Presentation on theme: "R enewable E nergy A gricultural M ultipurpose System for Farmers RAMseS (EU-FP6 Contract No 032447) Fadi Karam Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute."— Presentation transcript:
R enewable E nergy A gricultural M ultipurpose System for Farmers RAMseS (EU-FP6 Contract No ) Fadi Karam Lebanese Agricultural Research Institute Department of Irrigation and Agro-Meteorology (http://www.lari.gov.lb)http://www.lari.gov.lb Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Forum, 7 June 2010, Amman, Jordan
A proposed methodology to determine the minimum horsepower requirements needed for the RAMseS-MPV (At Lebanon Test Site)
RAMseS PERT Diagram WP0 MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION WP1 SPECIFICATION AND MARKET ANALYSIS WP2 POWER SYSTEM DESIGN AND PROTOTYOPING WP2 VEHICLE SYSTEM DESIGN PROTOTYOPING WP4 FINAL TESTING AND IMPACT EVALUATION WP5 DISSEMINATION
PART I WPs OBJECTIVES AND DELIVERABLES
WP 4 FINAL TESTING AND IMPACT EVALUATION Objectives Installation and testing of the developed solar-power generation system integrated to the multi-purposes vehicle at the EU test site; Transfer of the solar-power generation system integrated to the multi-purposes vehicle and testing at the MPC test site; Analyze the mechanical and energetic efficiency of the installed integrated systems at the MPC test site; Determine the economic impact of the project at the MPC test site; Determine the social impact of the project at the MPC test site; Determine the agricultural and environmental impact of the project in MPC sites.
WP 4 FINAL TESTING AND IMPACT EVALUATION Start month: 26End month: 35 Participant Id. 5 (LARI) Person-months per participant:24 ____________________________________________________________ Deliverables D4.1 Data sheets of tests conducted on integrated systems (2 person-months) D4.2 Report on the integrated systems testing and final evaluation results at EU site (2 person-months) D4.3 Transfer and installation of the integrated systems at MPC sites (3 person-months) D4.4 Report on integrated system testing and evaluation of the efficiency at MPC sites (3 person-months) D4.5 Report on the economic impact of the installed integrated systems on MPC rural community (4 person- months) D4.6 General report on the environmental and agricultural impact of the installed integrated systems on rural community and stakeholders (4 person-months) D4.7 Report on the social and occupational impact of the installed integrated systems on rural community and stakeholders (4 person-months) D4.8 Report on final activities of WP4 (2 person-months).
WP 4 FINAL TESTING AND IMPACT EVALUATION Work Description Research: testing the functionality of the integrated system at the MPC test site under varying solar radiation conditions; Transfer and installation of the integrated system at the MPC test site; Test of the system performance; Assure sustainability use of the integrated system by the local community; Investigation of the efficiency of the integrated system at the MPC test site: Efficiency of the solar-power system; Efficiency of the Multi-purposes vehicle; Analyze socio-economic, agricultural and environmental effects of the project on the local rural community; Evaluate the impact of Research Technologies installed at rural community site; Realization of cost-effectiveness of the project results, including the reduction in the electricity and energy bills; Revision of WP1 recommendations.
WP 5 DISSEMINATION AND KNOW HOW TRANSFER Start month: 01End month: 36 Team LeaderALMEE ____________________________________________________________ Deliverables D5.1 Workshops and conference proceedings D5.2 Dedicated webpage D5.3 Technical papers D5.4 Brochures and CD-ROMs
PART II Performance Assessment Methodology
The assessment procedure Test of the system performance; Analyze socio-economic, agricultural and environmental effects of the project on the local rural community; Realization of cost-effectiveness of the project results (including the reduction in the electricity and energy bills).
RAMseS acts as a tool to promote renewable energy uses for agricultural uses 1. Reduce pressure on conventional energy systems 2. Energy saving 3. Sustainable use of natural resources
Can solar tractors replace the traditional diesel tractors? Working in agriculture may bothered by the noise and smelly exhaust tractors produce; Dealing with toxic, explosive fuel, grease, oil and the constant maintenance may also be a hassle; Degraded air quality, climate change, and global conflict over remaining oil supplies are the results of petroleum dependence; In addition, bigger machines and centralized corporate monoculture are causing a loss of biodiversity and traditional farming skills which threaten future food supplies and our very existence.
Parameters assumed for integrated all-solar power system Amount of energy stored in vehicle batteries for multipurpose electrical vehicle powered with solar energy RAMseS is assumed as equal to kWh. It is assumed also that this amount should be sufficient for 4 to 8 hours of work, presuming the energy could be stored in batteries weighing abort 1000 kg. The designed vehicle will be self-sufficient and independent from commercial energy sources (fossil fuels, electrical energy from the outside). The system will deliver energy for the vehicle used as: tractor; transportation vehicle (for road transport, transport inside a farm, and for other production processes). electric power source for supplying stationary devices used in crop, animal, and greenhouse production, and also for house processing (enhancement) of agricultural products. reserve energy source for powering lighting of devices and powering communication systems and process controlling systems in places far from installed PV system.
Parameters assumed for integrated all-solar power system Moreover, the system can be used: as energy source for everyday household needs ( e.g. lighting, communication, computerizing, hygiene, cooking) and improving education level of the owner and his family; as job activity stimulator (craftsman production and agriculture/food processing); as additional profit source due to selling electrical current or services based on it.
