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Gestão de energia: 2012/2013 Energy in Buildings Prof. Tânia Sousa

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Presentation on theme: "Gestão de energia: 2012/2013 Energy in Buildings Prof. Tânia Sousa"— Presentation transcript:

1 Gestão de energia: 2012/2013 Energy in Buildings Prof. Tânia Sousa

2 Gestão de Energia Slide 2 of 53 Energy Consumption in Buildings Buildings account for 40% of total energy consumption in the European union What about Portugal? –In 2010 the final consumption of services + domestic sector represented 55% of the final energy consumption –Do you think that the fraction of primary energy would be higher or lower? Why?

3 Gestão de Energia Slide 3 of 53 Energy Consumption in Buildings Most effective strategy to reduce energy use in buildings (Harvey, 2010): –Reduce heating and cooling loads through a high- performance envelope high degree of insulation, windows with low U values in cold climates and low solar heat gain in hot climates, external shading and low air leakage –Meet the reduced load as much as possible using passive solar heating, ventilation and cooling techniques while optimizing the use of daylight –Use the most efficient mechanical equipment to meet the remaining loads –Ensure that individual energy-using devices are as efficient as possible and properly sized

4 Gestão de Energia Slide 4 of 53 From 220 kWh/m 2 /year to kWh/m 2 /year How much energy reduction can we achieve? –Passive house standard: heating  15kWh/m 2 per year cooling  15 kWh/m 2 per year TPE  120 kWh/m 2 per year n 50 ≤ 0.6 / hour Energy Consumption in Buildings Triple-glazed windows with internal venetian blinds & mechanical ventilation with 82% heat recovery

5 Gestão de Energia Slide 5 of 53 How much does it cost? Energy Consumption in Buildings

6 Gestão de Energia Slide 6 of 53 Buildings – High Performance Envelope The effectiveness of the thermal envelope depends of insulation levels in the walls, ceiling and basement –Insulation levels control the heat flow by conduction & convection through the exterior and the interior –U value (W/m 2 /K), the heat trasnfer coefficient, is equal to the heat flow per unit area and per degree of inside to outside temperature difference –The U value of a layer of insulation depends on its length and type of material

7 Gestão de Energia Slide 7 of 53 Buildings – High Performance Envelope The effectiveness of the thermal envelope depends of insulation levels in the walls, ceiling and basement Foam insulation The most highly insulated houses have U= W/m 2 /K Blown-in cellulose insulation (fills the gaps) Vaccum insulation panels

8 Gestão de Energia Slide 8 of 53 Buildings – High Performance Envelope The effectiveness of the thermal envelope depends on the insulation levels of windows –Windows offer substantially less resistance to the loss of heat than insulated walls –Single glazed windows have a typical U-value of 5W/m 2 /K which can be reduced to to 2.5 and 1.65W/m 2 /K with double and triple glazing because of the additional layers of air –The U-value of 2.5W/m 2 /K of double glazed windows can be reduced to 2.4W/m 2 /K and 2.3W/m 2 /K with Argon and krypton –Double and triple glazing vaccum windows can reduce the U value to 1.2 and 0.2W/m 2 /K

9 Gestão de Energia Slide 9 of 53 Buildings – High Performance Envelope The effectiveness of the thermal envelope depends on the gain/loss energy by radiation –Windows permit solar energy to enter and loss of infrared radiation –Low emissivity coatings reflect more (reduce SHGC), i.e., reduce heat gains in summer and winter –Low emissivity coatings can reduce loss of heat by infrared radiation –The solar heat gain coefficient, SHGC, is the fraction of solar radiation inicident on a window that passes through the window

10 Gestão de Energia Slide 10 of 53 Buildings – High Performance Envelope The effectiveness of the thermal envelope depends on the air leakage –The net heat flow due to an air exchange at rate r is: –The stack effect promotes air leakage Cold air is sucked into the lower part and warm air exits through the upper part through craks and openings because it is lighter. Stack effect can account for up to 40% of heating requirements on cold climates –The wind effect

11 Gestão de Energia Slide 11 of 53 Buildings – High Performance Envelope The effectiveness of the thermal envelope depends on the air leakage –Careful application of a continuous air barrier can reduces rates of air leakage by a factor of 5 to 10 compared to standard practice (enforcement of careful workmanship during construction) –Buildings with very low air leakage require mechanical ventilation (95% of the available heat in the warm exhaust air can be transfered to the incoming cold air) to keep indoor air quality

