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The Internet.

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Presentation on theme: "The Internet."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Internet

2 Definition of Internet
Federal Networking Council (FNC) – Oct. 24, 1995 “Internet” refers to the global information system that: Logically linked IP addresses Supports communications using TCP/IP Provides services publicly and privately Simple version: “The Internet is a global system of networked computers together with their users and data.” “Network of Networks” Internet = inter-networked networks On 10/24/95 FNC passed resolution defining “Internet” No centralized management Collection of individual networks and organizations that cooperate so that info can be passed along

3 History of Internet 1957 USSR launches Sputnik
1958 US forms ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) within DOD (Dept. of Defense) to establish US lead in military science and technology 1961 Len Kleinrock at MIT writes first paper on packet-switching theory Packet-switching is developed by Paul Baran and Donald Davies at Rand Corp. 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis 1963 President Kennedy is assassinated 1964 The Beatles come to America Packet-switching = essential concept to development of Internet – Data is divided into small packets to be transmitted with labels to identify sender and recipient Packet-switching vs. circuit-switching – line was held open to send data

4 History of Internet – cont.
1965 Ted Nelson gives ACM presentation called “A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate” Concept was called “docuverse,” used term “hypertext” Never had a working model 1968 ARPA mails out 140 requests for proposals to prospective contractor to build first 4 IMPs (Interface Message Processors) 1969 Apollo 11 – Neil Armstrong is first man to walk on moon 7/20/69 Original Woodstock is held at Max Yasgar’s farm in NY 8/15/69 Docuverse was similar in concept to today’s WWW but on a grander scale; hyperlinks connected portions of documents and copyrights were managed to protect intellectual property of contributors; whole thing was called Xanadu

5 History of Internet – cont.
ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) is created by BBN (Bolt, Beranek, and Newman) for DOD Goals: Maintain communications in the event of attack Enable researchers to share “supercomputing” power 4 nodes (hosts) initially: Stanford Research Institute (SRI) University of Utah University of California Los Angles (UCLA) University of California Santa Barbara Later ARPANET is known as Internet

6 History of Internet – cont.
ARPANET (cont.) Features: “Open architecture’ Allowed sharing of resources Facilitated communications Designed to withstand damage 1970’s LANs become prevalent ARPANET is used by military, universities, larger companies – not by general population Beatles break up 1971 Michael Hart begins Project Gutenberg Project Gutenberg – goal was to make available literary works that are in the “public_domain” so they can be easily accessed, read, and searched on-line. To accomplish this Michael Hart used “plain Vanilla ASCII;” started with Declaration of Independence (only 5K in size). This was followed by the Bill of Rights-- then the whole US Constitution, as space was getting large (at least by the standards of 1973). Then came the Bible, as individual books of the Bible were not that large, then Shakespeare (a play at a time), and then into general work in the areas of light and heavy literature and references. Currently about 6400 works have been converted to e-texts, goal was to have 10,000 works by the end of 2001.

7 History of Internet – cont.
1972 ARPANET nodes increase to 23; becomes international is introduced by Ray Tomlinson at BBN; he uses symbol to distinguish between the sender’s name and the network name in the address Telnet specification for terminal emulation: allows a user at a remote computer to log on to another computer over a network and enter commands at a prompt as if they were directly connected to the remote computer

8 History of Internet – cont.
1973 FTP (File Transfer Protocol) specification was developed; allows users to log onto a remote computer, list the files on that computer, and download files from that computer Pink Floyd releases Dark Side of the Moon 1976 Queen Elizabeth sends her first and is the first state leader to do so Pres. Candidate Jimmy Carter and running mate Walter Mondale use to plan events UUCP (Unix to Unix CoPy) is developed and distributed with Unix – allowed file transfer and remote command execution

9 History of Internet – cont.
1977 Apple Computer popularized personal computing; sneakernet is used to share info Saturday Night Fever becomes best-selling album 1979 USENET (User Network) is developed – newsgroups emerged from this; first connection was between Duke and Univ. of NC at Chapel Hill First walkman is made available by Sony Newsgroups: large, distributed bulletin board system with specific discussion groups Sneakernet – individuals did their work on their own computers and then transported disks back and forth to share info

10 History of Internet – cont.
1980 CSNET (Computer Science Network) is created – connects US university CS departments; joins ARPANET in 1981 John Lennon is murdered in front of his apt in NYC (12/8/80) USA beats USSR in ice hockey 1981 BITNET (Because It’s Time Network) connects City Univ of NY and Yale; mailing lists originate from this Mailing list – like electronic newsletter

11 History of Internet – cont.
IBM introduces the IBM personal computer MTV launches its music video channel providing commercials for songs 1982 “Internet” is used for the first time Scott Fahlman starts the smiley culture by using :-) to suggest emotions in s (9/19/1982) IBM – world’s largest computer vendor Scott Fahlman at CMU

