senesced, and decaying pine needles from Pinus halepensis were evaluated for their allelopathic potential on Festuca arundinacea, Cynodon dactylon and the biosensor plants Avena sativa and Lemna minor through in vivo and in vitro studies. The in vivo study was performed in growth chambers, using 6, 12, and 18 g of pine needle tissue mixed with screened perlite as a substrate. The effects of the different pine needle types were evaluated by determining the total root length, total root surface, root dry weight, total shoot length, total shoot surface, and shoot dry weight. The in vitro study was performed in Petri dishes where seeds from each species were subjected to an increasing concentration of pine needle extract. The extracts were obtained from pine needle ground tissue that was diluted with water and either shacked at room temperature or placed in water bath at 40 °C for 24 h. The evaluation of the allelopathic potential was performed with the determination of radicle length. The allelopathic potential of the pine needle tissues was confirmed with bioassays using oat (A. sativa) and duckweed (L. minor). The results strongly suggested the allelopathic potential of the pine needle tissue, being more pronounced in the fresh, moderate in the senesced, and low in the decaying pine needles. The allelopathic substances were species- specific, and the inhibition resistance of the species tested followed the order F. arundinacea > C. dactylon > A. sativa. The inhibition of the L. minor suggested that the water soluble phytotoxic compounds were inhibitors of Photosystem II.
SOME TREES CAUSE LONG TERM DAMAGE In any program of Trees for the Future, it encourage communities to plant multipurpose fast growing trees that not only produce useful products within a short time, but also encourage the growth of field crops, vegetables, and other vegetation around them. Aneka jenis tanaman sela dapat ditanam di antara barisan tegakan sengon hingga umur 4 tahun http://sengonalbasia.com/?kontak-kami,2
WATER AND SOIL Chemical fertilizers and insecticides are unsustainable, temporary solutions that rarely improve the quality of the soil. Pesticides often kill many of the insects and microbes in soils that are needed for natural processes. There are, in fact, many beneficial insects that eat many of the pest insects, but most insecticides kill everything indiscriminately. Furthermore, insecticides get concentrated from smaller insects to the larger animals that eat them, ultimately poisoning the entire food chain. Alternatives to pesticide use entail (1) giving crops the strength they need to resist infestation by adding nutrients and organic matter to the soil, and (2) using Integrated Pest Management techniques that ward off and kill insects.
WATER AND SOIL Fertilizers also cause long term damage, and are often inadequate in their nutrient composition. Soil need rich organic matter in the form of humus, compost, manure, etc. Commercial fertilizers, often in the form of NPK pellets, contain just nitrogen, potassium, and phosphorus. These are three of the major nutrients, but there are also plenty of other nutrients – such as manganese, iron, boron, zinc, and copper – that chemical fertilizers tend not to contain. Furthermore, rains can immediately leach these chemical fertilizers down through the soil, contaminating groundwater and forcing farmers to apply more fertilizer every year.
SOIL AND FERTILIZER Green manures are sustainable alternatives to chemical fertilizers. Agricultural crops which received green manure of Gliricidia sepium (kakawate) yielded 9.5 tons per hectare of corn in Oromia, Ethiopia. A similar yield was obtained from plots which received green manure of ipil-ipil and Leucaena diversifalia, but a significantly ‘reduced yield was obtained from plots receiving recommended levels of chemical fertilizer. This implies that the use of multipurpose fast growing agroforestry species as a green manure can boost grain production over levels obtained from chemical fertilizer. Additionally, the multipurpose species provide the farmer with fruit, fuelwood, fodder and construction wood.
JENIS-JENIS TANAMAN PENUTUP TANAH (LCC) DI PERKEBUNAN Penutup tanah memberikan berbagai keuntungan yaitu meningkatkan kesuburan tanah, melindungi permukaan tanah dari bahaya erosi, memperbaiki sifat-sifat tanah akibat pembakaran, mendorong pertumbuhan tanaman, menekan serangan penyakit jamur akar, dan menekan biaya pengendalian gulma.
The effects of potential land development on agricultural land prices We conduct a national-scale analysis of the determinants of agricultural land values. The empirical model of agricultural land prices is estimated with a cross-section on approximately three thousand counties in the contiguous US. The results provide evidence that option values associated with irreversible and uncertain land development are capitalized into current farmland values. For each county, we decompose the current agricultural land value into components measuring rents from agricultural production and rents from future land development. Nilai lahan sawah dipengaruhi oleh rencana tata ruang daerah Foto. Marno-2011
Agricultural Land Values and the Value of Rights to Future Land Development Effects of future land development on current agricultural land values. From a theoretical model of land markets, we derive a reduced-form expression for agricultural land values in terms of observable variables. The estimated model, together with a spatial interpolation algorithm, is used to generate a surface of estimated development rights values for Orange County. This approach overcomes several problems that arise with the use of standard appraisal methods to value conservation easements. Pembangunan jalan telah meningkatkan harga lahan sawah di sekitarnya dan mendorong konversinya menjadi penggunaan lain Foto. Marno-2010