12 Heat Exchangers: –Used in power plants, air conditioners, fridges, liquefication of natural gas, etc –Transfer energy between fluids at different temperatures Energy Balance in Open Systems Direct Contact Heat Exchanger Counter-flow Heat exchanger Direct Flow Heat Exchanger

13 Gestão de Energia Slide 13 of 53 Buildings – The role of shape, form, orientation and glazed % Building shape & form –Have significant impacts on heating and cooling loads and daylight because of the relation between surface area and volume –Which one minimizes heat transfer by conduction and convection? Building orientation –For rectangular buildings the optimal orientation is with the long axis facing south –Why?

14 Gestão de Energia Slide 14 of 53 Buildings – The role of shape, form, orientation and glazed % Glazing fractions –High glazing fractions increase energy requirements for heating and cooling –There is little additional daylighting benefit once the glazed fraction increases beyond 30-50% of the total façade area House size –The living area per family member increased by a factor of 3 between 1950 and 2000 in the US

15 Gestão de Energia Slide 15 of 53 Buildings – (almost) Passive solar heating, ventilation & cooling Evaporative Cooling:

16 Gestão de Energia Slide 16 of 53 Buildings – Passive (almost) solar heating, ventilation & cooling Thermal induced ventilation & cooling: Earth Pipe cooling Large Atria

17 Gestão de Energia Slide 17 of 53 Buildings – Passive (almost) solar heating, ventilation & cooling Wind induced ventilation & cooling: Wind catcher

18 Gestão de Energia Slide 18 of 53 Buildings – Passive (almost) solar heating, ventilation & cooling Passive Solar Heating & Lighting Shading Light shelves Light tubes

19 Gestão de Energia Slide 19 of 53 Buildings: Mechanical Equipment In evaluating the energy efficiency of Mechanical Equipment the overall efficiency from primary to useful energy should be taken into account This is particularly important in the case of using Mechanical Equipments that use electricity (produced from fossil fuels)

20 Gestão de Energia Slide 20 of 53 Buildings: Mechanical Equipment for heating Furnaces –heat air and distribute the heated air through the house using ducts; –are electric, gas-fired (including propane or natural gas), or oil-fired. –Efficiencies range from 60 to 92% (highest for condensing furnaces) Boilers –heat water, and provide either hot water or steam for heating; –heat is produced from the combustion of such fuels as natural gas, fuel oil, coal or pellets. –Efficiencies range from 75% to 95% (highest for condensing boilers)

21 Gestão de Energia Slide 21 of 53 Buildings: Mechanical Equipment for heating & cooling Electrical-resistance heating –Overall efficiency can be quite low (primary -> useful) Heat-Pumps –Overall efficiency can be quite good –It decreases with T –Air-source and ground-source –For cooling & heating District Heating/Colling –For heating & cooling –Users don’t need mechanical equipment

22 Gestão de Energia Slide 22 of 53 Buildings: Mechanical Equipment for cooling Chillers –Produce cold water which is circulated through the building –Electric Chillers: use electricity –Absorption chillers: use heat (can be waste heat from cogeneration) –Electric chillers, COP = (larger units have a higher COP) –Absorption chillers, COP =

23 Gestão de Energia Slide 23 of 53 Buildings: HVAC Systems Ventilate and heat or cool big buildings All air systems: air at a sufficient low (high) T and in sufficient volumes is circulated through the building to remove (add) heat loads –CAV: constant air volumes –VAV: variable air volumes –Air that is circulated in the supply ducts may be taken entirely from the outside and exhausted to the outside by the return ducts or a portion of the return air may be mixed with fresh air –Incoming air needs to be cooled and dehumidified in summer and heated and (sometimes) humidified in winter Restrict air flow to ventilation needs and use additional systems for additional heating/cooling Heat exchangers that transfer heat between outgoing and incoming air flows

24 Gestão de Energia Slide 24 of 53 Buildings: Mechanical Equipment for water heating Electrical and natural gas heaters –Efficiency of natural gas heaters is 76-85% –Efficiency of oil heaters is 75-83% –There is heat loss from storage tanks –Point-of-use tankless heaters have losses associated with the pilot light There are systems that recover heat from the warm wastewater with % efficiencies