12 History of Internet – cont.
1983 CDs start to appear on store shelves TCP/IP is required for all ARPANET hosts TCP/IP – rules for how networks making up the ARPANET communicate No charge; open system – all computers are now “speaking the same language” Allowed growth; central administration not necessary

13 History of Internet – cont.
1984 DNS (Domain Name System) is established with network addresses identified by extensions like .com, .edu, .org; developed by Sun Microsystems “Neuromancer” by William Gibson is published introducing the term “cyberspace” 1985 NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network) is formed to connect the NSF’s 5 super-computing centers 1987 CDs outsell records

14 History of Internet – cont.
1988 Virus called the Internet Worm was written by Robert Morris, a grad student at Cornell, and temporarily shuts down 10% of Internet hosts IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is developed by Jarkko Oikarinen; provided real-time chatting 1989 NSF takes over control of ARPANET Hosts on Internet > 100,000 1990 Archie, an archive of FTP sites, is created

15 History of Internet – cont.
1991 Gopher is developed at Univ of Minnesota; allows you to “go for” files using menu-based system NSF decides Internet should not only be used for educational entities WWW – Tim Berners-Lee at CERN 1992 WWW publicly available US Rep Rick Boucher from VA authors law which allows first commercial traffic on Internet Univ. of Minnesota mascot = Golden Gophers CERN – European Laboratory for Particle Physics 1992 – Commercial access was limited to Internet by NSF’s AUP (Acceptable Use Policy) Signed into law on 11/23/92 by President Bush

16 History of Internet – cont.
1993 Mosaic Released by Marc Andreessen and several other students at the Univ of Illinois first Web browser to provide easy-to-use point and click GUI Sometimes called NCSA Mosaic (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Becomes primary navigating tool for the WWW which accounts for 1% of Internet traffic 1994 Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark form Netscape Communications and release Netscape Navigator White House launches Commercial sites are coming on-line; spamming starts

17 History of Internet – cont.
David Filo and Jerry Yang start Yahoo! as “Jerry Yang’s Guide to the WWW” Tim Berners-Lee starts W3C: an organization dedicated to developing technologies for the WWW 1995 Vatican launches its Website: Java programming language is developed by Sun Microsystems CompuServe, America Online, Prodigy provide dial-up Internet access Browser wars begin as Microsoft introduces MIE in summer of 1995 Jeff Bezos launches Amazon Yahoo! – originally “Jerry Yang’s Guide to the WWW” – moved to Netscape and called it Yahoo!; went public in April of 1996 and stock shot up 154% on first day of trading; by 1995 Yahoo! starts displaying ads David Filo and Jerry Yang – Stanford grad students who develop an Internet directory Tim Berners-Lee – one goal of W3C: Make the Web universally accessible 10/1994 Java – a programming language that enabled mini-programs (“applets”) to be downloaded and run on a Web page; adds animation

18 History of Internet – cont.
1996 Approx 45 million people are using the Internet with about 30 million in North America Browser wars continue – two most powerful are left: Netscape and MIE Plug-ins and helper applications emerge for multimedia eBay is launched Free speech issues are addressed; an attempt to regulate content on the Internet is termed an affront to the First Amendment (06/1996) ICQ, AIM, MSN Messenger provides Instant Messaging

19 History of Internet – cont.
1997 MIE is integrated into the desktop Internet traffic records are broken on 07/08/1997 when the NASA Website broadcasts images taken by Pathfinder on Mars (46 million hits) Princess Diana dies in car crash; Elton John’s musical tribute to her, Candle in the Wind, is best selling single of all time

20 History of Internet – cont.
1998 Netscape Navigator source code is released Google is launched; uses links to assess a site’s popularity (09/27/2005) Consumers over the age of 30 purchase more music than those under 30 for the first time ever 1999 Northeastern student Shawn Fanning creates Napster, an application that allows sharing music files The number of Internet users worldwide reaches 150 million (beginning of 1999); more than 50% in the US David Bowie’s newest album becomes the first by a major artist to be made available by Internet download Under 30s – more likely to download for free when they listen to in the form of MP3 sound files. Shawn Fanning – figured “there should be a way to combine the breadth of search engines like Google with the ‘presence awareness’ of systems like instant messaging which know who is signed on at any given time”

21 History of Internet – cont.
2000 Dotcom bust – Internet bubble bursts Music file sharing is very popular at sites like using Napster software Love Bug virus 2002 Napster folds when the court rules that the company is violating copyright laws 2003 CAN-SPAM Act is signed by Pres. Bush Spam accounts for about 50% of all s Apple introduces Apple iTunes Music Store offering 99 cent downloads Love Bug virus – example of self-replicating viruses that send themselves to people listed in a computer user’s address book. Many infected companies had to shut down their infected networks because of the heavy volume of . CAN-SPAM Act – Controlling the Assault of Non-Solicited Pornography and Marketing Act of 2003 December 2004 – Internet worm called MyDoom or Novarg spreads through Internet servers; about 1 in 12 messages is infected Online spending reaches a record high $117 billiion in > a 26% increase over 2003

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