Presentation is loading. Please wait.

Presentation is loading. Please wait.

The Internet. Definition of Internet Federal Networking Council (FNC) – Oct. 24, 1995 “Internet” refers to the global information system that: Logically.

Similar presentations


Presentation on theme: "The Internet. Definition of Internet Federal Networking Council (FNC) – Oct. 24, 1995 “Internet” refers to the global information system that: Logically."— Presentation transcript:

1 The Internet

2 Definition of Internet Federal Networking Council (FNC) – Oct. 24, 1995 “Internet” refers to the global information system that: Logically linked IP addresses Supports communications using TCP/IP Provides services publicly and privately Simple version: “The Internet is a global system of networked computers together with their users and data.” “Network of Networks” Internet = inter-networked networks

3 History of Internet 1957 USSR launches Sputnik 1958 US forms ARPA (Advanced Research Projects Agency) within DOD (Dept. of Defense) to establish US lead in military science and technology 1961  Len Kleinrock at MIT writes first paper on packet-switching theory  Packet-switching is developed by Paul Baran and Donald Davies at Rand Corp Cuban Missile Crisis 1963 President Kennedy is assassinated 1964 The Beatles come to America

4 History of Internet – cont Ted Nelson gives ACM presentation called “A File Structure for the Complex, the Changing, and the Indeterminate”  Concept was called “docuverse,” used term “hypertext”  Never had a working model 1968 ARPA mails out 140 requests for proposals to prospective contractor to build first 4 IMPs (Interface Message Processors) 1969  Apollo 11 – Neil Armstrong is first man to walk on moon 7/20/69  Original Woodstock is held at Max Yasgar’s farm in NY 8/15/69

5 History of Internet – cont (cont.)  ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network) is created by BBN (Bolt, Beranek, and Newman) for DOD Goals:  Maintain communications in the event of attack  Enable researchers to share “supercomputing” power 4 nodes (hosts) initially:  Stanford Research Institute (SRI)  University of Utah  University of California Los Angles (UCLA)  University of California Santa Barbara Later ARPANET is known as Internet

6 History of Internet – cont (cont.)  ARPANET (cont.) Features:  “Open architecture’  Allowed sharing of resources  Facilitated communications  Designed to withstand damage 1970’s  LANs become prevalent  ARPANET is used by military, universities, larger companies – not by general population  Beatles break up 1971 Michael Hart begins Project Gutenberg

7 History of Internet – cont  ARPANET nodes increase to 23; becomes international  is introduced by Ray Tomlinson at BBN; he uses symbol to distinguish between the sender’s name and the network name in the address  Telnet specification for terminal emulation: allows a user at a remote computer to log on to another computer over a network and enter commands at a prompt as if they were directly connected to the remote computer

8 History of Internet – cont  FTP (File Transfer Protocol) specification was developed; allows users to log onto a remote computer, list the files on that computer, and download files from that computer  Pink Floyd releases Dark Side of the Moon 1976  Queen Elizabeth sends her first and is the first state leader to do so  Pres. Candidate Jimmy Carter and running mate Walter Mondale use to plan events  UUCP (Unix to Unix CoPy) is developed and distributed with Unix – allowed file transfer and remote command execution

9 History of Internet – cont  Apple Computer popularized personal computing; sneakernet is used to share info  Saturday Night Fever becomes best-selling album 1979  USENET (User Network) is developed – newsgroups emerged from this; first connection was between Duke and Univ. of NC at Chapel Hill  First walkman is made available by Sony

10 History of Internet – cont  CSNET (Computer Science Network) is created – connects US university CS departments; joins ARPANET in 1981  John Lennon is murdered in front of his apt in NYC (12/8/80)  USA beats USSR in ice hockey 1981  BITNET (Because It’s Time Network) connects City Univ of NY and Yale; mailing lists originate from this

11 History of Internet – cont (cont.)  IBM introduces the IBM personal computer  MTV launches its music video channel providing commercials for songs 1982  “Internet” is used for the first time  Scott Fahlman starts the smiley culture by using :-) to suggest emotions in s (9/19/1982)