25 Gestão de Energia Slide 25 of 53 European Directives European Directives on the Energy Performance of Buildings –Directive 2002/91/EC of the European Parliament and Council (on the energy performance of buildings): –http://ec.europa.eu/avservices/video/videoplayer.cfm?r ef=I048425&videolang=en&sitelang=enhttp://ec.europa.eu/avservices/video/videoplayer.cfm?r ef=I048425&videolang=en&sitelang=en –This is implemented by the Portuguese Legislation RCCTE and RCESE –Directive 2010/31/EU of the European Parliament and Council (on the energy performance of buildings)

26 Gestão de Energia Slide 26 of 53 Directive 2010/31/EU: Aims Reduction of energy consumption Use of energy from renewable sources Reduce greenhouse gas emissions Reduce energy dependence Promote security of energy supplies Promote technological developments Create opportunities for employment & regional development Links with aims of SGCIE?

27 Gestão de Energia Slide 27 of 53 Directive 2010/31/EU: Principles The establishment of a common methodology to compute Energy Performace –including thermal characteristics, heating and air conditioning instalations, renewable energies, passive heating and cooling, shading, natural light and design

28 Gestão de Energia Slide 28 of 53 Directive 2010/31/EU: Principles Set Minimum Energy Performance Requirements –Requirements should take into account climatic and local conditions and cost-effectiveness

29 Gestão de Energia Slide 29 of 53 Directive 2010/31/EU: Principles Energy Performance Requirements should be applied to new buildings & buildings going through major renovations

30 Gestão de Energia Slide 30 of 53 Directive 2010/31/EU: Principles Set System Requirements for: energy performance, appropriate dimensioning, control and adjustment for Technical Building Systems in existing and new buiildings

31 Gestão de Energia Slide 31 of 53 Directive 2010/31/EU: Principles Increase the number of nearly zero energy buildings

32 Gestão de Energia Slide 32 of 53 Establish a system of Energy performace certificates. –Energy Performance certificates must be issued for constructed, sold or rented to new tenants –Buildings occupied by public authorities should set na example (ECO.AP in 300 public buildings in Portugal) Directive 2010/31/EU: Principles

33 Gestão de Energia Slide 33 of 53 Regular maintenance of air conditioning and heating systems Independent experts Directive 2010/31/EU: Principles

34 Gestão de Energia Slide 34 of 53 Implementation of the directives Directive 2002/91/EC was implemented with: Directive 2010/31/EU was not yet implemented 1.DL 78/2006, the National Energy Certification and Indoor Air Quality in Buildings (SCE). 2.DL 79/2006, Regulation of HVAC Systems of Buildings (RSECE). 3.DL 80/2006, Regulation of the Characteristics of Thermal Performance of Buildings (RCCTE).

35 Gestão de Energia Slide 35 of 53 General aims: –Methodology for computing energy performace of buildings –Set minimum energy performance standards –Implement Energy Certification of buildings Specific Aims: –Limitation of annual energy needs for heating, cooling, domestic hot water and primary energy –Limitation of heat transfer coefficients –Limiting of solar factors –Installation of solar panels RCCTE – Aim RCCTE - Aims

36 Gestão de Energia Slide 36 of 53 Buildings that RCCTE applies to: RCCTE – Domain of application RCCTE – Domain of Application ResidentialComercial SmallBig P nom < 25 kW P nom > 25 kW P nom < 25 kW P nom > 25 kW P nom < 25 kW P nom > 25 kW New RCCTE Old Major Renovation RCCTE No Renovation

37 Gestão de Energia Slide 37 of 53 RCCTE - Outdoor conditions Reference Outdoor conditions: Portugal is divided in winter and summer climatic zones Reference Indoor conditions 20ºC in heating season 25ºC and 50% relative humidity in the cooling season Consumption of 40 liters of water at 60ºC/occupant. day RCCTE – Indoor & Outdoor Conditions

38 Gestão de Energia Slide 38 of 53 RCCTE - Outdoor conditions Reference Outdoor conditions: RCCTE – Outdoor Conditions

39 Gestão de Energia Slide 39 of 53 Climate Heating Degree-days are: Where: Tb is the desired indoor temperature (20ºC) Tj is the temperature outside the hours j The Degree-days are calculated for an entire year For example, to Lisbon, for Tb = 20 º C, heating degree days are 1190 º C.day. Knowing the heating season is 6 months (180 days), the average daily GD (GDI) will be 6.6 º C. RCCTE – Outdoor Conditions