Solar radiation intensity
Solar radiation duration
Main mechanized agricultural activities in % of total machinery labor
Agricultural activities related to grapevine and grape wine production at the Monastery of Saints Sarkis & Backos Pruning, Thinning, Cordon suckering, Leaf removal Irrigation Traditional plough (ridge and furrow)ridge and furrow Modern plough (reversible pough)
RAMseS - WP4: Testing & Impact Evaluation Deliverable D4.4: Report on integrated system testing and evaluation of the efficiency at MPC site A suggested procedure for determining the minimum horsepower requirements needed for the MPV to implement field operation at Lebanon Test Site
Background The purchase of a tractor and associated equipments is a substantial investment. The result of improper size can be costly. A tractor too small can result in long hours in the field, excessive delays and premature replacement. On the contrary, a tractor too large can result in excessive operating and overhead costs. Therefore, it is important to know how to determine the size of the tractor needed for a farm operation. The ideal tractor should get the work completed on time at the lowest possible cost within a specific time period.
Types of traditional PTO tractors Traditional tractors can be divided into 3 categories: 2-wheel drive (2WD), Front-wheel assist (FWA) or unequal 4-wheel drive; Equal 4-wheel drive tractors (4WD).
Two-Wheel Drive Tractors (2WD) 2WD tractors are most commonly used in dry or upland farming situations and for transportation. They range in size from 5 HP HP. They are small and simple tractors. However, a 2WD tractor does not work at all well in wet, hilly and muddy conditions.
Front Wheel Assist (FWA): The most popular diesel tractor FWA tractors are commonly known as unequal 4-wheel drive; FWA tractors are also called unequal 4-wheel drive tractors, because the front drive tires are smaller than the rear tires; They range in size from 5 HP HP and are capable of delivering between 50-55% of the rated power at the drawbar; Typically, between 75% and 85% of the rated engine HP is delivered to a rear PTO (Power Take-Off) on any diesel tractor.
Equal 4-wheel drive tractors 4WD tractors have all four tires of equal size ; They range in size from 35 HP HP; This tractor type can deliver between 55-60% of the rated engine horsepower at the drawbar; It is challenging to maneuver and often the size and expense makes these tractors impractical.
Can solar tractors replace the traditional diesel tractors? Solar electric tractor's clean, silent, no hassle operation for replacing our fossil fuel dependent equipment.
Mechanized agricultural activities with respect to the period of year, and the correspondent minimum power required and work duration
Step 1. Determine the most critical field operation requiring implements with a high draft: By determining the critical high draft tillage operation, it would become practical to the tractor users to decide if the tractor can achieve or not the required field operation. For example, if soil surface is hard for plowing, it would become easier in this case to disk prior to planting than to plow (surface or deep plow).
Step 2. From past agricultural experiences, determine the available time for a given field operation. For example, if there are 20 days of calendar time per year for primary tillage, during a season span, 5 days are estimated to be available for field work, with 4 working hours per day (a sub-total of 20 working hours per season, or 80 working hours per year). This would help in accounting for the diesel consumption that a traditional PTO tractor with the same HP size of the MPV would have per year. It also helps in accounting for the savings from the non-diesel consumption of the MPV.
Step 3. Determine the Field Capacity Needed (FCN, in ha/hour). For example: The Monastery of Saints Sarkis & Bakhos in Achkout has a total cultivated land of 10.0 ha (100 dounoms), mostly cropped with vineyard. If there are 20 days of calendar time per year for fall tillage, during which the average working hours per day is 4, then, FCN is equal to:
25 is a correction factor and is equal to 10 x 2.5 (10 to convert from ha/km to m; 2.5 to convert from acres to hectares – Note 1 Hectare = 2.5 Acres) Example FCN = 0.5 ha/ha and Speed during the field implement is 9 km/hr. Then: This is acceptable since WIN < tractor size (1.5 m) Step 4: Determine the Width of Implement Needed (WIN, in m)
Step 5. Determine the Draft of Implement (DI) Example: If WIN = 1.39 m Soil Resistance for a clay soil = Kg/cm (from Table Depth of implement = 10 cm Then,
Step 6: Determine Drawbar Horsepower Required (DHR, in HP) 375/0.72 is a conversion factor from American Unit System (Pounds for DI and MPH for Speed) into SI Units. Example If DI = Kg Speed = 9 Km/hr Then,
Step 7: Determine the Minimum Horsepower Required (MHR, in HP) Soil ConditionMultiply Drawbar HP by Firm untilled soil1.5 Previously tilled soil1.8 Soft or sandy soil2.1 HR (HP) = DHR (HP) x PTO HP Multiplication Factor (from Table below) Example If DHR = HP and the soil is previously tilled, the PTO HP multiplication factor is 1.8 Then, DHR = HP x 1.8 = HP DHR > Tractor size, which is unacceptable. To compensate, increase daily working hours in this case.
Field implementation Hoeing Preparing holes for new plantations Courtesy, ALMEE, 2010
Field implementation Hoeing Increasing the number of workers in field activities (Lebanon Test Site, Feb-Mar 2010) Courtesy, ALMEE, 2010
Field implementation Phyto-sanitary treatments (late spring summer, Lebanon Test Site) Courtesy, ALMEE, 2010
As a consequence There was an expansion of vineyard cultivated plots in the test site Courtesy, ALMEE, 2010
Field implementation Mowing EU Test Site (Italy) Courtesy, DEART, 2008
Field implementation Mowing herbs and weeds in apple- grown orchards (EU Test Site, Italy) Courtesy, DEART, 2008
Field implements Potato sowing (EU Test Site, Poland) Courtesy, IBMER, 2008
Promoting solar powered vehicle The system will make agriculture farm independent from conventional sources of energy. The system is reliable and easy in use.
Promoting solar powered vehicle The system will make agriculture farm independent from conventional sources of energy. The system is reliable and easy in use. Thank you