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Biomass Cogeneration in ASEAN, GHG Mitigation Potential and the Barriers Dr. Ludovic Lacrosse, Arul Joe Mathias EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme UNIDO Expert Group.

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Presentation on theme: "Biomass Cogeneration in ASEAN, GHG Mitigation Potential and the Barriers Dr. Ludovic Lacrosse, Arul Joe Mathias EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme UNIDO Expert Group."— Presentation transcript:

1 Biomass Cogeneration in ASEAN, GHG Mitigation Potential and the Barriers Dr. Ludovic Lacrosse, Arul Joe Mathias EC-ASEAN COGEN Programme UNIDO Expert Group Meeting on Industrial Energy Efficiency, Cogeneration and Climate Change December 1999, Vienna

2 CONVENTIONAL POWER GENERATION AND COGENERATION

3 BIOMASS COGENERATION - APPLICATIONS LARGE WOOD AND AGRO-INDUSTRIAL SECTORS ASEAN countries are world leaders in many sectors EC-ASEAN COGEN PROGRAMME FOCUSES ON FOUR SECTORS Rice Sugar Palm Oil Wood

4 WOOD AND AGRO-INDUSTRIES - COMMON PRACTICE  Power requirements From grid or diesel genset(s) or inefficient biomass plant  Process heat requirements From oil boiler(s) or inefficient biomass boiler(s)  Biomass residues Dumping, open-burning, incineration or inefficient biomass boiler(s)

5 BIOMASS COGENERATION - CURRENT STATUS  Technology Most advanced technologies are available  Economic viability Pay-back period ranges from 2 to 5 years  Environmental performance Local, regional and global benefits  Others Sustainable development

6 Process energy required: kWh/tonne of sugarcane 0.4 tonne of steam Waste: 290 kg Bagasse ~ 100 kWh 1 tonne of sugarcane kg sugar SUGAR INDUSTRY

7 Process energy required: Paddy milling and drying: kWh/tonne paddy 1 tonne of Paddy kg White rice Waste: 220 kg Husks ~ kWh RICE INDUSTRY

8 1 tonne of fresh fruit bunches Process energy required: kWh/t 0.73 tonne of steam Waste: kg POME ~ 20 m 3 biogas 190 kg fibers + shells 230 kg empty fruit bunches kg palm oil } ~ 120 kWh PALM OIL INDUSTRY

9 WOOD INDUSTRY: SAWMILLS 0.5 m 3 Sawn Wood Energy Required: Sawmill: kWh/m 3 1 m 3 of Debarked Wood Log Waste: 0.5 m 3 Wood Residues ~ 80 kWh

10 WOOD INDUSTRY: PLYMILLS Waste: 0.5 m 3 Wood Residues ~ 120 kWh 0.5 m 3 Plywood 1 m 3 of Debarked Wood Log Energy required: Plywood: 110 kWh/m 3 log tonne of steam

11 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BIOMASS COGENERATION  Substitution of fossil fuels  High energy efficiency leads to less emissions  Less contribution to acid rain phenomenon  Significant reduction in greenhouse gas emissions  Elimination of unwanted solid wastes

12 Source: Joule Thermie, 1997 ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF BIOMASS COGENERATION

13 METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR GHG EMISSION MITIGATION CALCULATIONS Emission from biomass in a combustion system (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O) Emission from fossil fuel (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O) Emission from grid/diesel genset (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O) INPUTS: Amount of biomass used Biomass properties LHV Emission factors Boiler efficiency/other data CALCULATIONS INPUTS: Amount of fossil fuel used Fossil fuel properties LHV Emission factors Efficiency/other data INPUTS: Power generation mix Emission factors Carbon content of fuels Fuel properties Specific fuel consumption Emission from biomass in a combustion system (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O in tonnes of CO 2 equivalent) Global Warming Potential Emission from fossil fuel (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O in tonnes of CO 2 equivalent) Emission from grid (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O in tonnes of CO 2 equivalent) (+) EMISSION MITIGATION POTENTIAL INPUTS: Amount of biomass used Biomass properties N/C ratio Emission factor Other data Emission from biomass use in open-burning (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O) Emission from biomass use in open-burning (CO 2, CH 4, N 2 O in tonnes of CO 2 equivalent) (+) (-) Note: Sustainable biomass is CO 2 neutral

14 METHODOLOGICAL FRAMEWORK FOR GHG EMISSION MITIGATION CALCULATIONS

15 CALCULATIONS FOR NATIONAL GRID EMISSIONS - DATA REQUIRED  Efficiency of coal, diesel, fuel oil and natural gas power plants  Lower heating values of fuels  Carbon content of fuel  Specific fuel consumption (kg/kWh)  Emission factors for utility boiler in kg/TJ  Electricity generation mix for the country  Transmission and distribution loss

16 ASEAN ELECTRICITY GENERATION MIX Source: AEEMTRC, 1996

17 ASEAN GRID EMISSION FACTORS

18 EMISSION FACTORS Amount of carbon content in fuel Fuel type, technology, operating conditions Maintenance and vintage of technology  CO 2 emission depends on:  Other emissions depends on:  SO x emissions depends on: Amount of sulphur content in fuel

19 Current scenario:1.5 MWe wood waste-fired cogeneration Old use of residues:Open-burning Alternative scenario: Diesel genset for power generation + fuel oil boiler for heat requirements Quantity of residues used:31,640 tonnes per year Quantity replaced: - Diesel power10,125,000 kWh/year - Fuel oil2,251 tonnes/year CASE STUDY OF A WOOD WASTE-FIRED COGENERATION PLANT

20 Emission Mitigation Potential CASE STUDY OF A WOOD WASTE-FIRED COGENERATION PLANT

21 Maximum Mitigation Potential 1.5 MWe wood waste-fired cogeneration plant mitigation potential: 15,731 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year Replication in the wood industry mitigation potential: 22,400,944 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

22 Conservative Mitigation Potential 1.5 MWe wood waste-fired cogeneration plant mitigation potential: 15,731 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year Replication in the wood industry mitigation potential: 12,794,547 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

23 Current scenario:2.5 MWe rice husk-fired cogeneration Old use of residues:Open-burning Alternative scenario: Grid for power requirements + fuel oil boiler for heat requirements Quantity of residues used:34,919 tonnes per year Quantity replaced: - Grid power16,875,000 kWh/year - Fuel oil661 tonnes/year CASE STUDY OF A RICE HUSK-FIRED COGENERATION PLANT

24 Emission Mitigation Potential CASE STUDY OF A RICE HUSK-FIRED COGENERATION PLANT

25 2.5 MWe rice husk-fired cogeneration plant mitigation potential: 16,382 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year Replication in the rice industry mitigation potential: 14,298,210 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year Maximum Mitigation Potential EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

26 2.5 MWe rice husk-fired cogeneration plant mitigation potential: 16,382 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year Replication in the rice industry mitigation potential: 1,461,274 tonnes CO 2 equiv./year Conservative Mitigation Potential EXTRAPOLATING MITIGATION POTENTIAL TO ASEAN REGION

27 Barriers and Possible Solutions

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31 After having been demonstrated that clean and efficient biomass cogeneration projects are technically reliable and economically viable, ASEAN governments are now setting up the right institutional framework to encourage the implementation of such projects. Let us hope that this will help tap this huge renewable energy potential. CONCLUSION


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