40 Gestão de Energia Slide 40 of 53 Heating Degree Days – a comparison

41 Gestão de Energia Slide 41 of 53 Climate Outdoor project temperature The outside project temperature is calculated on a cumulative probability of occurrence of 99%, 97.5%, 95% and 90%. A cumulative probability of occurrence of 99% means that in summer the temperature indicated is exceeded only in probabilistic terms, 1% of the time, ie, 30 hours per year (e.g. Lisbon). RCCTE – Outdoor Conditions

42 Gestão de Energia Slide 42 of 53 RCCTE – Indices e parameters Nic Nominal Annual Needs of Useful Energy for Heating NiNiThe corresponding maximum permissible Nic ≤ Ni Nvc Nominal Annual Needs of Useful Energy for Cooling NvNvThe corresponding maximum permissible Nvc ≤ Nv NacNominal Annual Energy needs for Domestic Hot Water NaNaThe corresponding maximum permissible Nac ≤ Na Ntc Nominal Annual Energy needs for Primary Energy NtNtThe corresponding maximum permissible Ntc ≤ Nt RCCTE – Fundamental thermal Indices The thermal behavior of buildings is characterized using the following fundamental thermal indices:

43 Gestão de Energia Slide 43 of 53 RCCTE – Indices e parameters U Heat transfer coefficients of walls U max The corresponding maximum permissible Fs Solar factor of fenestration (for windows not facing NE-NW with area > 5%) Fs max The corresponding maximum permissible Additional parameters Heat Transfer Coefficients of Thermal Bridges 2 x U max RCCTE – Additional parameters The thermal behavior of buildings is characterized using the parameters: more demanding for harsher winters more demanding for harsher summers

44 Gestão de Energia Slide 44 of 53 Heating Heating: Maximum Allowable Needs (Ni) [kWh / (m 2.year)] FF ≤ 0.5 :: Ni = 4,5 + 0,0395 GD 0,5 < FF ≤ 1 :: Ni = 4,5 + (0,021+ 0,037FF) GD 1 < FF ≤ 1,5 :: Ni = [4,5 +(0,021+ 0,037FF) GD] (1,2 – 0,2 FF) FF > 1,5 :: Ni = 4,05 + 0,06885 GD Form factor: FF = (  (Aext) +  (  Aint))/V GD :: Degree day (ºC * day) Heating: Nominal Needs (Nic) [kWh / (m 2.year)] Nic = (Qt + Qv – Qgu) / Ap Qt = x GD x  (A x U) Qv = 0,024 (0,34 x R x Ap x Pd) x GD Qt: heat loss by conduction & convection through the surrounding Qv: heat losses resulting from air exchange Qgu: solar gain and internal load Nic < Ni RCCTE – Fundamental thermal Indices: Heating to keep the T int = 20ºC during the heating season more demanding for smaller FF

45 Gestão de Energia Slide 45 of 53 Current average residential heating energy use (Harvey, 2010) kWh/m 2 /yr for new residential buildings in Switzerland and Germany 220 kWh/m 2 /yr average of existing buildings in Germany kWh/m 2 /yr for existing buildings in central and eastern Europe For Lisbon the maximum heating allowable needs are: Passive house standard: 15 kWh/m 2 /yr

46 Gestão de Energia Slide 46 of 53 Cooling Cooling: Maximum Allowable Needs (Nv) [kWh/(m 2.year)] V1 (North) : Nv = 16 V1 (South) : Nv = 22 V2 (North) : Nv = 18 V2 (South) : Nv = 32 V3 (North) : Nv = 26 V3 (South) : Nv = 32 Açores : Nv = 21 Madeira : Nv = 23 Cooling: Nominal Needs (Nvc) [kWh / (m 2.year)] Nvc = Qg * (1 -  ) / Ap (kWh/m 2 year) Qg : Total gross load (internal + walls + solar + air renewal)  : Load Factor Nvc < Nv RCCTE – Fundamental thermal Indices: Cooling to keep the T int = 25ºC during the cooling season