12 History of Internet – cont  CDs start to appear on store shelves  TCP/IP is required for all ARPANET hosts TCP/IP – rules for how networks making up the ARPANET communicate No charge; open system – all computers are now “speaking the same language” Allowed growth; central administration not necessary

13 History of Internet – cont  DNS (Domain Name System) is established with network addresses identified by extensions like.com,.edu,.org; developed by Sun Microsystems  “Neuromancer” by William Gibson is published introducing the term “cyberspace” 1985 NSFNET (National Science Foundation Network) is formed to connect the NSF’s 5 super-computing centers 1987 CDs outsell records

14 History of Internet – cont  Virus called the Internet Worm was written by Robert Morris, a grad student at Cornell, and temporarily shuts down 10% of Internet hosts  IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is developed by Jarkko Oikarinen; provided real-time chatting 1989  NSF takes over control of ARPANET  Hosts on Internet > 100,  Archie, an archive of FTP sites, is created

15 History of Internet – cont  Gopher is developed at Univ of Minnesota; allows you to “go for” files using menu-based system  NSF decides Internet should not only be used for educational entities  WWW – Tim Berners-Lee at CERN 1992  WWW publicly available  US Rep Rick Boucher from VA authors law which allows first commercial traffic on Internet

16 History of Internet – cont Mosaic Released by Marc Andreessen and several other students at the Univ of Illinois first Web browser to provide easy-to-use point and click GUI Sometimes called NCSA Mosaic (National Center for Supercomputing Applications) Becomes primary navigating tool for the WWW which accounts for 1% of Internet traffic 1994  Marc Andreessen and Jim Clark form Netscape Communications and release Netscape Navigator  White House launches  Commercial sites are coming on-line; spamming starts

17 History of Internet – cont (cont)  David Filo and Jerry Yang start Yahoo! as “Jerry Yang’s Guide to the WWW”  Tim Berners-Lee starts W3C: an organization dedicated to developing technologies for the WWW 1995  Vatican launches its Website:  Java programming language is developed by Sun Microsystems  CompuServe, America Online, Prodigy provide dial-up Internet access  Browser wars begin as Microsoft introduces MIE in summer of 1995  Jeff Bezos launches Amazon

18 History of Internet – cont  Approx 45 million people are using the Internet with about 30 million in North America  Browser wars continue – two most powerful are left: Netscape and MIE  Plug-ins and helper applications emerge for multimedia  eBay is launched  Free speech issues are addressed; an attempt to regulate content on the Internet is termed an affront to the First Amendment (06/1996)  ICQ, AIM, MSN Messenger provides Instant Messaging

19 History of Internet – cont  MIE is integrated into the desktop  Internet traffic records are broken on 07/08/1997 when the NASA Website broadcasts images taken by Pathfinder on Mars (46 million hits)  Princess Diana dies in car crash; Elton John’s musical tribute to her, Candle in the Wind, is best selling single of all time

20 History of Internet – cont  Netscape Navigator source code is released  Google is launched; uses links to assess a site’s popularity (09/27/2005)  Consumers over the age of 30 purchase more music than those under 30 for the first time ever 1999  Northeastern student Shawn Fanning creates Napster, an application that allows sharing music files  The number of Internet users worldwide reaches 150 million (beginning of 1999); more than 50% in the US  David Bowie’s newest album becomes the first by a major artist to be made available by Internet download

21 History of Internet – cont  Dotcom bust – Internet bubble bursts  Music file sharing is very popular at sites like MP3.com using Napster software  Love Bug virus 2002  Napster folds when the court rules that the company is violating copyright laws 2003  CAN-SPAM Act is signed by Pres. Bush  Spam accounts for about 50% of all s  Apple introduces Apple iTunes Music Store offering 99 cent downloads


Download ppt "The Internet. Definition of Internet Federal Networking Council (FNC) – Oct. 24, 1995 “Internet” refers to the global information system that: Logically."

Similar presentations


Ads by Google