47 Gestão de Energia Slide 47 of 53 Domestic Hot Water Domestic Hot Water: Maximum Allowable Needs (N a ) [kWh / (m 2.year)] M AQS : Reference consumption (40 liters per occupant) n d : Reference n. of days with DHW (residential:365) N. of occupants: T0=2; TN=n+1 1 m 2 solar panel collector per occupant or 50% of available area if solar exposition is adequate N a = 0,081 M AQS n d /A p Domestic Hot Water: Nominal Needs (N ac ) [kWh / (m 2.year)] N ac = (Q a /η a – E solar – E ren )/A p Q a : Conventional useful energy requirements η a : Efficiency of the conventional systems E Solar : Contribution of solar thermal panels for DHW E ren : Contribution to other renewable for DHW Q a : (M AQS * 4187 *  T * n d ) / ( ) (kWh/year) M aqs = 40 l /occupant. Day*nº occupants  T : 45º (15ºc  60ºc) Nac < Na RCCTE – Fundamental thermal Indices: Hot Water

48 Gestão de Energia Slide 48 of 53 Primary energy Primary energy: Maximum Allowable Needs (Nt) [kgep/(m 2.year)] N t = 0,9 (0,01N i + 0,01 N v + 0,15 N a ) Primary energy : Nominal Needs (Ntc) [kgep/(m 2.year)] N tc = 0,1 (N ic /η i )Fpu i + 0,1 (N vc /η v )Fpu v + N ac Fpu a Fpu : Conversion factor from final energy to primary energy Electricity:Fpu = kgep / kWh Fuels: Fpu = kgep / kWh In the absence of more precise data consider, eg: Electrical resistance = 1 Boiler fuel gas = 0.87 Heat Pump = 3 (cooling) and 4 (heating) Ntc < Nt RCCTE – Fundamental thermal Indices: Primary Energy

49 Gestão de Energia Slide 49 of 53 Energy label A A + B - B C D E F G New buildings (licensed after 2006) Old buildings R R = N tc / N t Energy Performance Certificate Energy Labelling:

50 Gestão de Energia Slide 50 of 53 General aims: –Methodology for computing energy performace of buildings –Set minimum energy performance standards –Implement Energy Certification of buildings –Regular inspection of boilers and air conditioning in buildings Specific Aims: –Limitation of annual energy needs for heating, cooling, and primary energy –Limitation of heat transfer coefficients –Limiting of solar factors –Maintenance of HVAC systems –Monitoring and energy audits RCCTE – Aim RCESE - Aims

51 Gestão de Energia Slide 51 of 53 Structure RCESE – Domain of Application Buildings that RCESE applies to: ResidentialComercial SmallBig P nom < 25 kW P nom > 25 kW P nom < 25 kW P nom > 25 kW P nom < 25 kW P nom > 25 kW New RCCTERSECE RCCTE RSECE Old Major Renovation RCCTE RSECE RCCTE RSECE No Renovation RSECE

52 Gestão de Energia Slide 52 of 53 RSECE - Outdoor conditions Reference Outdoor conditions: Portugal is divided in winter and summer climatic zones Indoor conditions the same of RCCTE air velocity can not exceed 0,2 m/s QAI (minimum air renovation and maximum concentration of air polutants) RCESE – Indoor & Outdoor Conditions

53 Gestão de Energia Slide 53 of 53 IEE IEE : Energy Efficiency Indicator (kgep/(m 2.year)] IEE = IEE i + IEE v + Q out /A p Heating Cooling Other consumptions IEE i = (Q aq / Ap) x F ci Q aq : primary energy consumption for heating (kgep/year) IEE v = (Q arr / A p ) x F cv Q arr : primary energy consumption for cooling (kgep/year) F ci : Correction factor for heating, F ci = N i1 /N ii F cv : Correction factor for cooling, F cv = N v1 /N vi This value must be less than the tabled IEE to the proposed activity Methodology to compute Energy Performance Renewable energies are not included Real energy consumptions (old) or simulation (new) RCESE - IEE

54 Gestão de Energia Slide 54 of 53 Correction Factors

55 Gestão de Energia Slide 55 of 53 Heating Heating: Maximum Allowable Needs (Ni) [kWh / (m 2.year)] FF ≤ 0.5 :: Ni = 4,5 + 0,0395 GD 0,5 < FF ≤ 1 :: Ni = 4,5 + (0,021+ 0,037FF) GD 1 < FF ≤ 1,5 :: Ni = [4,5 +(0,021+ 0,037FF) GD] (1,2 – 0,2 FF) FF > 1,5 :: Ni = 4,05 + 0,06885 GD Form factor: FF = (  (Aext) +  (  Aint))/V GD :: Degree day (ºC * day) Cooling: Maximum Allowable Needs (Nv) [kWh/(m 2.year)] V1 (North) : Nv = 16 V1 (South) : Nv = 22 V2 (North) : Nv = 18 V2 (South) : Nv = 32 V3 (North) : Nv = 26 V3 (South) : Nv = 32 Açores : Nv = 21 Madeira : Nv = 23 GD=1000 degree days RCESE – Fundamental thermal Indices: Heating & Cooling

56 Gestão de Energia Slide 56 of 53 Structure RCESE – Minimum Energy Performance Minimum Energy Performance Requirements: –If the minimum energy performance requirements of old big comercial buildings are not met than there is na energy audit to develop an energy rationalization plan and all efficiency measures with economic viability have to be implemented ResidentialComercial SmallBig P nom < 25 kWP nom > 25 kWP nom < 25 kWP nom > 25 kWP nom < 25 kWP nom > 25 kW New RCCTE Nic ≤ 80%Ni,RCCTE Nvc ≤ 80%Nv,RCCTE RCCTE Nic ≤ 80%Ni,RCCTE Nvc ≤ 80%Nv,RCCTE IEE ≤ IEEmax IEE ≤ IEEmax Old Major Renovation RCCTE No Renovation

57 Gestão de Energia Slide 57 of 53 IEE tabled values for existing buildings

58 Gestão de Energia Slide 58 of 53 IEE IEE tabled values for new buildings or major renovations

59 Gestão de Energia Slide 59 of 53 Energy label Energy Performance Indicator Energy Labeling: –Depends on IEE nom, on IEE REF and on the S parameter

60 Gestão de Energia Slide 60 of 53 Energy label IEE ref S A+A+ B-B- CDEFG A B S IEE (kgep/year. m 2 ) New buildings (licensed > 2006) Old buildings Energy Labeling: Energy Performance Indicator

61 Gestão de Energia Slide 61 of 53 System Requirements for HVAC Limit the installed power: –Heating or cooling P NOM < 1.4 of the power needed Promote Energy Efficiency –If P NOM > 100 kW than HVAC system with centralized heat production –The connection to centralized heating and cooling systems (if available) is mandatory –The heating power obtained by Joule effect cannot exceed 5% of the heating thermal power Control and regulation systems –Control confort temperatures –Turn off when the space is not used Monitoring (P NOM > 100 kW ) and Energy Management Systems (P NOM > 200 kW ) with centralized optimization (P NOM > 250 kW ) Audits to big boilers and AC

62 Gestão de Energia Slide 62 of 53 Differences between Directives 2002/91/EC and 2010/31/EU 2010/31/EU has requirements on increasing the number of nearly zero-energy buildings; 2010/31/EU has requirements on the minimum energy performance of all (not only on big) existing buildings subject to major renovations In 2010/31/EU the framework for energy performance: –Based on the computed or actual annual energy consumed in order to meet different needs associated with typical behavior –Energy performance indicator and a numerical indicator of primary energy consumption

63 Gestão de Energia Slide 63 of 53 Differences between Directives 2002/91/EC and 2010/31/EU 2010/31/EU sets the minimum energy performance requirements targeting cost-optimal levels (to be calculated in accordance with a comparative methodology framework). 2010/31/EU considers that the methodology for the identification of cost-optimal levels should : –take into account use patterns, outdoor climate conditions, investment costs and maintenance and operating costs; –be computed for reference buildings with different functionalities and geographic locations; –define the efficiency measures that should be assessed; –consider the expected economic life-cycle of the building;

64 Gestão de Energia Slide 64 of 53 Differences between Directives 2002/91/EC and 2010/31/EU 2010/31/EU considers that the technical, environmental and economic feasibility of high- efficiency alternative systems such as (decentralized energy supply systems based on energy from renewable sources, cogeneration, district or block heating or cooling, heat pumps) should be considered for all (not only > 1000 m 2 ) new buildings 2010/31/EU considers that when all buildings (not only > 1000 m 2 ) undergo major renovation, the energy performance of the building or the renovated part thereof is upgraded in order to meet minimum energy performance requirements


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